The Terrorist







                       The Terrorist's Handbook
                       ------------------------
                      Written BY: UNKNOWN AUTHOR

HEAVILY EDITED by: Kloey Detect of Five O and B.S. of Hardbodies

Special thanks to WordPerfect Corporation for their spelling
checker.......This file NEEDED IT!

(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)
SPECIAL THANX ALSO GOES OUT TO:

Nitro Glycerine: For providing the files!
Xpax           : For being patient while the cop was there!
The Producer   : For getting the files to me....
The Director   : For getting the files to me....
Mr.Camaro      : For his BIG EGO!!!
The Magician   : For ALL the Bernoulli carts he is gonna send!!



This is a collection of many years worth of effort........this is
the original manuscript for a non-published work, from an unknown
author.....It was originally two LARGE files which had to be
merged and then HEAVILY EDITED, mostly the pictures, and then
spellchecked...This guy is a chemical genius but he could not
spell if his l
ife depended on it....I have simply run a spell
check via WordPerfect 4.2, so there are probably more errors
which were not picked up...sorry...I hope you have the patience
to sit through this file, read it, then correct every little
error....It is not like I am submitting it or anything...!!!!!



This file is dedicated To Kathie & KiKi
.....Wherever you both may be.....



                           THE TERRORIST'S HANDBOOK
                           ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ



1.0     INTRODUCTION

     Gunzenbomz Pyro-Technologies, a division of Chaos Industries (CHAOS), is
proud to present this first edition of The Terrorist's Handbook.  First and
foremost, let it be stated that Chaos Industries assumes no responsibilities
for any misuse of the information presented in this publication.  The purpose
of this is to show the many techniques and methods used by those people in this and other countries who employ terror as a means to political and social goals.The techniques herein can be obtained from public libraries, and can usually be carried out by a terrorist with minimal equipment.  This makes one all the more frightened, since any lunatic or social deviant could obtain this information, and use it against anyone.  The processes and techniques herein SHOULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES!!  SERIOUS HARM OR DEATH COULD OCCUR FROM ATTEMPTING TO PERFORM ANY OF THE METHODS IN THIS PUBLICATION.  THIS IS MERELY FOR READING ENJOYMENT, AND IS NOT INTENDED FOR ACTUAL USE!!
Gunzenbomz Pyro-Technologies feels that it is important that everyone has some
idea of just how easy it is for a terrorist to perform acts of terror; that is
the reason for the existence of this publication.











1.1          Table of Contents
             ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

2.0 .......  BUYING EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS
2.01 ........  Black Powder
2.02 ........  Pyrodex
2.03 ........  Rocket Engine Powder
2.04 ........  Rifle/Shotgun Powder
2.05 ........  Flash Powder
2.06 ........  Ammonium Nitrate
2.1 .......  ACQUIRING CHEMICALS
2.11 ........  Techniques for Picking Locks
2.2 .......  LIST OF USEFUL HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS AND AVAILABILITY
2.3 .......  PREPARATION OF CHEMICALS
2.31 ........  Nitric Acid
2.32 ........  Sulfuric Acid
2.33 ........  Ammonium Nitrate
3.0 .......  EXPLOSIVE RECIPES
3.01 ........  Explosive Theory
3.1 .......  IMPACT EXPLOSIVES
3.11 ........  Ammonium Triiodide Crystals
3.12 ........  Mercury Fulminate
3.13 ........  Nitroglycerine
3.14 ........  Picrates
3.2 .......  LOW ORDER EXPLOSIVES
3.21 ........  Black Powder
3.22 ........  Nitrocellulose
3.23 ........  Fuel + Oxodizer mixtures
3.24 ........  Perchlorates
3.3 .......  HIGH ORDER EXPLOSIVES
3.31 ........  R.D.X. (Cyclonite)
3.32 ........  Ammonium Nitrate
3.33 ........  ANFOS
3.34 ........  T.N.T.
3.35 ........  Potassium Chlorate
3.36 ........  Dynamite
3.37 ........  Nitrostarch Explosives
3.38 ........  Picric Acid
3.39 ........  Ammonium Picrate (Explosive D)
3.40 ........  Nitrogen Trichloride
3.41 ........  Lead Azide
3.5 .......  OTHER "EXPLOSIVES"
3.51 ........  Thermit
3.52 ........  Molotov Cocktails
3.53 ........  Chemical Fire Bottle
3.54 ........  Bottled Gas Explosives
4.0 .......  USING EXPLOSIVES
4.1 .......  SAFETY
4.2 .......  IGNITION DEVICES
4.21 ........  Fuse Ignition
4.22 ........  Impact Ignition
4.23 ........  Electrical Ignition
4.24 ........  Electro - Mechanical Ignition
4.241 .......  Mercury Switches
4.242 .......  Tripwire Switches
4.243 .......  Radio Control Detonators
4.3 .......  DELAYS
4.31 ........  Fuse Delays
4.32 ........  Timer Delays
4.33 ........  Chemical Delays
4.4 .......  EXPLOSIVE CONTAINERS
4.41 ........  Paper Containers
4.42 ........  Metal Containers
4.43 ........  Glass Containers
4.44 ........  Plastic Containers
4.5 .......  ADVANCED USES FOR EXPLOSIVES
4.51 ........  Shaped Charges
4.52 ........  Tube Explosives
4.53 ........  Atomized Particle Explosions
4.54 ........  Lightbulb Bombs
4.55 ........  Book Bombs
4.56 ........  Phone Bombs
5.0 .......  SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR PROJECTILE WEAPONS
5.1 .......  PROJECTILE WEAPONS (PRIMITIVE)
5.11 ........  Bow and Crossbow Ammunition
5.12 ........  Blowgun Ammunition
5.13 ........  Wrist Rocket and Slingshot Ammunition
5.2 .......  PROJECTILE WEAPONS (FIREARMS)
5.21 ........  Handgun Ammunition
5.22 ........  Shotguns
5.3 .......  PROJECTILE WEAPONS (COMPRESSED GAS)
5.31 ........  .177 Caliber B.B Gun Ammunition
5.32 ........  .22 Caliber Pellet Gun Ammunition
6.0 .......  ROCKETS AND CANNONS
6.1 .......  ROCKETS
6.11 ........  Basic Rocket-Bomb
6.12 ........  Long Range Rocket-Bomb
6.13 ........  Multiple Warhead Rocket-Bombs
6.2 ........ CANNONS
6.21 ........  Basic Pipe Cannon
6.22 ........  Rocket-Firing Cannon
7.0 .......  PYROTECHNICA ERRATA
7.1 .........  Smoke Bombs
7.2 .........  Colored Flames
7.3 .........  Tear Gas
7.4 .........  Fireworks
7.41 ........  Firecrackers
7.42 ........  Skyrockets
7.43 ........  Roman Candles
8.0 .......  LISTS OF SUPPLIERS AND FURTHER INFORMATION
9.0 .......  CHECKLIST FOR RAIDS ON LABS
10.0 ......  USEFUL PYROCHEMIST
RY
11.0 ......  ABOUT THE AUTHOR

2.0   BUYING EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS

     Almost any city or town of reasonable size has a gun store and
a pharmacy.  These are two of the places that potential terrorists visit in
order to purchase explosive material.  All that one has to do is know something
about the non-explosive uses of the materials.  Black powder, for example,
is used in blackpowder firearms.  It comes in varying "grades", with each
different grade being a slightly different size.  The grade of black powder
depends on what the calibre of the gun that it is used in; a fine grade of
powder could burn too fast in the wrong caliber weapon.  The rule is:
the smaller the grade, the faster the burn rate of the powder.



2.01   BLACK POWDER



     Black powder is generally available in three grades.  As stated before,
the smaller the grade, the faster the powder burns.  Burn rate is extremely
important in bombs.  Since an explosion is a rapid increase of gas volume in
a confined environment, to make an explosion, a quick-burning powder is
desirable. The three common grades of black powder are listed below, along
with the usual bore width (calibre) of what they are used in.  Generally,
the fastest burning powder, the FFF grade is desirable.  However, the other
grades and uses are listed below:



     GRADE              BORE WIDTH               EXAMPLE OF GUN
     ÄÄÄÄÄ              ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ               ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

     F                  .50 or greater           model cannon; some rifles
     FF                 .36 - .50                large pistols; small rifles
     FFF                .36 or smaller           pistols; derringers



     The FFF grade is the fastest burning, because the smaller grade has
more surface area or burning surface exposed to the flame front.  The larger
grades also have uses which will be discussed later.  The price range of
black powder, per pound, is about $8.50 - $9.00.  The price is not affected
by the grade, and so one saves oneself time and work if one buys the finer grade of powder.  The major problems with black powder are that it can benignited accidentally by static electricity, and that it has a tendency toabsorb moisture from the air.  To safely crush it, a bomber would use a plastic spoon and a wooden salad bowl.  Taking a small pile at a time, he or she wouldapply pressure to the powder through the spoon and rub it in a series of strokes or circles, but not too hard.  It is fine enough to use when it is about as fineas flour.  The fineness, however, is dependant on what type of device one wishes to make; obviously, it would be impracticle to crush enough powder to fill a 1 foot by 4 inch radius pipe.  Anyone can purchase black powder, since anyone can
own black powder firearms in America.



2.02    PYRODEX



     Pyrodex is a synthetic powder that is used like black powder.  It comes
in the same grades, but it is more expensive per pound.  However, a one pound
container of pyrodex contains more material by volume than a pound 
of black
powder.  It is much easier to crush to a very fine powder than black powder, and
it is considerably safer and more reliable.  This is because it will
not be set off by static electricity, as black can be, and it is less inclined
to absorb moisture.  It costs about $10.00 per pound.  It can be crushed in the
same manner as black powder, or it can be dissolved in boiling water and dried.



2.03        ROCKET ENGINE POWDER

     One of the most exciting hobbies nowadays is model rocketry.  Estes is
the largest producer of model rocket kits and engines.  Rocket engines are
composed of a single large grain of propellant.  This grain is surrounded by
a fairly heavy cardboard tubing.  One gets the propellant by slitting the tube
lengthwise, and unwrapping it like a paper towel roll.  When this is done, the
grey fire clay at either end of the propellant grain must be removed.  This is
usually done gently with a plastic or brass knife. The material is exceptionally
hard, and must be crushed to be used.  By gripping the grain on the widest
setting on a set of pliers, and putting the grain and powder in a plastic bag,
the powder will not break apart and shatter all over.  This should be done to
all the large chunks of powder, and then it should be crushed like black powder.
Rocket engines come in various sizes, ranging from 1/4 A - 2T to the incredibly
powerful D engines.  The larger the engine, the more expensive.  D engines come
in packages of three, and cost about $5.00 per package.  Rocket engines are
perhaps the single most useful item sold in stores to a terrorist, since they
can be used as is, or can be cannibalized for their explosive powder.



2.04       RIFLE/SHOTGUN POWDER

     Rifle powder and shotgun powder are really the same from a practicle
standpoint. They are both nitrocellulose based propellants. They will be
referred to as gunpowder in all future references. Gunpowder is made by the
action of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid upon cotton. This material is
then dissolved by solvents and then reformed in the desired grain size.  When
dealing with gunpowder, the grain size is not nearly as important as that of
black powder. Both large and small grained gunpowder burn fairly slowly
compared to black powder when unconfined, but when it is confined, gunpowder
burns both hotter and with more gaseous expansion, producing more pressure.
Therefore, the grinding process that is often necessary for other propellants
is not necessary for gunpowder.  Gunpowder costs about $9.00 per pound. Any
idiot can buy it, since there are no restrictions on rifles or shotguns in the
U.S.



2.05       FLASH POWDER



      Flash powder is a mixture of powdered zirconium metal and various
oxidizers. It is extremely sensitive to heat or sparks, and should be treated
with more care than black powder, with which it should NEVER be mixed. It is
sold in small containers which must be mixed and shaken before use. It is very
finely powdered, and is available in three speeds: fast, medium, and slow. The
fast flash powder is the best for using in explosives or detonators.
     It burns very rapidly, regardless of confinement or packing, with a hot
white "flash", hence its name.  It is fairly expensive, costing about $11.00.
It is sold in magic shops and theatre supply stores.



2.06       AMMONIUM NITRATE



     Ammonium nitrate is a high explosive material that is often used as
a commercial "safety explosive"  It is very stable, and is difficult to ignite
with a match. It will only light if the glowing, red-hot part of a match is
touching it. It is also difficult to detonate; (the phenomenon of detonation
will be explained later) it requires a large shockwave to cause it to go high
explosive. Commercially, it is sometimes mixed with a small amount of
nitroglycerine to increase its sensitivity. Ammonium nitrate is used in the
"Cold-Paks" or "Instant Cold", available in most drug stores. The "Cold Paks"
consist of a bag of water, surrounded by a second plastic bag containing the
ammonium nitrate. To get the ammonium nitrate, simply 
cut off the top of the outside bag, remove the plastic bag of water, and save the ammonium nitrate in a well sealed, airtight container, since it is rather hydroscopic, i.e. it -tends to absorb water from the air. It is also the main ingredient in many
fertilizers.



2.1     ACQUIRING CHEMICALS



     The first section deals with getting chemicals legally. This section
deals with "procuring" them. The best place to steal chemicals is a college.
Many state schools have all of their chemicals out on the shelves in the
labs, and more in their chemical stockrooms. Evening is the best time to enter
lab buildings, as there are the least number of people in the buildings, and
most of the labs will still be unlocked. One simply takes a bookbag, wears
a dress shirt and jeans, and tries to resemble a college freshman. If anyone
asks what such a person is doing, the thief can simply say that he is looking
for the  polymer chemistry lab, or some other chemistry-related department
other than the one they are in. One can usually find out where the various
labs and  departments in a building are by calling the university. There
are, of course other techniques for getting into labs after hours, such as
placing a piece of cardboard in the latch of an unused door, such as a back
exit. Then, all one needs to do is come back at a later hour. Also, before
this is done, terrorists check for security systems. If one just walks into a
lab, even if there is someone there, and walks out the back exit, and slip the
cardboard in the latch before the door closes, the person in the lab will never
know what happened. It is also a good idea to observe the building that one
plans to rob at the time that one plans to rob it several days before the
actual theft is done. This is advisable since the would-be thief should know
when and if the campus security makes patrols through buildings. Of course, if
none of these methods are successful, there is always section 2.11, but as a
rule, college campus security is pretty poor, and nobody suspects another
person in the building of doing anything wrong, even if they are there at an
odd hour.



2.11     TECHNIQUES FOR PICKING LOCKS



     If it becomes necessary to pick a lock to enter a lab, the world's
most effective lockpick is dynamite, followed by a sledgehammer.  There are
unfortunately, problems with noise and excess structural damage with these
methods.  The next best thing, however, is a set of army issue lockpicks.
These, unfortunately, are difficult to acquire. If the door to a lab is locked,
but the deadbolt is not engaged, then there are other possibilities. The rule
here is: if one can see the latch, one can open the door. There are several
devices which facilitate freeing the latch from its hole in the wall. Dental
tools, stiff wire ( 20 gauge ), specially bent aluminum from cans, thin pocket-
knives, and credit cards are the tools of the trade. The way that all these
tools and devices are uses is similar: pull, push, or otherwise move the latch
out of its hole in the wall, and pull the door open. This is done by sliding
whatever tool that you are using behind the latch, and pulling the latch out
from the wall. To make an aluminum-can lockpick, terrorists can use an aluminum
can and carefully cut off the can top and bottom. Cut off the cans' ragged
ends. Then, cut the open-ended cylinder so that it can be flattened out into a
single long rectangle. This should then be cut into inch wide strips. Fold the
strips in 1/4 inch increments (1). One will have a long quadruple-thick 1/4
inch wide strip of aluminum. This should be folded into an L-shape, a J-shape,
or a U-shape. This is done by folding. The pieces would look like this:



 (1)

        _________________________________________________________    v
1/4     |_______________________________________________________|    |
1/4     |_______________________________________________________|    | 1 inch
1/4     |_______________________________________________________|    |
1/4     |_______________________________________________________|    |
     
                                                                ^

     Fold along lines to make a single quadruple-thick piece of
aluminum. This should then be folded to produce an L,J,or U shaped
device that looks like this:
                       __________________________________________
                      / ________________________________________|
                     | |
                     | |          L-shaped
                     | |
                     | |
                     |_|

                       _____________________________
                      / ___________________________|
                     | |
                     | |     J-shaped
                     | |
                     | |________
                      \________|

                       _____________________
                      / ___________________|
                     | |
                     | |
                     | |     U-shaped
                     | |
                     | |____________________
                      \____________________|



     All of these devices should be used to hook the latch of a door and
pull the latch out of its hole.  The folds in the lockpicks will be between
the door and the wall, and so the device will not unfold, if it is made
properly.











2.2      LIST OF USEFUL HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS AND THEIR AVAILABILITY

     Anyone can get many chemicals from hardware stores, supermarkets,
and drug stores to get the materials to make explosives or other dangerous
compounds.  A would-be terrorist would merely need a station wagon and some
money to acquire many of the chemicals named here.



Chemical                Used In                         Available at
________                _______                         ____________

_____________________________________________________________________________
alcohol, ethyl *       alcoholic beverages            liquor stores
                       solvents (95% min. for both)   hardware stores
______________________________________________________
_______________________
ammonia +              CLEAR household ammonia        supermarkets/7-eleven
_____________________________________________________________________________
ammonium               instant-cold paks,             drug stores,
nitrate                fertilizers                    medical supply stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
nitrous oxide          pressurizing whip cream        party supply stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
magnesium              firestarters                   surplus/camping stores
____________________________________________________________________________
lecithin               vitamins                       pharmacies/drug stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
mineral oil            cooking, laxative              supermarket/drug stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
mercury 
@              mercury thermometers      supermarkets/hardware stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
sulfuric acid          uncharged car batteries        automotive stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
glycerine                     ?                       pharmacies/drug stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
sulfur                 gardening                     gardening/hardware store
_____________________________________________________________________________
charcoal               charcoal grills          supermarkets/gardening stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
sodium nitrate         fertilizer                     gardening store
_____________________________________________________________________________
cellulose (cotton)     first aid                   drug/medical supply stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
strontium nitrate      road flares                    surplus/auto stores,
_____________________________________________________________________________
fuel oil               kerosene stoves                surplus/camping stores,
_____________________________________________________________________________
bottled gas            propane stoves                 surplus/camping stores,
_____________________________________________________________________________
potassium permanganate water purification             purification plants
_____________________________________________________________________________
hexamine or            hexamine stoves                surplus/camping stores
methenamine            (camping)
_____________________________________________________________________________
nitric acid ^          cleaning printing              printing shops
                       plates                         photography stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
iodine &               first aid                      drug stores
_____________________________________________________________________________
sodium perchlorate     solidox pellets                hardware stores
                       for cutting torches
_____________________________________________________________________________









notes: * ethyl alcohol is mixed with methyl alcohol when it is used as a
       solvent. Methyl alcohol is very poisonous. Solvent alcohol must be
       at least 95% ethyl alcohol if it is used to make mercury fulminate.
       Methyl alcohol may prevent mercury fulminate from forming.



     + Ammonia, when bought in stores comes in a variety of forms.  The
       pine and cloudy ammonias should not be bought; only the clear
       ammonia should be used to make ammonium triiodide crystals.



     @ Mercury thermometers are becoming a rarity, unfortunately.  They
       may be hard to find in most stores. Mercury is also used in mercury
       switches, which are available at electronics stores. Mercury is a
       hazardous substance, and should be kept in the thermometer or
       mercury switch until used. It gives off mercury vapors which will
       cause brain damage if inhaled.  For this reason, it is a good idea
       not to spill mercury, and to always use it outdoors. Also, do not
       get it in an open cut; rubber gloves will help prevent this.



     ^ Nitric acid is very difficult to find nowadays.  It is usually
       stolen by bomb makers, or made by the process described in a later
       section.  A desired concentration for making explosives about 70%.



     & The iodine sold in drug stores is usually not the pure crystaline
       form that is desired for producing ammonium triiodide crystals.
       To obtain the pure form, it must usually be acquired by a doctor's
       prescription, but this can be expensive.  Once again, theft is the
       means that terrorists result to.



2.3      PREPARATION OF CHEMICALS

2.31     NITRIC ACID



       There are several ways to make this most essential of all acids for
  explosives. One method by which it could be made will be presented. Once
  again, be reminded that these methods SHOULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT!!

     Materials:                             Equipment:
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ                              ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
     sodium nitrate or                      adjustable heat source
     potassium nitrate
                                            retort
     distilled water
                                            ice bath
     concentrated
     sulfuric acid                          stirring rod

                                            collecting flask with stopper



1) Pour 32 milliliters of concentrated sulfuric acid into the retort.

2) Carefully weigh out 58 grams of sodium nitrate, or 68 grams of potassium
nitrate. and add this to the acid slowly.  If it all does not dissolve,
carefully stir the solution with a glass rod until it does.

3) Place the open end of the retort into the collecting flask, and place the
   collecting flask in the ice bath.

4) Begin heating the retort, using low heat.  Continue heating until liquid
   begins to come out of the end of the retort.  The liquid that forms is nitric
   acid.  Heat until the precipitate in the bottom of the retort is almost dry,
   or until no more nitric acid is forming.  CAUTION: If the acid is headed too
   strongly, the nitric acid will decompose as soon as it is formed.  This
   can result in the production of highly flammable and toxic gasses that may
   explode.  It is a good idea to set the above apparatus up, and then get
   away from it.



     Potassium nitrate could also be obtained from store-bought black powder,
simply by dissolving black powder in boiling water and filtering out
the sulfur and charcoal. To obtain 68 g of potassium nitrate, it would be
necessary to dissolve about 90 g of black powder in about one litre of
boiling water. Filter the dissolved solution through filter paper in
 a funnel into a jar until the liquid that pours through is clear. The charcoal and
sulfur in black powder are insoluble in water, and so when the solution of
water is allowed to evaporate, potassium nitrate will be left in the jar.



2.32     SULFURIC ACID

     Sulfuric acid is far too difficult to make outside of a laboratory or
industrial plant.  However, it is readily available in an uncharged car battery.
A person wishing to make sulfuric acid would simply remove the top of a car
battery and pour the acid into a glass container.  There would probably be
pieces of lead from the battery in the acid which would have to be removed,
either by boiling or filtration.  The concentration of the sulfuric acid can
also be increased by boiling it; very pure sulfuric acid pours slightly faster
than clean motor oil.



2.33     AMMONIUM NITRATE

     Ammonium nitrate is a very powerful but insensitive high-order
explosive. It could be made very easily by pouring nitric acid into a large
flask in an ice bath. Then, by simply pouring household ammonia into the flask
and running away, ammonium nitrate would be formed. After the materials have
stopped reacting, one would simply have to leave the solution in a warm place
until all of the water and any unneutralized ammonia or acid have evaporated.
There would be a fine powder formed, which would be ammonium nitrate. It must
be kept in an airtight container, because of its tendency to pick up water from
the air.  The crystals formed in the above process would have to be heated VERY
gently to drive off the remaining water.



3.0     EXPLOSIVE RECIPES

     Once again, persons reading this material MUST NEVER ATTEMPT TO PRODUCE
ANY OF THE EXPLOSIVES DESCRIBED HEREIN.  IT IS ILLEGAL AND EXTREMELY DANGEROUS
TO ATTEMPT TO DO SO.  LOSS OF LIFE AND/OR LIMB COULD EASILY OCCUR AS A RESULT
OF ATTEMPTING TO PRODUCE EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS.

     These recipes are theoretically correct, meaning that an individual
could conceivably produce the materials described.  The methods here are usually
scaled-down industrial procedures.













3.01     EXPLOSIVE THEORY

     An explosive is any material that, when ignited by heat or shock,
undergoes rapid decomposition or oxidation.  This process releases energy that
is stored in the material in the form of heat and light, or by breaking down
into gaseous compounds that occupy a much larger volume that the original piece
of material.  Because this expansion is very rapid, large volumes of air are
displaced by the expanding gasses.  This expansion occurs at a speed greater
than the speed of sound, and so a sonic boom occurs.  This explains the
mechanics behind an explosion.  Explosives occur in several forms: high-order
explosives which detonate, low order explosives, which burn, and primers, which
may do both.

     High order explosives detonate.  A detonation occurs only in a high
order explosive.  Detonations are usually incurred by a shockwave that passes
through a block of the high explosive material.  The shockwave breaks apart
the molecular bonds bet
ween the atoms of the substance, at a rate approximately
equal to the speed of sound traveling through that material.  In a high
explosive, the fuel and oxodizer are chemically bonded, and the shockwave breaks
apart these bonds, and re-combines the two materials to produce mostly gasses.
T.N.T., ammonium nitrate, and R.D.X. are examples of high order explosives.

     Low order explosives do not detonate; they burn, or undergo oxidation.
when heated, the fuel(s) and oxodizer(s) combine to produce heat, light, and
gaseous products.  Some low order materials burn at about the same speed under
pressure as they do in the open, such as blackpowder. Others, such as gunpowder,
which is correctly called nitrocellulose, burn much faster and hotter when they
are in a confined space, such as the barrel of a firearm; they usually burn
much slower than blackpowder when they are ignited in unpressurized conditions.
Black powder, nitrocellulose, and flash powder are good examples of low order
explosives.

     Primers are peculiarities to the explosive field.  Some of them, such as
mercury filminate, will function as a low or high order explosive.  They are
usually more sensitive to friction, heat, or shock, than the high or low
explosives.  Most primers perform like a high order explosive, except that they
are much more sensitive.  Still others merely burn, but when they are confined,
they burn at a great rate and with a large expansion of gasses and a shockwave.
Primers are usually used in a small amount to initiate, or cause to decompose,
a high order explosive, as in an artillery shell.  But, they are also frequently
used to ignite a low order explosive;  the gunpowder in a bullet is ignited by
the detonation of its primer.



3.1     IMPACT EXPLOSIVES

     Impact explosives are often used as primers.  Of the ones discussed
here, only mercury fulminate and nitroglycerine are real explosives; Ammonium
triiodide crystals decompose upon impact, but they release little heat and no
light.  Impact explosives are always treated wi
th the greatest care, and even
the stupidest anarchist never stores them near any high or low explosives.



3.11    AMMONIUM TRIIODIDE CRYSTALS

     Ammonium triiodide crystals are foul-smelling purple colored crystals
that decompose under the slightest amount of heat, friction, or shock, if they
are made with the purest ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) and iodine.  Such
crystals are said to detonate when a fly lands on them, or when an ant walks
across them.  Household ammonia, however, has enough impurities, such as soaps
and abrasive agents, so that the crystals will detonate when thrown,crushed, or
heated.  Upon detonation, a loud report is heard, and a cloud of purple iodine
gas appears about the detonation site.  Whatever the unfortunate surface that
the crystal was detonated upon will usually be ruined, as some of the iodine
in the crystal is thrown about in a solid form, and iodine is corrosive.  It
leaves nasty, ugly, permanent brownish-purple stains on whatever it contacts.
Iodine gas is also bad news, since it can damage lungs, and it settles to the
ground and stains things there also.  Touching iodine leaves brown stains on
the skin that last for about a week, unless they are immediately and vigorously
washed off.  While such a compound would have little use to a serious terrorist,
a vandal could utilize them in damaging property.  Or, a terrorist could throw
several of them into a crowd as a distraction, an action which would possibly
injure a few people, but frighten almost anyone, since a small crystal that
not be seen when thrown produces a rather loud explosion.  Ammonium triiodide
crystals could be produced in the following manner:

     Materials                Equipment
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ                ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

     iodine crystals          funnel and filter paper

                              paper towels
     clear ammonia
     (ammonium hydroxide,     two throw-away glass jars
      for the suicidal)



1) Place about two teaspoons of iodine into one of the glass jars.  The jars
   must bo
th be throw away because they will never be clean again.

2) Add enough ammonia to completely cover the iodine.

3) Place the funnel into the other jar, and put the filter paper in the funnel.
   The technique for putting filter paper in a funnel is taught in every basic
   chemistry lab class: fold the circular paper in half, so that a semi-circle
   is formed.  Then, fold it in half again to form a triangle with one curved
   side.  Pull one thickness of paper out to form a cone, and place the cone
   into the funnel.

4) After allowing the iodine to soak in the ammonia for a while, pour the
   solution into the paper in the funnel through the filter paper.

5) While the solution is being filtered, put more ammonia into the first jar
   to wash any remaining crystals into the funnel as soon as it drains.

6) Collect all the purplish crystals without touching the brown filter paper,
   and place them on the paper towels to dry for about an hour.  Make sure that
   they are not too close to any lights or othe
r sources of heat, as they could
   well detonate. While they are still wet, divide the wet material into about
   eight chunks.

7) After they dry, gently place the crystals onto a one square inch piece of
   duct tape.  Cover it with a similar piece, and gently press the duct tape
   together around the crystal, making sure not to press the crystal itself.
   Finally, cut away most of the excess duct tape with a pair of scissors, and
   store the crystals in a cool dry safe place.  They have a shelf life of
   about a week, and they should be stored in individual containers that can be
   thrown away, since they have a tendency to slowly decompose, a process which
   gives off iodine vapors, which will stain whatever they settle on.  One
   possible way to increase their shelf life is to store them in airtight
   containers.  To use them, simply throw them against any surface or place them
   where they will be stepped on or crushed.











3.12      MERCURY FULMINATE



     Mercury fulminate is perhaps one of the oldest known initiating
compounds.  It can be detonated by either heat or shock, which would make it
of infinite value to a terrorist.  Even the action of dropping a crystal of
the fulminate causes it to explode.  A person making this material would
probably use the following procedure:





     MATERIALS                  EQUIPMENT
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ                  ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

     mercury (5 g)              glass stirring rod

     concentrated nitric        100 ml beaker (2)
     acid (35 ml)
                                adjustable heat
     ethyl alcohol (30 ml)      source

     distilled water            blue litmus paper

                                funnel and filter paper





1) In one beaker, mix 5 g of mercury with 35 ml of concentrated nitric acid,
   using the glass rod.

2) Slowly heat the mixture until the mercury is dissolved, which is when the
   solution turns green and boils.

3) Place 30 ml of ethyl alcohol into the second beaker, and slowly and carefully
    add all of the contents
 of the first beaker to it.  Red and/or brown fumes
   should appear. These fumes are toxic and flammable.

4) After thirty to forty minutes, the fumes should turn white, indicating that
   the reaction is near completion.  After ten more minutes, add 30 ml of the
   distilled water to the solution.

5) Carefully filter out the crystals of mercury fulminate from the liquid
   solution.  Dispose of the solution in a safe place, as it is corrosive
   and toxic.

6) Wash the crystals several times in distilled water to remove as much excess
   acid as possible.  Test the crystals with the litmus paper until they are
   neutral.   This will be when the litmus paper stays blue when it touches the
   wet crystals

7) Allow the crystals to dry, and store them in a safe place, far away from
   any explosive or flammable material.



       This procedure can also be done by volume, if the available mercury
  cannot be weighed.  Simply use 10 volumes of nitric acid and 10 volumes of
  ethanol to every one volume of mercury.















3.13       NITROGLYCERINE

     Nitroglycerine is one of the most sensitive explosives, if it is not
the most sensitive.  Although it is possible to make it safely, it is difficult.
Many a young anarchist has been killed or seriously injured while trying to
make the stuff.  When Nobel's factories make it, many people were killed by the
all-to-frequent factory explosions.  Usually, as soon as it is made, it is
converted into a safer substance, such as dynamite.  An idiot who attempts
to make nitroglycerine would use the following procedure:



     MATERIAL               EQUIPMENT
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ               ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

     distilled water        eye-dropper

     table salt             100 ml beaker

     sodium bicarbonate     200-300 ml beakers (2)

     concentrated nitric    ice bath container
     acid (13 ml)           ( a plastic bucket serves well )

     concentrated sulfuric  centigrade thermometer
     acid (39 ml)
                             blue litmus paper
     glycerine



1) Place 150 ml of distilled water into one of the 200-300 ml beakers.

2) In the other 200-300 ml beaker, place 150 ml of distilled water and about
   a spoonful of sodium bicarbonate, and stir them until the sodium bicarbonate
   dissolves.  Do not put so much sodium bicarbonate in the water so that some
   remains undissolved.

3) Create an ice bath by half filling the ice bath container with ice, and
   adding table salt.  This will cause the ice to melt, lowering the overall
   temperature.

4) Place the 100 ml beaker into the ice bath, and pour the 13 ml of concentrated
   nitric acid into the 100 ml beaker.  Be sure that the beaker will not spill
   into the ice bath, and that the ice bath will not overflow into the beaker
   when more materials are added to it.  Be sure to have a large enough ice bath
   container to add more ice.  Bring the temperature of the acid down to about 20
   degrees centigrade or less.

5) When the nitric acid is as cold as stated above, slowly and carefully add the
   39 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid to the nitric acid.  Mix the two acids
   together, and cool the mixed acids to 10 degrees centigrade.  It is a good
   idea to start another ice bath to do this.

6) With the eyedropper, slowly put the glycerine into the mixed acids, one drop
   at a time.  Hold the thermometer along the top of the mixture where the mixed
   acids and glycerine meet.  DO NOT ALLOW THE TEMPERATURE TO GET ABOVE 30
   DEGREES CENTIGRADE; IF THE TEMPERATURE RISES ABOVE THIS TEMPERATURE, RUN
   LIKE HELL!!!  The glycerine will start to nitrate immediately, and the
   temperature will immediately begin to rise.  Add glycerine until there is a
   thin layer of glycerine on top of the mixed acids.  It is always safest to
   make any explosive in small quantities.

7) Stir the mixed acids and glycerine for the first ten minutes of nitration,
   adding ice and salt to the ice bath to keep the temperature of the solution
   in the 100 ml beaker well below 30 degrees centigrade.  Usually, the
   nitroglycerine will form on the top of the mixed acid solution, and the
   concentrated sulfuric acid will absorb the water produced by the reaction.

8) When the reaction is over, and when the nitroglycerine is well below 30
   degrees centigrade, slowly and carefully pour the solution of nitroglycerine
   and mixed acid into the distilled water in the beaker in step 1.  The
   nitroglycerine should settle to the bottom of the beaker, and the water-acid
   solution on top can be poured off and disposed of. Drain as much of the
   acid-water solution as possible without disturbing the nitroglycerine.

9) Carefully remove the nitroglycerine with a clean eye-dropper, and place it
   into the beaker in step 2.  The sodium bicarbonate solution will eliminate
   much of the acid, which will make the nitroglycerine more stable, and less
   likely to explode for no reason, which it can do.  Test the nitroglycerine
   with the litmus paper until the litmus stays blue.  Repeat this step if
   necessary, and use new sodium bicarbonate solutions as in step 2.

10) When the nitroglycerine is as acid-free as possible, store it in a clean
    container in a safe place.  The best place to store nitroglycerine is
    far away from anything living, or from anything of any value.
    Nitroglycerine can explode for no apparent reason, even if it is stored
    in a secure cool place.



3.14     PICRATES

     Although the procedure for the production of picric acid, or
trinitrophenol has not yet been given, its salts are described first, since they
are extremely sensitive, and detonate on impact.  By mixing picric acid with
metal hydroxides, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, and evaporating the
water, metal picrates can be formed.  Simply obtain picric acid, or produce it,
and mix it with a solution of (preferably) potassium hydroxide, of a mid range
molarity.  (about 6-9 M)  This material, potassium picrate, is impact-sensitive,
and can be used as an initiator for any type of high explosive.

3.2      LOW-ORDER EXPLOSIVES

     There are 
many low-order explosives that can be purchased in gun
stores and used in explosive devices. However, it is possible that a wise
wise store owner would not sell these substances to a suspicious-looking
individual. Such an individual would then be forced to resort to making
his own low-order explosives.



3.21     BLACK POWDER



     First made by the Chinese for use in fireworks, black powder was first
used in weapons and explosives in the 12th century.  It is very simple to make,
but it is not very powerful or safe.  Only about 50% of black powder is
converted to hot gasses when it is burned; the other half is mostly very fine
burned particles.  Black powder has one major problem: it can be ignited by
static electricity.  This is very bad, and it means that the material must be
made with wooden or clay tools.  Anyway, a misguided individual could
manufacture black powder at home with the following procedure:















     MATERIALS               EQUIPMENT
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ               ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
     potassium               clay grinding bowl
     nitrate (75 g)          and clay grinder

       or                         or

     sodium                  wooden salad bowl
     nitrate (75 g)          and wooden spoon

     sulfur (10 g)           plastic bags (3)

     charcoal (15 g)         300-500 ml beaker (1)

     distilled water         coffee pot or heat source



1) Place a small amount of the potassium or sodium nitrate in the grinding bowl
   and grind it to a very fine powder.  Do this to all of the potassium or
   sodium nitrate, and store the ground powder in one of the plastic bags.

2) Do the same thing to the sulfur and charcoal, storing each chemical in a
   separate plastic bag.

3) Place all of the finely ground potassium or sodium nitrate in the beaker, and
    add just enough boiling water to the chemical to get it all wet.

4) Add the contents of the other plastic bags to the wet potassium or sodium
   nitrate, and mix them well for several minutes.  Do this until there is no
   more visible sulfur or charcoal, or until the mixture is universally black.

5) On a warm sunny day, put the beaker outside in the direct sunlight.  Sunlight
   is really the best way to dry black powder, since it is never too hot, but it
   is hot enough to evaporate the water.

6) Scrape the black powder out of the beaker, and store it in a safe container.
   Plastic is really the safest container, followed by paper.  Never store black
   powder in a plastic bag, since plastic bags are prone to generate static
   electricity.



3.22     NITROCELLULOSE

     Nitrocellulose is usually called "gunpowder" or "guncotton".  It is more
stable than black powder, and it produces a much greater volume of hot gas.  It
also burns much faster than black powder when it is in a confined space.
Finally, nitrocellulose is fairly easy to make, as outlined by the following
procedure:



     MATERIALS                    EQUIPMENT
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ                    ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
     cotton  (cellulose)          two (2) 200-300 ml beakers

     concentrated                 funnel and filter paper
     nitric acid
                                  blue litmus paper
     concentrated
     sulfuric acid

     distilled water









1) Pour 10 cc of concentrated sulfuric acid into the beaker.  Add to this
   10 cc of concentrated nitric acid.

2) Immediately add 0.5 gm of cotton, and allow it to soak for exactly 3
   minutes.

3) Remove the nitrocotton, and transfer it to a beaker of distilled water
   to wash it in.

4) Allow the material to dry, and then re-wash it.

5) After the cotton is neutral when tested with litmus paper, it is ready to
   be dried and stored.



3.23     FUEL-OXODIZER MIXTURES

     There are nearly an infinite number of fuel-oxodizer mixtures that can
be produced by a misguided individual in his own home.  Some are very effective
and dangerous, while others are safer and less effective.  A list of working
fuel-oxodizer mixtures will be presented, but the exact measurements of each
compound are debatable for maximum effectiveness. 
 A rough estimate will be
given of the percentages of each fuel and oxodizer:





 oxodizer, % by weight         fuel, % by weight    speed #     notes
================================================================================
 potassium chlorate 67%          sulfur 33%            5   friction/impact
                                                           sensitive; unstable
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium chlorate 50%          sugar 35%             5   fairly slow burning;
                              charcoal 15%                   unstable
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium chlorate 50%          sulfur 25%            8      extremely
                              magnesium or                    unstable!
                              aluminum dust 25%
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium chlorate 67%          magnesium or        
  8          unstable
                              aluminum dust 33%
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 sodium nitrate 65%            magnesium dust 30%      ?        unpredictable
                               sulfur 5%                         burn rate
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium permanganate 60%     glycerine 40%          4     delay before
                                                             ignition depends
 WARNING: IGNITES SPONTANEOUSLY WITH GLYCERINE!!!            upon grain size
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium permanganate 67%     sulfur 33%             5       unstable
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium permangenate 60%     sulfur 20%             5       unstable
                               magnesium or
                               aluminum dust 20%
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium permanganate 50%     sugar 50%              3          ?
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium nitrate 75%         charcoal 15%            7      this is
                               sulfur 10%                    black powder!
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium nitrate 60%         powdered iron           1     burns very hot
                               or magnesium 40%









 oxidizer, % by weight         fuel, % by weight    speed #     notes
================================================================================
 potassium chlorate 75%        phosphorus              8  used to make strike-
                              sesquisulfide 25%            anywhere matches
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 ammonium perchlorate 70%     aluminum dust 30%        6     so
lid fuel for
                              and small amount of               space shuttle
                              iron oxide
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium perchlorate 67%     magnesium or           10      flash powder
(sodium perchlorate)          aluminum dust 33%
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium perchlorate 60%    magnesium or             8      alternate
(sodium perchlorate)          aluminum dust 20%               flash powder
                              sulfur 20%
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 barium nitrate 30%           aluminum dust 30%        9       alternate
 potassium perchlorate 30%                                    flash powder
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 barium peroxide 90%          magnesium dust 5%       10       alternate
                              alumin
um dust 5%                flash powder
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium perchlorate 50%     sulfur 25%              8       slightly
                               magnesium or                    unstable
                               aluminum dust 25%
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium chlorate 67%        red phosphorus 27%      7     very unstable
 calcium carbonate 3%          sulfur 3%                     impact sensitive
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium permanganate 50%    powdered sugar 25%      7       unstable;
                               aluminum or                     ignites if
                               magnesium dust 25%              it gets wet!
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
 potassium chlorate 75%        charcoal dust 15%       6        unstable
                   
            sulfur 10%
================================================================================

NOTE: Mixtures that uses substitutions of sodium perchlorate for potassium
      perchlorate become moisture-absorbent and less stable.

     The higher the speed number, the faster the fuel-oxodizer mixture burns
AFTER ignition.  Also, as a rule, the finer the powder, the faster the rate of
burning.

     As one can easily see, there is a wide variety of fuel-oxodizer mixtures
that can be made at home.  By altering the amounts of fuel and oxodizer(s),
different burn rates can be achieved, but this also can change the sensitivity
of the mixture.



3.24    PERCHLORATES

     As a rule, any oxidizable material that is treated with perchloric acid
will become a low order explosive.  Metals, however, such as potassium or
sodium, become excellent bases for flash-type powders.  Some materials that can
be perchlorated are cotton, paper, and sawdust.  To produce potassium or sodium
perchlorate, simply acquire the 
hydroxide of that metal, e.g. sodium or
potassium hydroxide.  It is a good idea to test the material to be perchlorated
with a very small amount of acid, since some of the materials tend to react
explosively when contacted by the acid.  Solutions of sodium or potassium
hydroxide are ideal.









3.3     HIGH-ORDER EXPLOSIVES

     High order explosives can be made in the home without too much
difficulty.  The main problem is acquiring the nitric acid to produce the high
explosive.  Most high explosives detonate because their molecular structure is
made up of some fuel and usually three or more NO2 ( nitrogen dioxide )
molecules.  T.N.T., or Tri-Nitro-Toluene is an excellent example of such a
material.  When a shock wave passes through an molecule of T.N.T., the
nitrogen dioxide bond is broken, and the oxygen combines with the fuel, all in
a matter of microseconds.  This accounts for the great power of nitrogen-based
explosives.  Remembering that these procedures are NEVER TO BE CARRIED OUT,
several methods of 
manufacturing high-order explosives in the home are listed.





3.31     R.D.X.

     R.D.X., also called cyclonite, or composition C-1 (when mixed with
plasticisers) is one of the most valuable of all military explosives.  This is
because it has more than 150% of the power of T.N.T., and is much easier to
detonate.  It should not be used alone, since it can be set off by a not-too
severe shock.  It is less sensitive than mercury fulminate, or nitroglycerine,
but it is still too sensitive to be used alone.  R.D.X. can be made by the
surprisingly simple method outlined hereafter.  It is much easier to make in the
home than all other high explosives, with the possible exception of ammonium
nitrate.



     MATERIALS                    EQUIPMENT
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ                    ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

     hexamine                     500 ml beaker
       or
     methenamine                  glass stirring rod
     fuel tablets (50 g)
                                  funnel and filter paper
     concentrated
     nitric acid (550 ml)         ice bath container
                                  (plastic bucket)
     distilled water
                                  centigrade thermometer
     table salt
                                  blue litmus paper
     ice

     ammonium nitrate

1) Place the beaker in the ice bath, (see section 3.13, steps 3-4) and carefully
    pour 550 ml of concentrated nitric acid into the beaker.

2) When the acid has cooled to below 20 degrees centigrade, add small amounts of
   the crushed fuel tablets to the beaker.  The temperature will rise, and it
   must be kept below 30 degrees centigrade, or dire consequences could result.
   Stir the mixture.

3) Drop the temperature below zero degrees centigrade, either by adding more ice
   and salt to the old ice bath, or by creating a new ice bath.  Or, ammonium
   nitrate could be added to the old ice bath, since it becomes cold when it is
   put in water. Continue stirring the mixture, keeping the temperature below
   zero degrees centigrade for at least twenty minutes











4) Pour the mixture into a litre of crushed ice.  Shake and stir the mixture,
   and allow it to melt.  Once it has melted, filter out the crystals, and
   dispose of the corrosive liquid.

5) Place the crystals into one half a litre of boiling distilled water.  Filter
   the crystals, and test them with the blue litmus paper.  Repeat steps 4 and 5
   until the litmus paper remains blue.  This will make the crystals more stable
   and safe.

6) Store the crystals wet until ready for use. Allow them to dry completely
   using them. R.D.X. is not stable enough to use alone as an explosive.

7) Composition C-1 can be made by mixing 88.3% R.D.X. (by weight) with 11.1%
   mineral oil, and 0.6% lecithin. Kneed these material together in a plastic
   bag. This is a good way to desensitize the explosive.

8) H.M.X. is a mixture of T.N.T. and R.D.X.; the ratio is 50/50, by weight.
   it is not as sensitive, and is almost as powerful as straight R.D.X.

9) By adding ammonium nitrate to the crystals of R.D.X. after step 5, it should
   be possible to desensitize the R.D.X. and increase its power, since ammonium
   nitrate is very insensitive and powerful. Soduim or potassium nitrate could
   also be added; a small quantity is sufficient to stabilize the R.D.X.

10) R.D.X. detonates at a rate of 8550 meters/second when it is compressed to a
    density of 1.55 g/cubic cm.



3.32      AMMONIUM NITRATE

     Ammonium nitrate could be made by a terrorist according to the hap-
hazard method in section 2.33, or it could be stolen from a construction site,
since it is usually used in blasting, because it is very stable and insensitive to shock and heat.  A terrorist could also buy several Instant Cold-Paks from a drug store or medical supply store.  The major disadvantage with ammonium nitrate, from a terrorist's point of view, would be detonating it.  A rather powerful priming charge must be used, and usually with a booster charge.  The diagram below will explain.

          _________________________________________
          |       |                               |
  ________|       |                               |
     |       | T.N.T.|     ammonium nitrate       |
     |primer |booster|                            |
     |_______|       |                            |
          |       |                               |
          |_______|_______________________________|

     The primer explodes, detonating the T.N.T., which detonates, sending
     a tremendous shockwave through the ammonium nitrate, detonating it.



3.33     ANFOS

     ANFO is an acronym for Ammonium Nitrate - Fuel Oil Solution.  An ANFO
solves the only other major problem with ammonium nitrate: its tendency to pick up water vapor from the air.  This results in the explosive failing to detonate when such an attempt is made.  This is rectified by mixing 94% (by weight)ammonium nitrate with 6% fuel oil, or kerosene.  The kerosene keeps the ammonium nitrate from absorbing moisture from the air.  An ANFO also requires a large shockwave to set it off.









3.34       T.N.T.



     T.N.T., or Tri-Nitro-Toluene, is perhaps the second oldest known high
explosive. Dynamite, of course, was the first. It is certainly the best known
high explosive, since it has been popularized by early morning cartoons. It
is the standard for comparing other explosives to, since it is the most well
known. In industry, a T.N.T. is made by a three step nitration process that is
designed to conserve the nitric and sulfuric acids which are used to make the
product. A terrorist, however, would probably opt for the less economical one
step method. The one step process is performed by treating toluene with very
strong (fuming) sulfuric acid. Then, the sulfated toluene is treated with very
strong (fuming) nitric acid in an ice bath. Cold water is added the solution,
and it is filtered.





3.35     POTASSIUM CHLORATE



     Potassium chlorate itself cannot be made in the home, but it can be
obtained from labs.  If potassium chlorate is mixed with a small amount of
vaseline, or other petroleum jelly, and a shockwave is passed through it, the
material will detonate with slightly more power than black powder.  It must,
however, be confined to detonate it in this manner.  The procedure for making
such an explosive is outlined below:





     MATERIALS                    EQUIPMENT
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ                    ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ



     potassium chlorate           zip-lock plastic bag
     (9 parts, by volume)

     petroleum jelly              clay grinding bowl
     (vaseline)                          or
     (1 part, by volume)          wooden bowl and wooden spoon





1)  Grind the potassium chlorate in the grinding bowl carefully and slowly,
    until the potassium chlorate is a very fine powder.  The finer that it is
    powdered, the faster (better)  it will detonate.

2)  Place the powder into the plastic bag.  Put the petroleum jelly into the
    plastic bag, getting as little on the sides of the bag as possible, i.e.
    put the vaseline on the potassium chlorate powder.

3)  Close 
the bag, and kneed the materials together until none of the potassium
    chlorate is dry powder that does not stick to the main glob.  If necessary,
    add a bit more petroleum jelly to the bag.

4)  The material must me used within 24 hours, or the mixture will react to
    greatly reduce the effectiveness of the explosive.  This reaction, however,
    is harmless, and releases no heat or dangerous products.

















3.36     DYNAMITE

     The name dynamite comes from the Greek word "dynamis", meaning power.
Dynamite was invented by Nobel shortly after he made nitroglycerine. It was
made because nitroglycerine was so dangerously sensitive to shock. A misguided
individual with some sanity would, after making nitroglycerine (an insane act)
would immediately convert it to dynamite. This can be done by adding various
materials to the nitroglycerine, such as sawdust. The sawdust holds a large
weight of nitroglycerine per volume. Other materials, such as ammonium nitrate
could be added, and they would tend to desensitize the explosive, and increase
the power.  But even these nitroglycerine compounds are not really safe.





3.37     NITROSTARCH EXPLOSIVES



     Nitrostarch explosives are simple to make, and are fairly powerful.  All
that need be done is treat various starches with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids.  10 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid is added to 10 ml of concentrated nitric acid.  To this mixture is added 0.5 grams of starch.  Cold water is added, and the apparently unchanged nitrostarch is filtered out.
Nitrostarch explosives are of slightly lower power than T.N.T., but they are
more readily detonated.





3.38     PICRIC ACID



     Picric acid, also known as Tri-Nitro-Phenol, or T.N.P., is a military
explosive that is most often used as a booster charge to set off another less
sensitive explosive, such as T.N.T.  It another explosive that is fairly simple
to make, assuming that one can acquire the concentrated sulfuric and nitric
acids.  Its procedure for manufacture is given i
n many college chemistry lab
manuals, and is easy to follow.  The main problem with picric acid is its
tendency to form dangerously sensitive and unstable picrate salts, such as
potassium picrate.  For this reason, it is usually made into a safer form, such
as ammonium picrate, also called explosive D.  A social deviant would probably
use a formula similar to the one presented here to make picric acid.







     MATERIALS                         EQUIPMENT
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ                         ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

     phenol (9.5 g)                    500 ml flask

     concentrated                      adjustable heat source
     sulfuric acid (12.5 ml)
                                       1000 ml beaker
     concentrated nitric               or other container
     acid (38 ml)                      suitable for boiling in

     distilled water                   filter paper
                                       and funnel

                                       glass stirring rod













1) Place 9.5 grams of pheno
l into the 500 ml flask, and carefully add 12.5
   ml of concentrated sulfuric acid and stir the mixture.

2) Put 400 ml of tap water into the 1000 ml beaker or boiling container and
   bring the water to a gentle boil.

3) After warming the 500 ml flask under hot tap water, place it in the boiling
   water, and continue to stir the mixture of phenol and acid for about thirty
   minutes.  After thirty minutes, take the flask out, and allow it to cool for
   about five minutes.

4) Pour out the boiling water used above, and after allowing the container to
   cool, use it to create an ice bath, similar to the one used in section 3.13,
   steps 3-4.  Place the 500 ml flask with the mixed acid an phenol in the ice
   bath.  Add 38 ml of concentrated nitric acid in small amounts, stirring the
   mixture constantly.  A vigorous but "harmless" reaction should occur.  When
   the mixture stops reacting vigorously, take the flask out of the ice bath.

5) Warm the ice bath container, if it is glass, and then begin boil
ing more tap
   water.  Place the flask containing the mixture in the boiling water, and heat
   it in the boiling water for 1.5 to 2 hours.

6) Add 100 ml of cold distilled water to the solution, and chill it in an ice
   bath until it is cold.

7) Filter out the yellowish-white picric acid crystals by pouring the solution
   through the filter paper in the funnel.  Collect the liquid and dispose of it
   in a safe place, since it is corrosive.

8) Wash out the 500 ml flask with distilled water, and put the contents of the
   filter paper in the flask.  Add 300 ml of water, and shake vigorously.

9) Re-filter the crystals, and allow them to dry.

10) Store the crystals in a safe place in a glass container, since they will
    react with metal containers to produce picrates that could explode
    spontaneously.



3.39     AMMONIUM PICRATE



     Ammonium picrate, also called Explosive D, is another safety explosive.
It requires a substantial shock to cause it to detonate, slightly less than that
required to d
etonate ammonium nitrate.  It is much safer than picric acid, since
it has little tendency to form hazardous unstable salts when placed in metal
containers.  It is simple to make from picric acid and clear household ammonia.
All that need be done is put the picric acid crystals into a glass container and
dissolve them in a great quantity of hot water.  Add clear household ammonia in
excess, and allow the excess ammonia to evaporate.  The powder remaining should
be ammonium picrate.



3.40   NITROGEN TRICHLORIDE



     Nitrogen trichloride, also known as chloride of azode, is an oily yellow
liquid.  It explodes violently when it is heated above 60 degrees celsius, or
when it comes in contact with an open flame or spark.  It is fairly simple to
produce.





1)  In a beaker, dissolve about 5 teaspoons of ammonium nitrate in water.
    Do not put so much ammonium nitrate into the solution that some of it
    remains undissolved in the bottom of the beaker.

2)  Collect a quantity of chlorine gas in a second bea
ker by mixing hydrochloric
    acid with potassium permanganate in a large flask with a stopper and glass
    pipe.

3)  Place the beaker containing the chlorine gas upside down on top of the
    beaker containing the ammonium nitrate solution, and tape the beakers
    together.  Gently heat the bottom beaker.  When this is done, oily yellow
    droplets will begin to form on the surface of the solution, and sink down
    to the bottom.  At this time, remove the heat source immediately.

    Alternately, the chlorine can be bubbled through the ammonium nitrate
    solution, rather than collecting the gas in a beaker, but this requires
    timing and a stand to hold the beaker and test tube.

    The chlorine gas can also be mixed with anhydrous ammonia gas, by gently
    heating a flask filled with clear household ammonia.  Place the glass tubes
    from the chlorine-generating flask and the tube from the ammonia-generating
    flask in another flask that contains water.

4)  Collect the yellow droplets with 
an eyedropper, and use them immediately,
    since nitrogen trichloride decomposes in 24 hours.



3.41     LEAD AZIDE

     Lead Azide is a material that is often used as a booster charge for
other explosive, but it does well enough on its own as a fairly sensitive
explosive.  It does not detonate too easily by percussion or impact, but it
is easily detonated by heat from an igniter wire, or a blasting cap.  It is
simple to produce, assuming that the necessary chemicals can be procured.

     By dissolving sodium azide and lead acetate in water in separate
beakers, the two materials are put into an aqueous state.  Mix the two beakers
together, and apply a gentle heat. Add an excess of the lead acetate
solution, until no reaction occurs, and the precipitate on the bottom of the
beaker stops forming.  Filter off the solution, and wash the precipitate in
hot water. The precipitate is lead azide, and it must be stored wet for safety.
If lead acetate cannot be found, simply acquire acetic acid, and put lead
metal 
in it. Black powder bullets work well for this purpose.



3.5     OTHER "EXPLOSIVES"

     The remaining section covers the other types of materials that can
be used to destroy property by fire.  Although none of the materials
presented here are explosives, they still produce explosive-style results.

3.51     THERMIT

     Thermit is a fuel-oxodizer mixture that is used to generate tremendous
amounts of heat. It was not presented in section 3.23 because it does not react
nearly as readily. It is a mixture of iron oxide and aluminum, both finely
powdered. When it is ignited, the aluminum burns, and extracts the oxygen from
the iron oxide. This is really two very exothermic reactions that produce a
combined temperature of about 2200 degrees C. This is half the heat produced by
an atomic weapon. It is difficult to ignite, however, but when it is ignited,
it is one of the most effective firestarters around.









     MATERIALS
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

     powdered aluminum (10 g)

     powdered iron oxide (10 g)



1) Th
ere is no special procedure or equipment required to make thermit.  Simply
   mix the two powders together, and try to make the mixture as homogenous as
   possible.  The ratio of iron oxide to aluminum is 50% / 50% by weight, and
   be made in greater or lesser amounts.

2) Ignition of thermite can be accomplished by adding a small amount of
   potassium chlorate to the thermit, and pouring a few drops of sulfuric acid
   on it.  This method and others will be discussed later in section 4.33.  The
   other method of igniting thermit is with a magnesium strip.  Finally, by
   using common sparkler-type fireworks placed in the thermit, the mixture
   can be ignited.



3.52     MOLOTOV COCKTAILS



     First used by Russians against German tanks, the Molotov cocktail is now
exclusively used by terrorists worldwide. They are extremely simple to make, and
can produce devastating results. By taking any highly flammable material, such
as gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, ethyl or methyl alcohol, lighter fluid,
turpe
ntine, or any mixture of the above, and putting it into a large glass
bottle, anyone can make an effective firebomb. After putting the flammable
liquid in the bottle, simply put a piece of cloth that is soaked in the liquid
in the top of the bottle so that it fits tightly. Then, wrap some of the cloth
around the neck and tie it, but be sure to leave a few inches of lose cloth to
light. Light the exposed cloth, and throw the bottle. If the burning cloth
does not go out, and if the bottle breaks on impact, the contents of the bottle
will spatter over a large area near the site of impact, and burst into flame.
Flammable mixtures such as kerosene and motor oil should be mixed with a more
volatile and flammable liquid, such as gasoline, to insure ignition. A mixture
such as tar or grease and gasoline will stick to the surface that it strikes,
and burn hotter, and be more difficult to extinguish. A mixture such as this
must be shaken well before it is lit and thrown





3.53     CHEMICAL FIRE BOTTLE

     The chemic
al fire bottle is really an advanced molotov cocktail.  Rather
than using the burning cloth to ignite the flammable liquid, which has at best
a fair chance of igniting the liquid, the chemical fire bottle utilizes the very
hot and violent reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium chlorate.  When the
container breaks, the sulfuric acid in the mixture of gasoline sprays onto the
paper soaked in potassium chlorate and sugar.  The paper, when struck by the
acid, instantly bursts into a white flame, igniting the gasoline.  The chance
of failure to ignite the gasoline is less than 2%, and can be reduced to 0%, if
there is enough potassium chlorate and sugar to spare.





















     MATERIALS                         EQUIPMENT
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ                         ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

     potassium chlorate               glass bottle
     (2 teaspoons)                    (12 oz.)

     sugar (2 teaspoons)              cap for bottle,
                                      with plastic inside

     concentrated            
         cooking pan with raised
     sulfuric acid (4 oz.)            edges

     gasoline (8 oz.)                 paper towels

                                      glass or plastic cup
                                      and spoon





1) Test the cap of the bottle with a few drops of sulfuric acid to make sure
   that the acid will not eat away the bottle cap during storage.  If the
   acid eats through it in 24 hours, a new top must be found and tested, until
   a cap that the acid does not eat through is found.  A glass top is excellent.

2) Carefully pour 8 oz. of gasoline into the glass bottle.

3) Carefully pour 4 oz. of concentrated sulfuric acid into the glass bottle.
   Wipe up any spills of acid on the sides of the bottle, and screw the cap on
   the bottle.  Wash the bottle's outside with plenty of water.  Set it aside
   to dry.

4) Put about two teaspoons of potassium chlorate and about two teaspoons of
   sugar into the glass or plastic cup.  Add about 1/2 cup of boiling water,
   or enough 
to dissolve all of the potassium chlorate and sugar.

5) Place a sheet of paper towel in the cooking pan with raised edges.  Fold
   the paper towel in half, and pour the solution of dissolved potassium
   chlorate and sugar on it until it is thoroughly wet.  Allow the towel to
   dry.

6) When it is dry, put some glue on the outside of the glass bottle containing
   the gasoline and sulfuric acid mixture.  Wrap the paper towel around the
   bottle, making sure that it sticks to it in all places.  Store the bottle
   in a place where it will not be broken or tipped over.

7) When finished, the solution in the bottle should appear as two distinct
   liquids, a dark brownish-red solution on the bottom, and a clear solution
   on top.  The two solutions will not mix.  To use the chemical fire bottle,
   simply throw it at any hard surface.

8) NEVER OPEN THE BOTTLE, SINCE SOME SULFURIC ACID MIGHT BE ON THE CAP, WHICH
   COULD TRICKLE DOWN THE SIDE OF THE BOTTLE AND IGNITE THE POTASSIUM CHLORATE,
   CAUSING A FIR
E AND/OR EXPLOSION.

9) To test the device, tear a small piece of the paper towel off the bottle,
   and put a few drops of sulfuric acid on it.  The paper towel should
   immediately burst into a white flame.

















3.54     BOTTLED GAS EXPLOSIVES



     Bottled gas, such as butane for refilling lighters, propane for propane
stoves or for bunsen burners, can be used to produce a powerful explosion. To
make such a device, all that a simple-minded anarchist would have to do would be
to take his container of bottled gas and place it above a can of Sterno or other
gelatinized fuel, and light the fuel and run. Depending on the fuel used, and
on the thickness of the fuel container, the liquid gas will boil and expand to
the point of bursting the container in about five minutes. In theory, the gas
would immediately be ignited by the burning gelatinized fuel, producing a large
fireball and explosion. Unfortunately, the bursting of the bottled gas container
often puts out the fuel, thus preventing the expanding gas
 from igniting.  By
using a metal bucket half filled with gasoline, however, the chances of ignition
are better, since the gasoline is less likely to be extinguished.  Placing the
canister of bottled gas on a bed of burning charcoal soaked in gasoline would
probably be the most effective way of securing ignition of the expanding gas,
since although the bursting of the gas container may blow out the flame of the
gasoline, the burning charcoal should immediately re-ignite it.  Nitrous oxide,
hydrogen, propane, acetylene, or any other flammable gas will do nicely.





4.0     USING EXPLOSIVES



     Once a terrorist has made his explosives, the next logical step is to
apply them. Explosives have a wide range of uses, from harassment, to vandalism,
to murder. NONE OF THE IDEAS PRESENTED HERE ARE EVER TO BE CARRIED OUT, EITHER
IN PART OR IN FULL!  DOING SO CAN LEAD TO PROSECUTION, FINES, AND IMPRISONMENT!
     The first step that a person that would use explosive would take would
be to determine how big an explosiv
e device would be needed to do whatever had
to be done. Then, he would have to decide what to make his bomb with. He would
also have to decide on how he wanted to detonate the device, and determine
where the best placement for it would be. Then, it would be necessary to see
if the device could be put where he wanted it without it being discovered or
moved. Finally, he would actually have to sit down and build his explosive
device. These are some of the topics covered in the next section.



4.1     SAFETY

     There is no such thing as a "safe" explosive device.  One can only speak
in terms of relative safety, or less unsafe.



4.2     IGNITION DEVICES

     There are many ways to ignite explosive devices.  There is the classic
"light the fuse, throw the bomb, and run" approach, and there are sensitive
mercury switches, and many things in between.  Generally, electrical detonation
systems are safer than fuses, but there are times when fuses are more
appropriate than electrical systems; it is difficult to carr
y an electrical
detonation system into a stadium, for instance, without being caught.  A device
with a fuse or impact detonating fuse would be easier to hide.



4.21     FUSE IGNITION



     The oldest form of explosive ignition, fuses are perhaps the favorite
type of simple ignition system.  By simply placing a piece of waterproof fuse in
a device, one can have almost guaranteed ignition.  Modern waterproof fuse is
extremely reliable, burning at a rate of about 2.5 seconds to the inch.  It is
available as model rocketry fuse in most hobby shops, and costs about $3.00 for
a nine-foot length.  Fuse is a popular ignition system for pipe bombers because
of its simplicity.  All that need be done is light it with a match or lighter.
     Of course, if the Army had fuses like this, then the grenade, which uses
fuse ignition, would be very impracticle.  If a grenade ignition system can be
acquired, by all means, it is the most effective.  But, since such things do not
just float around, the next best thing is
 to prepare a fuse system which does
not require the use of a match or lighter, but still retains its simplicity.
One such method is described below:



     MATERIALS
     _________

     strike-on-cover type matches

     electrical tape or duct tape

     waterproof fuse

1) To determine the burn rate of a particular type of fuse, simply measure a
   6 inch or longer piece of fuse and ignite it.  With a stopwatch, press the
   start button the at the instant when the fuse lights, and stop the watch when
   the fuse reaches its end.  Divide the time of burn by the length of fuse, and
   you have the burn rate of the fuse, in seconds per inch.  This will be shown
   below:

     Suppose an eight inch piece of fuse is burned, and its complete time
     of combustion is 20 seconds.





     20 seconds
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ  = 2.5 seconds per inch.
     8 inches



     If a delay of 10 seconds was desired with this fuse, divide the desired
      time by the number of seconds per inch:

     10 seconds
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ = 4 inches
     2.5 seconds / inch

NOTE: THE LENGTH OF FUSE HERE MEANS LENGTH OF FUSE TO THE POWDER.  SOME FUSE,
      AT LEAST AN INCH, SHOULD BE INSIDE THE DEVICE.  ALWAYS ADD THIS EXTRA
      INCH, AND PUT THIS EXTRA INCH AN INCH INTO THE DEVICE!!!



2) After deciding how long a delay is desired before the explosive device is
   to go off, add about 1/2 an inch to the premeasured amount of fuse, and
   cut it off.











3) Carefully remove the cardboard matches from the paper match case.  Do not
   pull off individual matches; keep all the matches attached to the cardboard
   base.  Take one of the cardboard match sections, and leave the other one
   to make a second igniter.

4) Wrap the matches around the end of the fuse, with the heads of the matches
   touching the very end of the fuse.  Tape them there securely, making sure not
   to put tape over the match heads.  Make sure they are very secure by pulling
   on them at the base of the assembly.  They should not be able to move.

5) Wrap the 
cover of the matches around the matches attached to the fuse, making
   sure that the striker paper is below the match heads and the striker faces
   the match heads.  Tape the paper so that is fairly tight around the matches.
   Do not tape the cover of the striker to the fuse or to the matches.  Leave
   enough of the match book to pull on for ignition.

          _____________________
          \                   /
           \                 /  ------ match book cover
            \               /
             |    M|f|M ---|------- match head
             |    A|u|A    |
             |    T|s|T    |
             |    C|e|C    |
             |tapeH|.|Htape|
             |     |f|     |
             |#####|u|#####|-------- striking paper
             |#####|s|#####|
             \     |e|     /
              \    |.|    /
               \   |f|   /
                \  |u|  /
                |ta|s|pe|
                |ta|e|pe|
                   |.|
                   |f|
                   |u|
                   |s|
                   |e|
                   |.|
                   |_|



     The match book is wrapped around the matches, and is taped to itself.
     The matches are taped to the fuse.  The striker will rub against the
     matcheads when the match book is pulled.

6) When ready to use, simply pull on the match paper.  It should pull the
   striking paper across the match heads with enough friction to light them.
   In turn, the burning matcheads will light the fuse, since it adjacent to the
   burning match heads.





4.22     IMPACT IGNITION

     Impact ignition is an excellent method of ignition for spontaneous
terrorist activities.  The problem with an impact-detonating device is that it
must be kept in a very safe container so that it will not explode while being
transported to the place where it is to be used.  This can be done by having a
removable impact initiator.
     The best and most reliable impact initiator is one that uses factory
made initiators or primers. A no. 11 cap for black powder firearms is one such
primer. They usually come in boxes of 100, and cost about $2.50. To use such
a cap, however, one needs a nipple that it will fit on. Black powder nipples
are also available in gun stores. All that a person has to do is ask for a
package of nipples and the caps that fit them.  Nipples have a hole that goes
all the way through them, and they have a threaded end, and an end to put the
cap on. A cutaway of a nipple is shown below:

                   ________________
                  |                |
                  _                |
                 | |                 |
          _______| |^^^^^^^^|        |
          |      ___________|          |
          |     |                      |
   no. 11       |_______|                |
   percussion    _______                 | ------- threads for screwing
   cap here     |       |                |         nipple onto bomb
          |     |___________           |
          |_______         |           |
               | |^^^^^^^^^|         |
               |_|                   |
                                   |
                  |________________|



     When making using this type of initiator, a hole must be drilled into
whatever container is used to make the bomb out of. The nipple is then screwed
into the hole so that it fits tightly. Then, the cap can be carried and placed
on the bomb when it is to be thrown. The cap should be bent a small amount
before it is placed on the nipple, to make sure that it stays in place.  The
only other problem involved with an impact detonating bomb is that it must
strike a hard surface on the nipple to set it off. By attaching fins or a small
parachute on the end of the bomb opposite the primer, the bomb, when thrown,
should strike the ground on the primer, and explode. Of course, a bomb with
mercury fulminate in each end will go off on impact regardless of which end it
strikes on, but mercury fulminate is also likely to go off if the person
carrying the bomb is bumped hard.

4.23     ELECTRICAL IGNITION

     Electrical ignition systems for detonation are usually the safest and
most reliable form of ignition. Electrical systems are ideal for demolition
work, if one doesn't have to worry so much about being caught. With two spools
of 500 ft of wire and a car battery, one can detonate explosives from a "safe",
comfortable distance, and be sure that there is nobody around that could get
hurt. With an electrical system, one can control exactly what time a device
will explode, within fractions of a second. Detonation can be aborted in  less
than a second's warning, if a person suddenly walks by the detonation sight, or
if a police car chooses to roll by at the time. The two best electrical igniters
are military squibs and model rocketry igniters. Blasting caps for construction
also work well. Model rocketry igniters are sold in packages of six, and cost
about $1.00 per pack. All that need be done to use them is connect it to two
wires and run a current through them. Military squibs are difficult to
 get,
but they are a little bit better, since they explode when a current is run
through them, whereas rocketry igniters only burst into flame. Military squibs
can be used to set off sensitive high explosives, such as R.D.X., or potassium
chlorate mixed with petroleum jelly. Igniters can be used to set off black
powder, mercury fulminate, or guncotton, which in turn, can set of a high order
explosive.









4.24     ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IGNITION

     Electro-mechanical ignition systems are systems that use some type of
mechanical switch to set off an explosive charge electrically.  This type of
switch is typically used in booby traps or other devices in which the person
who places the bomb does not wish to be anywhere near the device when it
explodes.  Several types of electro-mechanical detonators will be discussed



4.241     Mercury Switches

     Mercury switches are a switch that uses the fact that mercury metal
conducts electricity, as do all metals, but mercury metal is a liquid at
room temperatures. A t
ypical mercury switch is a sealed glass tube with
two electrodes and a bead of mercury metal. It is sealed because of mercury's
nasty habit of giving off brain-damaging vapors. The diagram below may help
to explain a mercury switch.

                         ______________
                     A  /              \   B
      _____wire +______/___________     \
                       \   ( Hg )  |    /
                        \ _(_Hg_)__|___/
                                   |
                                   |
                            wire - |
                                   |
                                   |

     When the drop of mercury ("Hg" is mercury's atomic symbol) touches both
contacts, current flows through the switch.  If this particular switch was in
its present position, A---B, current would be flowing, since the mercury can
touch both contacts in the horizontal position.
     If, however, it was in the | position, the drop of mercury would only
touch the + contact on the A side. Curr
ent, then couldn't flow, since mercury
does not reach both contacts when the switch is in the vertical position.
     This type of switch is ideal to place by a door. If it were placed in
the path of a swinging door in the verticle position, the motion of the door
would knock the switch down, if it was held to the ground by a piece if tape.
This would tilt the switch into the verticle position, causing the mercury to
touch both contacts, allowing current to flow through the mercury, and to the
igniter or squib in an explosive device. Imagine opening a door and having it
slammed in your face by an explosion.



4.242     Tripwire Switches

     A tripwire is an element of the classic booby trap.  By placing a nearly
invisible line of string or fishing line in the probable path of a victim, and
by putting some type of trap there also, nasty things can be caused to occur.
If this mode of thought is applied to explosives, how would one use such a
tripwire to detonate a bomb.  The technique is simple.  By wrapping 
the tips of
a standard clothespin with aluminum foil, and placing something between them,
and connecting wires to each aluminum foil contact, an electric tripwire can
be made,  If a piece of wood attached to the tripwire was placed between the
contacts on the clothespin, the clothespin would serve as a switch.  When the
tripwire was pulled, the clothespin would snap together, allowing current to
flow between the two pieces of aluminum foil, thereby completing a circuit,
which would have the igniter or squib in it.  Current would flow between
the contacts to the igniter or squib, heat the igniter or squib, causing it
it to explode.











                    __________________________________
                    \_foil___________________________/
 Insert strip of      ----------------------------spring
 wood with trip-      _foil__________________________
 wire between foil   /_______________________________\
 contacts.



Make sure that the aluminum foil contacts do not touch the spring, since
the spring also c
onducts electricity.



4.243     Radio Control Detonators



     In the movies, every terrorist or criminal uses a radio controlled
detonator to set off explosives.  With a good radio detonator, one can be
several miles away from the device, and still control exactly when it explodes,
in much the same way as an electrical switch.  The problem with radio detonators
is that they are rather costly.  However, there could possibly be a reason that
a terrorist would wish to spend the amounts of money involved with a RC (radio
control) system and use it as a detonator.  If such an individual wanted to
devise an RC detonator, all he would need to do is visit the local hobby store
or toy store, and buy a radio controlled toy.  Taking it back to his/her abode,
all that he/she would have to do is detach the solenoid/motor that controls the
motion of the front wheels of a RC car, or detach the solenoid/motor of the
elevators/rudder of a RC plane, or the rudder of a RC boat, and re-connect the
squib or rocket engine ignit
er to the contacts for the solenoid/motor.  The
device should be tested several times with squibs or igniters, and fully
charged batteries should be in both he controller and the receiver (the part
that used to move parts before the device became a detonator).



4.3     DELAYS

     A delay is a device which causes time to pass from when a device is
set up to the time that it explodes.  A regular fuse is a delay, but it would
cost quite a bit to have a 24 hour delay with a fuse.  This section deals with
the different types of delays that can be employed by a terrorist who wishes to
be sure that his bomb will go off, but wants to be out of the country when it
does.



4.31     FUSE DELAYS

     It is extremely simple to delay explosive devices that employ fuses for
ignition.  Perhaps the simplest way to do so is with a cigarette.  An average
cigarette burns for about 8 minutes. The higher the "tar" and nicotine rating,
the slower the cigarette burns. Low "tar" and nicotine cigarettes burn quicker
than the highe
r "tar" and nicotine cigarettes, but they are also less likely to
go out if left unattended, i.e. not smoked. Depending on the wind or draft in
a given place, a high "tar" cigarette is better for delaying the ignition of
a fuse, but there must be enough wind or draft to give the cigarette enough
oxygen to burn. People who use cigarettes for the purpose of delaying fuses
will often test the cigarettes that they plan to use in advance to make sure
they stay lit and to see how long it will burn. Once a cigarettes burn rate
is determined, it is a simple matter of carefully putting a hole all the way
through a cigarette with a toothpick at the point desired, and pushing
the fuse for a device in the hole formed.















                            |=|
                            |=| ---------- filter
                            |=|
                            | |
                            | |
                            |o| ---------- hole for fuse
 cigarette ------------     | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            |_| ---------- light this end





     A similar type of device can be make from powdered charcoal and a sheet
of paper.  Simply roll the sheet of paper into a thin tube, and fill it with
powdered charcoal. Punch a hole in it at the desired location, and insert a
fuse. Both ends must be glued closed, and one end of the delay must be doused
with lighter fluid before it is lit. Or, a small charge of gunpowder mixed with
powdered charcoal could conceivably used for igniting such a delay. A chain of
charcoal briquettes can be used as a delay by merely lining up a few bricks
of charcoal so that they touch each other, end on end, and lighting the first
brick. Incense, which can be purchased at almost any novelty or party supply
store, can also be used as a fairly reliab
le delay. By wrapping the fuse
about the end of an incense stick, delays of up to 1/2 an hour are possible.
     Finally, it is possible to make a relatively slow-burning fuse in the
home. By dissolving about one teaspoon of black powder in about 1/4 a cup of
boiling water, and, while it is still hot, soaking in it a long piece of all
cotton string, a slow-burning fuse can be made. After the soaked string dries,
it must then be tied to the fuse of an explosive device. Sometimes, the
end of the slow burning fuse that meets the normal fuse has a charge of black
powder or gunpowder at the intersection point to insure ignition, since the
slow-burning fuse does not burn at a very high temperature. A similar type of
slow fuse can be made by taking the above mixture of boiling water and black
powder and pouring it on a long piece of toilet paper. The wet toilet paper
is then gently twisted up so that it resembles a firecracker fuse, and is
allowed to dry.





4.32     TIMER DELAYS



     Timer delays, or "time bombs"
 are usually employed by an individual who
wishes to threaten a place with a bomb and demand money to reveal its location
and means to disarm it.  Such a device could be placed in any populated place
if it were concealed properly.  There are several ways to build a timer delay.
By simply using a screw as one contact at the time that detonation is desired,
and using the hour hand of a clock as the other contact, a simple timer can be
made. The minute hand of a clock should be removed, unless a delay of less
than an hour is desired.

















            ___________________________________  to igniter      from igniter
            |                                  |
            |               12                 |      :            :
            |         11           1           |      :            :
            |                                  |      :            :
            |     10                   2       |      :            :
            |                 o................|......:            :
            |                                  |                   :
            |   9                         3    |                   :
            |                                  |                   :
            |                                  |                   :
            |    8                      4      |                   :
            |                        o.........|......             :
            |          7             5         |     :             :
            |                 6                |     :.+.....-.....:
            |__________________________________|     __|_____|
                                        |           |
                                        |  battery  |
          o - contacts                  |           |
          ..... - wire                  |           |
                                        |___________|

     This device is set to go off in eleven hours.  When the hour hand of the
clock reaches the contact near the numeral 5, it will complete the
 circuit,
allowing current to flow through the igniter or squib.

     The main disadvantage with this type of timer is that it can only be set
 for a maximum time of 12 hours.  If an electronic timer is used, such as that in
an electronic clock, then delays of up to 24 hours are possible.  By removing
the speaker from an electronic clock, and attaching the wires of a squib or
igniter to them, a timer with a delay of up to 24 hours can be made.  To utilize
this type of timer, one must have a socket that the clock can be plugged into.
All that one has to do is set the alarm time of the clock to the desired time,
connect the leads, and go away.  This could also be done with an electronic
watch, if a larger battery were used, and the current to the speaker of the
watch was stepped up via a transformer.  This would be good, since such a timer
could be extremely small.  The timer in a VCR (Video Cassette Recorder) would
be ideal.  VCR's can usually be set for times of up to a week.  The leads from
the timer to the
 recording equipment would be the ones that an igniter or squib
would be connected to.  Also, one can buy timers from electronics stores that
would be ideal.  Finally, one could employ a digital watch, and use a relay, or
electro-magnetic switch to fire the igniter, and the current of the watch would
not have to be stepped up.



4.33     CHEMICAL DELAYS



     Chemical delays are uncommon, but they can be extremely effective in
some cases.  If a glass container is filled with concentrated sulfuric acid,
and capped with several thicknesses of aluminum foil, or a cap that it will eat
through, then it can be used as a delay.  Sulfuric acid will react with aluminum
foil to produce aluminum sulfate and hydrogen gas, and so the container must be
open to the air on one end so that the pressure of the hydrogen gas that is
forming does not break the container. See diagram on following page.



















                _               _
               | |             | |
               | |             | |
               | |             | |
               | |_____________| |
               | |             | |
               | |  sulfuric   | |
               | |             | |
               | |  acid       | |
               | |             | |---------- aluminum foil
               | |_____________| |           (several thicknesses)
               |_________________|



     The aluminum foil is placed over the bottom of the container and secured
there with tape.  When the acid eats through the aluminum foil, it can be used
to ignite an explosive device in several ways.

     1) Sulfuric acid is a good conductor of electricity.  If the acid that
        eats through the foil is collected in a glass container placed
        underneath the foil, and two wires are placed in the glass container,
         a current will be able to flow through the acid when both of the
        wires are immersed in the acid.

     2) Sulfuric acid reacts very violently with potassium chlorate.  If
        the acid drips down into a container con
taining potassium chlorate,
        the potassium chlorate will burst into flame.  This flame can be
        used to ignite a fuse, or the potassium chlorate can be the igniter
        for a thermit bomb, if some potassium chlorate is mixed in a 50/50
        ratio with the thermit, and this mixture is used as an igniter for
        the rest of the thermit.

     3) Sulfuric acid reacts with potassium permangenate in a similar way.





4.4     EXPLOSIVE CONTAINERS



     This section will cover everything from making a simple firecracker to
a complicated scheme for detonating an insensitive high explosive, both of which
are methods that could be utilized by perpetrators of terror.



4.41     PAPER CONTAINERS



     Paper was the first container ever used for explosives, since it was
first used by the Chinese to make fireworks. Paper containers are usually very
simple to make, and are certainly the cheapest. There are many possible uses
for paper in containing explosives, and the two most obvious are in firecra
ckers
and rocket engines. Simply by rolling up a long sheet of paper, and gluing it
together, one can make a simple rocket engine. Perhaps a more interesting and
dangerous use is in the firecracker. The firecracker shown here is one of
Mexican design. It is called a "polumna", meaning "dove". The process of their
manufacture is not unlike that of making a paper football. If one takes a sheet
of paper about 16 inches in length by 1.5 inches wide, and fold one corner so
that it looks like this:











       ________________________________________________________
       |                                                      |\
       |                                                      | \
       |                                                      |  \
       |______________________________________________________|___\

       and then fold it again so that it looks like this:

       _______________________________________________________
       |                                                     /|
       |                                                    / |
       |                                                   /  |
       |__________________________________________________/___|

      A pocket is formed.  This pocket can be filled with black powder, pyrodex,
flash powder, gunpowder,rocket engine powder, or any of the quick-burning fuel-
oxodizer mixtures that occur in the form of a fine powder.  A fuse is then
inserted, and one continues the triangular folds, being careful not to spill
out any of the explosive.  When the polumna is finished, it should be taped
together very tightly, since this will increase the strength of the container,
and produce a louder and more powerful explosion when it is lit.  The finished
polumna should look like a 1/4 inch - 1/3 inch thick triangle, like the one
shown below:



             ^
            / \  ----- securely tape all corners
           /   \
          /     \
         /       \
        /         \
       /           \____________________________
      /__
___________\__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/  ---------- fuse







4.42     METAL CONTAINERS



     The classic pipe bomb is the best known example of a metal-contained
explosive.  Idiot anarchists take white tipped matches and cut off the match
heads.  They pound one end of a pipe closed with a hammer, pour in the white-
tipped matches, and then pound the other end closed.  This process often kills
the fool, since when he pounds the pipe closed, he could very easily cause
enough friction between the match heads to cause them to ignite and explode the
unfinished bomb.  By using pipe caps, the process is somewhat safer, and the
less stupid anarchist would never use white tipped matches in a bomb.  He would
buy two pipe caps and threaded pipe (fig. 1).  First, he would drill a hole in
one pipe cap, and put a fuse in it so that it will not come out, and so powder
will not escape during handling.  The fuse would be at least 3/4 an inch long
inside the bomb.  He would then screw the cap with the fuse in it on tightly,
p
ossibly putting a drop of super glue on it to hold it tight.  He would then
pour his explosive powder in the bomb.  To pack it tightly, he would take a
large wad of tissue paper and, after filling the pipe to the very top, pack the
powder down, by using the paper as a ramrod tip, and pushing it with a pencil
or other wide ended object, until it would not move any further.  Finally, he
would screw the other pipe cap on, and glue it. The tissue paper would help
prevent some of the powder from being caught in the threads of the pipe or pipe
cap from being crushed and subject to friction, which might ignite the powder,
causing an explosion during manufacture. An assembled bomb is shown in fig. 2.











     _________           _______________          __________
     |       |     ^^^^^^               ^^^^^^    |        |
     | |vvvvv|    |_________________________|     |vvvvvv| |
     | |                                                 | |
     | |                                                 | |
     | |                                                 | |
     | |                                                 | |
     | |           ___________________________           | |
     | |          |                           |          | |
     | |^^^^^|     vvvvvv_______________vvvvvv    |^^^^^^| |
     |_______|                                    |________|

     fig 1. Threaded pipe and endcaps.





          ________                                ________
          | _____|________________________________|_____ |
          | |__________________________________________| |
          | |: : : : |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -| |
          | | tissue | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - |_|
          | | : : :  |- - - low order explosive - - ----------------------
          | | paper  | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - |-|    fuse
          | |: : : : |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -| |
          | |________|_________________________________| |
          | |__________________________________________| |
          |______|                                |______|

          endcap                pipe               endcap
                                                   w/ hole

     fig. 2  Assembled pipe bomb.



     This is one possible design that a mad bomber would use.  If, however,
he did not have access to threaded pipe with endcaps, he could always use a
piece of copper or aluminum pipe, since it is easily bent into a suitable
position.  A major problem with copper piping, however, is bending and folding
it without tearing it; if too much force is used when folding and bending copper
pipe, it will split along the fold.  The safest method for making a pipe bomb
out of copper or aluminum pipe is similar to the method with pipe and endcaps.
First, one flattens one end of a copper or aluminum pipe carefully, making sure
not to tear or rip the piping.  Then, the flat end of the pipe should be folded
over at least once, if this does not rip the pipe.  A fuse hole should be
drilled in the pipe near the now closed end, 
and the fuse should be inserted.
Next, the bomb-builder would fill the bomb with a low order explosive, and pack
it with a large wad of tissue paper.  He would then flatten and fold the other
end of the pipe with a pair of pliers.  If he was not too dumb, he would do this
slowly, since the process of folding and bending metal gives off heat, which
could set off the explosive.  A diagram is presented below:

                                                     ________
     _______________________________________________/       |
     |                                                      |
     |                                                  o   |
     |______________________________________________        |
                                                    \_______|

     fig. 1  pipe with one end flattened and fuse hole drilled (top view)













                                                  ______
     ____________________________________________/  |  |
     |                                              |  |
     |                                            o |  |
     |___________________________________________   |  |
                                                 \__|__|

     fig. 2  pipe with one end flattened and folded up (top view)

                              ____________ fuse hole
                              |
                              v
     _________________________________________________
     |                             \ |____ |
     |                              \____| |
     |                               ______|
     |                              /
     |_____________________________/__________________

     fig. 3  pipe with flattened and folded end (side view)

                                                _________________ fuse
                                               /
                                               |
      ________   ______________________________|___   _______
      |  ____|  /     |- - - - - - - - - - -| - -  \  |___  |
      |  |_____/tissue| - - - - - - - - - - - -|- - \_____| |
      |________ paper |- - -  low order explosive -  _______|
            \         | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - /
             \_____________________________________/



     fig. 4  completed bomb, showing tissue paper packing and explosive
                (side view)







      A CO2 cartridge from a B.B gun is another excellent container for
a low-order explosive.  It has one minor disadvantage: it is time consuming
to fill.  But this can be rectified by widening the opening of the cartridge
with a pointed tool.  Then, all that would have to be done is to fill the
CO2 cartridge with any low-order explosive, or any of the fast burning fuel-
oxodizer mixtures, and insert a fuse.  These devices are commonly called
"crater makers".

     A CO2 cartridge also works well as a container for a thermit incendiary
device, but it must be modified. The opening in the end must be widened, so
that the ignition mixture, such as powdered magnesium, does not explode. The
fuse wil
l ignite the powdered magnesium, which, in turn, would ignite the
thermit.
     The previously mentioned designs for explosive devices are fine for
low-order explosives, but are unsuitable for high-order explosives, since the
latter requires a shockwave to be detonated. A design employing a smaller
low-order explosive device inside a larger device containing a high-order
explosive would probably be used. It would look something like:

















                                         _______________________ fuse
                                         |
                                         |
                                         |
      _________                          |           _________
      |   ____|__________________________|___________|____   |
      |   | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *|* * * * * * *  |   |
      |   |  * * * * * *  high explosive | * * * * * * * |   |
      |   | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *|* * * * * * *  |   |
      |   |  *  ______    _______________|_    ______  * |   |
      |   | * * |  __|   /   - - - - - - | \   |__  | *  |   |
      |   |  *  |  |____/   low explosive - \____|  |  * |   |
      |   | * * |_______  - - - - - - - - -  _______| *  |   |
      |   |  * * * * *  \  - - - - - - - -  /  * * * * * |   |
      |   | * * * * * *  \_________________/  * * * * *  |   |
      |   |  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |   |
      |   | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  |   |
      |   |  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |   |
      |   |______________________________________________|   |
      |_______|                                      |_______|



     If the large high explosive container is small, such as a CO2 cartridge,
then a segment of a hollow radio antenna can be made into a low-order pipe bomb, which can be fitted with a fuse, and inserted into the CO2 cartridge.

4.43     GLASS CONTAINERS



     Glass containers can be suitable for low-order explosives, but there
are problems with them.  First, a glass container can be bro
ken relatively easily compared to metal or plastic containers.  Secondly, in the not-too-unlikely event of an "accident", the person making the device would probably be seriously injured, even if the device was small.  A bomb made out of a sample perfume bottle-sized container exploded in the hands of one boy, and he still has pieces of glass in his hand.  He is also missing the final segment of his ring finger, which was cut off by a sharp piece of flying glass...

     Nonetheless, glass containers such as perfume bottles can be used by
a demented individual, since such a device would not be detected by metal
detectors in an airport or other public place.  All that need be done is fill
the container, and drill a hole in the plastic cap that the fuse fits tightly
in, and screw the cap-fuse assembly on.



                    ________________________  fuse
                    |
                    |
                    |
               _____|_____
               | ___|___ |
               | >  |  < |  drill hole in cap, and insert fuse;
               | >  |  < |  be sure fuse will not come out of cap
               | >  |  < |
               |    |    |
               |         |
               |         |
               |         |  screw cap on bottle
               |         |
               |         |
               V         V









                 _________
                <         >
                <         >
                <         >
                  /     \
                 /       \
                /         \
               |           |  fill bottle with low-order explosive
               |           |
               |           |
               |           |
               |           |
               |___________|



     Large explosive devices made from glass containers are not practicle,
since glass is not an exceptionally strong container.  Much of the explosive
that is used to fill the container is wasted if the container is much larger
than a 16 oz. soda bottle.  Also, glass containers ar
e usually unsuitable for
high explosive devices, since a glass container would probably not withstand
the explosion of the initiator; it would shatter before the high explosive was
able to detonate.





4.44     PLASTIC CONTAINERS



     Plastic containers are perhaps the best containers for explosives, since
they can be any size or shape, and are not fragile like glass. Plastic piping
can be bought at hardware or plumbing stores, and a device much like the ones
used for metal containers can be made. The high-order version works well with
plastic piping. If the entire device is made out of plastic, it is not
detectable by metal detectors. Plastic containers can usually be shaped by
heating the container, and bending it at the appropriate place. They can be
glued closed with epoxy or other cement for plastics. Epoxy alone can be used
as an endcap, if a wad of tissue paper is placed in the piping. Epoxy with a
drying agent works best in this type of device.

               ||               ||
               ||               ||
               ||\_____________/||
               ||               ||
               ||     epoxy     ||
               ||_______________||
               ||               ||
               ||    tissue     ||
               ||     paper     ||
               ||_______________||
               ||***************||
               ||***************||
               ||***************||
               ||***************||
               ||** explosive **||
               ||***************||
               ||***********-----------------------  fuse
               ||***************||
               ||ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ||
               ||               ||
               ||    tissue     ||
               ||     paper     ||
               ||_______________||
               ||               ||
               ||     epoxy     ||
               || _____________ ||
               ||/             \||
               ||               ||
               ||               ||



     One end must be made first, and be allowed to dry completely before the
device can be filled with powder and fused.  Then, with another piece of tissue
paper, pack the powder tightly, and cover it with plenty of epoxy.  PVC pipe
works well for this type of device, but it cannot be used if the pipe had an
inside diameter greater than 3/4 of an inch.  Other plastic puttys can be used
int this type of device, but epoxy with a drying agent works best.







4.5     ADVANCED USES FOR EXPLOSIVES



     The techniques presented here are those that could be used by a person
who had some degree of knowledge of the use of explosives.  Some of this
information comes from demolitions books, or from military handbooks.  Advanced
uses for explosives usually involved shaped charges, or utilize a minimum amount
of explosive to do a maximum amount of damage.  They almost always involve high-
order explosives.



4.51     SHAPED CHARGES



     A shaped charge is an explosive device that, upon detonation, directs
the explosive force of 
detonation at a small target area. This process can be
used to breach the strongest armor, since forces of literally millions of pounds
of pressure per square inch can be generated. Shaped charges employ high-order
explosives, and usually electric ignition systems. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL
EXPLOSIVES ARE DANGEROUS, AND SHOULD NEVER BE MADE OR USED!!









               An example of a shaped charge is shown below.



                  + wire ________           _______ - wire
                                 |         |
                                 |         |
                                 |         |
 _                      _________|_________|____________
 ^                     | ________|_________|__________ |
 |                     | |       |         |         | |
 |                     | |       \ igniter /         | |
 |                     | |        \_______/          | |
 |                     | |     priming charge        | |
 |                     | |   (mercury fulminate)     | |
 |                     | |             ^             | |
 |                     | |            / \            | |
 |                     | |           /   \           | |
 |                     | |          /     \          | |
 |                     | |         /       \         | |
 |                     | |        /         \        | |
 |                     | |       /           \       | |
                       | |      /             \      | |
 8 inches high         | |     /               \     | |
                       | |    /       high      \    | |
 |                     | |   /      explosive    \   | |
 |                     | |  /        charge       \  | |
 |                     | | /                       \ | |
 |                     | |/                         \| |
 |                     | |             ^             | |
 |                     | |            / \            | |
 |                     | |           /   \           | |
 |                     | |          /     \          | |
 |                     | |         /       \         | |
 |                     | |        /         \        | |
 |                     | |       /           \       | |
 |                     | |      /             \      | |
 |                     | |     /               \     | |
 |                     | |    /                 \    | | ------- 1/2 inch
 |                     | |   /                   \   | |         thick steel
 |                     | |  /                     \  | |         pipe
 |                     | | /                       \ | |
 |                     | |/                         \| |
 |      hole for       | |                           | |     hole for
 |      screw          | |                           | |      screw
 |                     | |                           | |
 V_______   ___________| |                           | |___________  ________
 |______|   |____________|                           |_____________| |______|

                         |<------- 8 inches -------->|

     If 
a device such as this is screwed to a safe, for example, it would
direct most of the explosive force at a point about 1 inch away from the opening
of the pipe. The basis for shaped charges is a cone-shaped opening in the
explosive material.  This cone should have an angle of 45 degrees.  A device
such as this one could also be attached to a metal surface with a powerful
electromagnet.



















4.52     TUBE EXPLOSIVES



     A variation on shaped charges, tube explosives can be used in ways that
shaped charges cannot. If a piece of 1/2 inch plastic tubing was filled with
a sensitive high explosive like R.D.X., and prepared as the plastic explosive
container in section 4.44, a different sort of shaped charge could be produced;
a charge that directs explosive force in a circular manner. This type of
explosive could be wrapped around a column, or a doorknob, or a telephone pole.
The explosion would be directed in and out, and most likely destroy whatever
it was wrapped around. In an unbent state, a tube explosi
ve would look like
this:





               ||      ||
               ||      ||
               ||\____/||
               || epoxy||
               ||______||
               ||      ||
               ||tissue||
               || paper||
               ||______||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               || RDX  ||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               || ____ ||
               || | s| ||
               || | q| ||
               || | u| ||
               || | i| ||
               || | b| ||
               || | b| ||
               || |__| ||
               ||__||__||
               ||tissue||
               || paper||
               ||__||__||
               ||  ||  ||
               || epoxy||
               ||  ||  ||
               || _||_ ||
               ||/ || \||
               ||  ||  ||
               ||  ||  ||
                   ||_______ + wire ______________
                   |
                   |________ - wire ______________











     When an assassin or terrorist wishes to use a tube bomb, he must wrap
it around whatever thing he wishes to destroy, and epoxy the ends of the tube
bomb together.  After it dries, he/she can connect wires to the squib wires,
and detonate the bomb, with any method of electric detonation.





4.53     ATOMIZED PARTICLE EXPLOSIONS



     If a highly flammable substance is atomized, or, divided into very small
particles, and large amounts of it is burned in a confined area, an explosion
similar to that occurring in the cylinder of an automobile is produced. The
tiny droplets of gasoline burn in the air, and the hot gasses expand rapidly,
pushing the cylinder up. Similarly, if a gallon of gasoline was atomized and
ignited in a building, it is very possible that the expanding gassed would push
the walls of the building down. This phenomenon is called an atomized particle
explosion. If a person can effectively atomize a large amount of a highly
flammable substance and ignite it, he could bring down a large building, bridge,
or other structure. Atomizing a large amount of gasoline, for example, can be
extremely difficult, unless one has the aid of a high explosive. If a gallon
jug of gasoline was placed directly over a high explosive charge, and the charge
was detonated, the gasoline would instantly be atomized and ignited. If this
occurred in a building, for example, an atomized particle explosion would surely
occur. Only a small amount of high explosive would be necessary to accomplish
this feat, about 1/2 a pound of T.N.T. or 1/4 a pound of R.D.X.  Also, instead
of gasoline, powdered aluminum could be used. It is necessary that a high
explosive be used to atomize a flammable material, since a low-order explosion
does not occur quickly enough to atomize or ignite the flammable material.







4.54     LIGHTBULB BOMBS





     An automatic reaction to walking into a dark room is to turn on the
light.  This can be fatal, if a lightbulb bomb has been placed in the overhead
light socket.  A lightbulb bomb is surprisingly easy to make.  It also comes
with its own initiator and electric ignition system.  On some lightbulbs, the
lightbulb glass can be removed from the metal base by heating the base of a
lightbulb in a gas flame, such as that of a blowtorch or gas stove.  This must
be done carefully, since the inside of a lightbulb is a vacuum.  When the glue
gets hot enough
, the glass bulb can be pulled off the metal base.  On other
bulbs, it is necessary to heat the glass directly with a blowtorch or
oxy-acetylene torch.  When the bulb is red hot, a hole must be carefully poked
in the bulb, remembering the vacuum state inside the bulb.  In either case,
once the bulb and/or base has cooled down to room temperature or lower, the
bulb can be filled with an explosive material, such as black powder.  If the
glass was removed from the metal base, it must be glued back on to the base
with epoxy.  If a hole was put in the bulb, a piece of duct tape is sufficient
to hold the explosive in the in the bulb.  Then, after making sure that the
socket has no power by checking with a working lightbulb, all that need be
done is to screw the lightbulb bomb into the socket.  Such a device has been
used by terrorists or assassins with much success, since nobody can search the
room for a bomb without first turning on the light.

















4.55     BOOK BOMBS



     Concealing a bomb can be extremely 
difficult in a day and age where
perpetrators of violence run wild.  Bags and briefcases are often searched
by authorities whenever one enters a place where an individual might intend
to set off a bomb.  One approach to disguising a bomb is to build what is
called a book bomb; an explosive device that is entirely contained inside of
a book.  Usually, a relatively large book is required, and the book must be of
the hardback variety to hide any protrusions of a bomb.  Dictionaries, law
books, large textbooks, and other such books work well.  When an individual
makes a bookbomb, he/she must choose a type of book that is appropriate for
the place where the book bomb will be placed.  The actual construction of a
book bomb can be done by anyone who possesses an electric drill and a coping
saw.  First, all of the pages of the book must be glued together.  By pouring
an entire container of water-soluble glue into a large bucket, and filling
the bucket with boiling water, a glue-water solution can be made that will
ho
ld all of the book's pages together tightly.  After the glue-water solution
has cooled to a bearable temperature, and the solution has been stirred well,
the pages of the book must be immersed in the glue-water solution, and each
page must be thoroughly soaked.  It is extremely important that the covers of
the book do not get stuck to the pages of the book while the pages are drying.
Suspending the book by both covers and clamping the pages together in a vice
works best.  When the pages dry, after about three days to a week, a hole must
be drilled into the now rigid pages, and they should drill out much like wood.
Then, by inserting the coping saw blade through the pages and sawing out a
rectangle from the middle of the book, the individual will be left with a shell
of the book's pages.  The pages, when drilled out, should look like this:



               ________________________
               | ____________________ |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |__________________| |
               |______________________|

                 (book covers omitted)



     This rectangle must be securely glued to the back cover of the book.
After building his/her bomb, which usually is of the timer or radio controlled
variety, the bomber places it inside the book.  The bomb itself, and whatever
timer or detonator is used, should be packed in foam to prevent it from rolling
or shifting about.  Finally, after the timer is set, or the radio control has
been turned on, the front cover is glued closed, and the bomb is taken to its
destination.



















4.56     PHONE BOMBS



     The phone bomb is an explosive device that has been used in the past
to kill or injure a specific individual.  The basic idea is simple: when the
person answers the phone, the bomb explodes.  If a small but powerful high
explosive device with a squib was placed in the phone receiver, when the
current flowed through the receiver, the squib would explode, detonating the
high explosive in the person's hand.  Nasty.  All that has to be done is
acquire a squib, and tape the receiver switch down. Unscrew the mouthpiece
cover, and remove the speaker, and connect the squib's leads where it was.
Place a high explosive putty, such as C-1 (see section 3.31) in the receiver,
and screw the cover on, making sure that the squib is surrounded by the C-1.
Hang the phone up, and leave the tape in place.  When the individual to whom
the phone belongs attempts to answer the phone, he will notice the tape, and
remove it.  This will allow current to flow through the squib.  Note that
the device will not explode by merely making a phone call; the owner of the
phone 
must lift up the receiver, and remove the tape.  It is highly probable
that the phone will be by his/her ear when the device explodes...



5.0     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR PROJECTILE WEAPONS



     Explosive and/or poisoned ammunition is an important part of a social
deviant's arsenal.  Such ammunition gives the user a distinct advantage over
individual who use normal ammunition, since a grazing hit is good enough to
kill.  Special ammunition can be made for many types of weapons, from crossbows
to shotguns.



5.1     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR PRIMITIVE WEAPONS



     For the purposes of this publication, we will call any weapon primitive
that does not employ burning gunpowder to propel a projectile forward.  This
means blowguns, bows and crossbows, and wristrockets.





5.11     BOW AND CROSSBOW AMMUNITION



     Bows and crossbows both fire arrows or bolts as ammunition.  It is
extremely simple to poison an arrow or bolt, but it is a more difficult matter
to produce explosive arrows or bolts.  If, however, one can acquire aluminum
piping that is the same diameter of an arrow or crossbow bolt, the entire
segment of piping can be converted into an explosive device that detonates
upon impact, or with a fuse.  All that need be done is find an aluminum tube
of the right length and diameter, and plug the back end with tissue paper and
epoxy.  Fill the tube with any type of low-order explosive or sensitive high-
order explosive up to about 1/2 an inch from the top.  Cut a slot in the piece
of tubing, and carefully squeeze the top of the tube into a round point, making
sure to leave a small hole.  Place a no. 11 percussion cap over the hole, and
secure it with super glue.  Finally, wrap the end of the device with electrical
or duct tape, and make fins out of tape.  Or, fins can be bought at a sporting
goods store, and glued to the shaft.  The finished product should look like:

















               _____
               |   | ---------- no. 11 percussion cap
               ||*||
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*| ----------- aluminum piping
                |*|
                |e|
                |x|
                |p|
                |l|
                |o|
                |s|
                |i|
                |v|
                |e|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
               /|_|\
              / |t| \
              | |p| |
              | |_| |
              | |e| | -------- fins
              | |p| |
              | |y| |
              |_|_|_|
                |_|



     tp: tissue paper

     epy: epoxy

     When the arrow or bolt strikes a hard surface, the percussion cap
explodes, igniting or detonating the explosive.



5.12     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR BLOWGUNS



     The blowgun is an interesting weapon which has several advantages.
A blowgun can be extremely accurate, concealable, and deliver an explosive
or poisoned project
ile.  The manufacture of an explosive dart or projectile
is not difficult.  Perhaps the most simple design for such involves the use
of a pill capsule, such as the kind that are taken for headaches or allergies.
Such a capsule could easily be opened, and the medicine removed.  Next, the
capsule would be re-filled with an impact-sensitive explosive.  An additional
high explosive charge could be placed behind the impact-sensitive explosive,
if one of the larger capsules were used.  Finally, the explosive capsule would
be reglued back together, and a tassel or cotton would be glued to the end
containing the high explosive, to insure that the impact-detonating explosive
struck the target first.  Such a device would probably be about 3/4 of an inch
long, not including the tassel or cotton, and look something like this:









                 ____________________
                /mercury |           \-----------------------
               (fulminate|   R.D.X.   )---------------------- } tassels
                \________|___________/-----------------------







5.13     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR WRISTROCKETS AND SLINGSHOTS



     A modern wristrocket is a formidable weapon.  It can throw a shooter
marble about 500 ft. with reasonable accuracy.  Inside of 200 ft., it could well
be lethal to a man or animal, if it struck in a vital area.  Because of the
relatively large sized projectile that can be used in a wristrocket, the
wristrocket can be adapted to throw relatively powerful explosive projectiles.
A small segment of aluminum pipe could be made into an impact-detonating device
by filling it with an impact-sensitive explosive material.  Also, such a pipe
could be filled with a low-order explosive, and fitted with a fuse, which would
be lit before the device was shot.  One would have to make sure that the fuse
was of sufficient length to insure that the device did not explode before it
reached its intended target.  Finally, .22 caliber caps, such as the kind that
are used in .22 caliber blank guns, make excellent exploding a
mmunition for
wristrockets, but they must be used at a relatively close range, because of
their light weight.







5.2     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR FIREARMS



     When special ammunition is used in combination with the power and
rapidity of modern firearms, it becomes very easy to take on a small army with
a single weapon. It is possible to buy explosive ammunition, but that can be
difficult to do. Such ammunition can also be manufactured in the home.  There
is, however, a risk involved with modifying any ammunition.  If the ammunition
is modified incorrectly, in such a way that it makes the bullet even the
slightest bit wider, an explosion in the barrel of the weapon will occur.  For
this reason, NOBODY SHOULD EVER ATTEMPT TO MANUFACTURE SUCH AMMUNITION.



5.21     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR HANDGUNS



     If an individual wished to produce explosive ammunition for his/her
handgun, he/she could do it, provided that the person had an impact-sensitive
explosive and a few simple tools.  One would first purchase all 
lead bullets,
and then make or acquire an impact-detonating explosive.  By drilling a hole
in a lead bullet with a drill, a space could be created for the placement of
an explosive.  After filling the hole with an explosive, it would be sealed
in the bullet with a drop of hot wax from a candle.  A diagram of a completed
exploding bullet is shown below.

                      _o_ ------------ drop of wax
                     /|*|\
                    | |*|-|----------- impact-sensitive explosive
                    | |_| |
                    |_____|

     This hollow space design also works for putting poison in bullets.









5.22     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR SHOTGUNS

     Because of their large bore and high power, it is possible to create
some extremely powerful special ammunition for use in shotguns. If a shotgun
shell is opened at the top, and the shot removed, the shell can be re-closed.
Then, if one can find a very smooth, lightweight wooden dowel that is close to
the bore width of the shotgun, a person 
can make several types of shotgun-
launched weapons. Insert the dowel in the barrel of the shotgun with the
shell without the shot in the firing chamber. Mark the dowel about six inches
away from the end of the barrel, and remove it from the barrel. Next, decide
what type of explosive or incendiary device is to be used. This device can be a
chemical fire bottle (sect. 3.43), a pipe bomb (sect 4.42), or a thermit bomb
(sect 3.41 and 4.42). After the device is made, it must be securely attached to
the dowel. When this is done, place the dowel back in the shotgun. The bomb or
incendiary device should be on the end of the dowel. Make sure that the device
has a long enough fuse, light the fuse, and fire the shotgun. If the projectile
is not too heavy, ranges of up to 300 ft are possible. A diagram of a shotgun
projectile is shown below:







               ____
               ||  |
               ||  |
               ||  | ----- bomb, securely taped to dowel
               ||  |
               ||__|
               || |
               || | ------- fuse
               || |
               ||
               ||
               ||
               || --------- dowel
               ||
               ||
               ||
               ||
               ||
               || --------- insert this end into shotgun







5.3     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR COMPRESSED AIR/GAS WEAPONS



     This section deals with the manufacture of special ammunition for
compressed air or compressed gas weapons, such as pump B.B guns, CO2 B.B guns,
and .22 cal pellet guns.  These weapons, although usually thought of as kids
toys, can be made into rather dangerous weapons.



























5.31     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR B.B GUNS



     A B.B gun, for this manuscript, will be considered any type of rifle or
pistol that uses compressed air or CO2 gas to fire a projectile with a caliber
of .177, either B.B, or lead pellet. Such guns can have almost as high a muzzle
velocity as a bullet-firing rifle. Because of the speed at which a .177 caliber
projectile flies, 
an impact detonating projectile can easily be made that has a
caliber of .177. Most ammunition for guns of greater than .22 caliber use
primers to ignite the powder in the bullet. These primers can be bought at gun
stores, since many people like to reload their own bullets. Such primers
detonate when struck by the firing pin of a gun. They will also detonate if
they are thrown at a hard surface at a great speed. Usually, they will also fit
in the barrel of a .177 caliber gun. If they are inserted flat end first, they
will detonate when the gun is fired at a hard surface. If such a primer is
attached to a piece of thin metal tubing, such as that used in an antenna, the
tube can be filled with an explosive, be sealed, and fired from a B.B gun. A
diagram of such a projectile appears below:



             _____ primers _______
            |                    |
            |                    |
            |                    |
            V                    V
          ______                ______
          | ________________________ |-------------------
          | ****** explosive ******* |------------------- } tassel or
          | ________________________ |-------------------   cotton
          |_____                _____|-------------------
                    ^
                    |
                    |
                    |_______ antenna tubing

     The front primer is attached to the tubing with a drop of super glue.
The tubing is then filled with an explosive, and the rear primer is glued on.
Finally, a tassel, or a small piece of cotton is glued to the rear primer, to
insure that the projectile strikes on the front primer.  The entire projectile
should be about 3/4 of an inch long.





5.32     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR .22 CALIBER PELLET GUNS



     A .22 caliber pellet gun usually is equivalent to a .22 cal rifle, at
close ranges.  Because of this, relatively large explosive projectiles can be
adapted for use with .22 caliber air rifles.  A design similar to that used in
section 5.12 is suitable, sinc
e some capsules are about .22 caliber or smaller.
Or, a design similar to that in section 5.31 could be used, only one would have
to purchase black powder percussion caps, instead of ammunition primers, since
there are percussion caps that are about .22 caliber.  A #11 cap is too small,
but anything larger will do nicely.























6.0     ROCKETS AND CANNONS



     Rockets and cannon are generally thought of as heavy artillery.
Perpetrators of violence do not usually employ such devices, because they are
difficult or impossible to acquire.  They are not, however, impossible to make.
Any individual who can make or buy black powder or pyrodex can make such things.
A terrorist with a cannon or large rocket is, indeed, something to fear.





6.1     ROCKETS



     Rockets were first developed by the Chinese several hundred years
before Christ.  They were used for entertainment, in the form of fireworks.
They were not usually used for military purposes because they were inaccurate,
expensive, and unpredictable. 
 In modern times, however, rockets are used
constantly by the military, since they are cheap, reliable, and have no recoil.
Perpetrators of violence, fortunately, cannot obtain military rockets, but they
can make or buy rocket engines.  Model rocketry is a popular hobby of the space
age, and to launch a rocket, an engine is required.  Estes, a subsidiary of
Damon, is the leading manufacturer of model rockets and rocket engines.  Their
most powerful engine, the "D" engine, can develop almost 12 lbs. of thrust;
enough to send a relatively large explosive charge a significant distance.
Other companies, such as Centuri, produce even larger rocket engines, which
develop up to 30 lbs. of thrust.  These model rocket engines are quite reliable,
and are designed to be fired electrically.  Most model rocket engines have
three basic sections.  The diagram below will help explain them.



     __________________________________________________________
     |_________________________________________________________| -- cardboard
      \  clay  | - - - - - - - - - - | * * * | . . . .|c|           casing
       \_______|  - - - - - - - - -  | * * * |  . . . |l|
        ______ _ - - - thrust - - -  | smoke | eject  |a|
       / clay  |  - - - - - - - - -  | * * * | . . . .|y|
      /________|_____________________|_______|________|_|_______
     |_________________________________________________________| -- cardboard                                                                                                              casing



     The clay nozzle is where the igniter is inserted.  When the area labeled
"thrust" is ignited, the "thrust" material, usually a large single grain of a
propellant such as black powder or pyrodex, burns, forcing large volumes of hot,
rapidly expanding gasses out the narrow nozzle, pushing the rocket forward.
After the material has been consumed, the smoke section of the engine is
ignited.  It is usually a slow-burning material, similar to black powder that
has had various compounds added to it to produce visible smoke, usually black,
white, or yellow in color.
  This section exists so that the rocket will be seen
when it reaches its maximum altitude, or apogee.  When it is burned up, it
ignites the ejection charge, labeled "eject".  The ejection charge is finely
powdered black powder.  It burns very rapidly, exploding, in effect.  The
explosion of the ejection charge pushes out the parachute of the model rocket.
It could also be used to ignite the fuse of a bomb...





















     Rocket engines have their own peculiar labeling system.  Typical engine
labels are: 1/4A-2T, 1/2A-3T, A8-3, B6-4, C6-7, and D12-5.  The letter is an
indicator of the power of an engine.  "B" engines are twice as powerful as "A"
engines, and "C" engines are twice as powerful as "B" engines, and so on.  The
number following the letter is the approximate thrust of the engine, in pounds.
the final number and letter is the time delay, from the time that the thrust
period of engine burn ends until the ejection charge fires; "3T" indicates a
3 second delay.



NOTE: an extremely effective rocket 
propellant can be made by mixing aluminum
      dust with ammonium perchlorate and a very small amount of iron oxide.
      The mixture is bound together by an epoxy.





6.11     BASIC ROCKET BOMB



     A rocket bomb is simply what the name implies: a bomb that is delivered
to its target by means of a rocket.  Most people who would make such a device
would use a model rocket engine to power the device.  By cutting fins from balsa
wood and gluing them to a large rocket engine, such as the Estes "C" engine, a
basic rocket could be constructed.  Then, by attaching a "crater maker", or CO2
cartridge bomb to the rocket, a bomb would be added.  To insure that the fuse of
the "crater maker" (see sect. 4.42) ignited, the clay over the ejection charge
of the engine should be scraped off with a plastic tool.  The fuse of the bomb
should be touching the ejection charge, as shown below.



          ____________ rocket engine
          |                         _________ crater maker
          |                         |
          |                         |
          V                         |
     _______________________________V_
     |_______________________________|  ______________________
      \   | - - - - - -|***|::::|      /# # # # # # # # # # # \
       \__| - - - - - -|***|::::|  ___/  # # # # # # # # # # # \
        __  - - - - - -|***|::::|---fuse--- # #  explosive  # # )
       /  | - - - - - -|***|::::|  ___   # # # # # # # # # # # /
      /___|____________|___|____|____ \_______________________/
     |_______________________________|



     thrust> - - - - - -
     smoke>  ***
     ejection charge> ::::



     Duct tape is the best way to attach the crater maker to the rocket
engine.  Note in the diagram the absence of the clay over the ejection charge
Many different types of explosive payloads can be attached to the rocket, such
as a high explosive, an incendiary device, or a chemical fire bottle.





   Either four or three fins must be glued to the rocket engine to insure that
the rocket flies straight. The fins should look like the following diagram:









          |\
          | \
          |  \
          |   \  <--------- glue this to rocket engine
          |    \
          |     \
          |      \
          |       |
          |       |
          |       |
  leading edge    |
   ------->       |
          |       |
          |       |  trailing edge
          |       |    <--------
          |       |
          |       |
          |       |
          |       |
           \_____/



     The leading edge and trailing edge should be sanded with sandpaper so
that they are rounded.  This will help make the rocket fly straight.  A two
inch long section of a plastic straw can be attached to the rocket to launch it
from.  A clothes hanger can be cut and made into a launch rod.  The segment of
a plastic straw should be glued to the rocket engine adjacent to one of the fins
of the rocket.  A front view of a completed rocket bomb is shown below.





                              |
           fin                | <------ fin
            |                 |           |
            |                 |           |
            |               __|__         |
            V              /     \        V
           ---------------|       |---------------
                           \_____/
                              |o <----------- segment of plastic straw
                              |
                              |
                              | <------ fin
                              |
                              |

     By cutting a coat hanger at the indicated arrows, and bending it, a
launch rod can be made.  After a fuse is inserted in the engine, the rocket is
simply slid down the launch rod, which is put through the segment of plastic
straw. The rocket should slide easily along a coathanger, such as the one
illustated on the following page:



























                        ____
                       /    \
                      |      |
          cut here _____     |
                       |     |
                       |     |
                       |    / \
                       V   /   \
         _________________/     \________________
        /                                        \
       /                                          \
      /____________________________________________\
                                   ^
                                   |
                                   |
                    and here ______|



     Bend wire to this shape:



                         _______ insert into straw
                         |
                         |
                         |
                         V
          ____________________________________________
          \
           \
            \
             \
              \  <--------- bend here to adjust flight angle
               |
               |
               |
               |
               |
               | <---------- put this end in ground
               |





6.12     LONG RANGE ROCKET BOMB



     Long range rockets 
can be made by using multi-stage rockets.  Model
rocket engines with an "0" for a time delay are designed for use in multi-
stage rockets.  An engine such as the D12-0 is an excellent example of such an
engine.  Immediately after the thrust period is over, the ejection charge
explodes.  If another engine is placed directly against the back of an "0"
engine, the explosion of the ejection charge will send hot gasses and burning
particles into the nozzle of the engine above it, and ignite the thrust section.
 This will push the used "0" engine off of the rocket, causing an overall loss of
weight.  The main advantage of a multi-stage rocket is that it loses weight as
travels, and it gains velocity.  A multi-stage rocket must be designed somewhat
differently than a single stage rocket, since, in order for a rocket to fly
straight, its center of gravity must be ahead of its center of drag.  This is
accomplished by adding weight to the front of the rocket, or by moving the
center of drag back by putting fins on the 
rocket that are well behind the
rocket.  A diagram of a multi-stage rocket appears on the following page:











                    ___
                   /   \
                   |   |
                   | C |
                   | M | ------ CM: Crater Maker
                   |   |
                   |   |
                   |___|
                   |   |
                   |   |
                   |   |
                   | C | ------ C6-5 rocket engine
                  /| 6 |\
                 / | | | \
                /  | 5 |  \
               /   |___|   \ ---- fin
              /   /|   |\   \
             /   / |   | \   \
            /   /  |   |  \   \
           /   /   | C |   \   \
          |   /    | 6 |    \   |
          |  /     | | |     \  |
          | /      | 0 |      \ |
          |/       |___|       \|
          |       /     \       |
          \______/   ^   \______/ ------- fin
                     |
                     |
                     |
                     |
          
           C6-0 rocket engine



     The fuse is put in the bottom engine.



     Two, three, or even four stages can be added to a rocket bomb to give it
a longer range.  It is important, however, that for each additional stage, the
fin area gets larger.





6.13     MULTIPLE WARHEAD ROCKET BOMBS



     "M.R.V." is an acronym for Multiple Reentry Vehicle.  The concept is
simple: put more than one explosive warhead on a single missile.  This can be
done without too much difficulty by anyone who knows how to make crater-makers
and can buy rocket engines.  By attaching crater makers with long fuses to a
rocket, it is possible that a single rocket could deliver several explosive
devices to a target. Such a rocket might look like the diagram on the
following page:

              ___
             /   \
             |   |
             | C |
             | M |
             |___|
          ___|   |___
          |  |   |  |
          |  | T |  |
         / \ | U | / \
        /   \| B |/   \
        |   || E ||   |
        | C ||   || C |
        | M ||   || M |
        |   ||___||   |
        \___/| E |\___/
             | N |
            /| G |\
           / | I | \
          /  | N |  \
         /   | E |   \
        /    |___|    \
       / fin/  |  \ fin\
      |    /   |   \    |
       \__/    |    \__/

               ^
               |____ fin



     The crater makers are attached to the tube of rolled paper with tape.
the paper tube is made by rolling and gluing a 4 inch by 8 inch piece of paper.The tube is glued to the engine, and is filled with gunpowder or black powder.Small holes are punched in it, and the fuses of the crater makers are inserted in these holes.  A crater maker is glued to the open end of the tube, so that its fuse is inside the tube.  A fuse is inserted in the engine, or in the bottom engine if the rocket bomb is multi stage, and the rocket is launched from the coathanger launcher, if a segment of a plastic straw has been attached to it.





6.2     CANNON



     The cannon is a
 piece of artillery that has been in use since the
11th century.  It is not unlike a musket, in that it is filled with powder,
loaded, and fired.  Cannons of this sort must also be cleaned after each shot,
otherwise, the projectile may jam in the barrel when it is fired, causing the
barrel to explode.  A sociopath could build a cannon without too much trouble,
if he/she had a little bit of money, and some patience.



6.21     BASIC PIPE CANNON



     A simple cannon can be made from a thick pipe by almost anyone.  The
only difficult part is finding a pipe that is extremely smooth on its interior.
This is absolutely necessary; otherwise, the projectile may jam.  Copper or
aluminum piping is usually smooth enough, but it must also be extremely thick to
withstand the pressure developed by the expanding hot gasses in a cannon.  If
one uses a projectile such as a CO2 cartridge, since such a projectile can be
made to explode, a pipe that is about 1.5 - 2 feet long is ideal.  Such a pipe
MUST have wall
s that are at least 1/3 to 1/2 an inch thick, and be very smooth
on the interior.  If possible, screw an endplug into the pipe.  Otherwise, the
pipe must be crimped and folded closed, without cracking or tearing the pipe.
A small hole is drilled in the back of the pipe near the crimp or endplug.
Then, all that need be done is fill the pipe with about two teaspoons of
grade blackpowder or pyrodex, insert a fuse, pack it lightly by ramming a wad
of tissue paper down the barrel, and drop in a CO2 cartridge.  Brace the cannon
securely against a strong structure, light the fuse, and run.  If the person is
lucky, he will not have overcharged the cannon, and he will not be hit by
pieces of exploding barrel.  Such a cannon would look like this:

             __________________ fuse hole
             |
             |
             V
      ________________________________________________________________
     | |______________________________________________________________|
     |endplug|powder|t.p.| CO2 cartridge
     | ______|______|____|____________________________________________
     |_|______________________________________________________________|



     An exploding projectile can be made for this type of cannon with a CO2
cartridge. It is relatively simple to do. Just make a crater maker, and
construct it such that the fuse projects about an inch from the end of the
cartridge. Then, wrap the fuse with duct tape, covering it entirely, except for
a small amount at the end. Put this in the pipe cannon without using a tissue
paper packing wad. When the cannon is fired, it will ignite the end of the fuse,
and shoot the CO2 cartridge. The explosive-filled cartridge will explode in
about three seconds, if all goes well. Such a projectile would look like this:



           ___
          /   \
          |   |
          | C |
          | M |
          |   |
          |   |
          |\ /|
          | | | ---- tape
          |_|_|
            |
            | ------ fuse























6.22     ROCKET FIRING CANNON



     A rocket firing cannon can be made exactly like a normal cannon; the
only difference is the ammunition. A rocket fired from a cannon will fly
further than a rocket alone, since the action of shooting it overcomes the
initial inertia. A rocket that is launched when it is moving will go further
than one that is launched when it is stationary. Such a rocket would resemble
a normal rocket bomb, except it would have no fins. It would look like this:



           ___
          /   \
          |   |
          | C |
          | M |
          |   |
          |   |
          |___|
          | E |
          | N |
          | G |
          | I |
          | N |
          | E |
          |___|



     the fuse on such a device would, obviously, be short, but it would not
be ignited until the rocket's ejection charge exploded.  Thus, the delay before the ejection charge, in effect, becomes the delay before the bomb explodes. Note that no fuse need be put in the rocket; the burning powder in the cannon will ignite it, and simultaneously push the rocket out of the cannon at a high velocity.





7.0     PYROTECHNICA ERRATA



     There are many other types of pyrotechnics that a perpetrator of
violence might employ. Smoke bombs can be purchased in magic stores, and large
military smoke bombs can be bought through adds in gun and military magazines.
Also, fireworks can also be used as weapons of terror. A large aerial display
rocket would cause many injuries if it were to be fired so that it landed on the ground near a crowd of people. Even the "harmless" pull-string fireworks, which consists of a sort of firecracker that explodes when the strings running
through it are pulled, could be placed inside a large charge of a sensitive
high explosive. Tear gas is another material that might well be useful
to the sociopath, and such a material could be instantly disseminated over
a large crowd by means of a rocket-bomb, with nasty effects.



7.1     SMOKE BOMBS



     One type of pyrotechnic device that might be employed by a terrorist in many way would be a smoke bomb.  Such a device could conceal the getaway route, or cause a diversion, or simply provide cover.  Such a device, were it to produce enough smoke that smelled bad enough, could force the evacuation of a building, for example.  Smoke bombs are not difficult to make.  Although the
military smoke bombs employ powdered white phosphorus or titanium compounds,
such materials are usually unavailable to even the most well-equipped terrorist. Instead, he/she would have to make the smoke bomb for themselves.

     Most homemade smoke bombs usually employ some type of base powder, such
as black powder or pyrodex, to support combustion.  The base material will burn well, and provide heat to cause the other materials in the device to burn, but not completely or cleanly.  Table sugar, mixed with sulfur and a base material, produces large amounts of smoke.  Sawdust, especially if it has a small amount of oil in it, and a base powder works well also.  Other excellent smoke ingredients are small pieces of rubber, finely ground plastics, and many chemical mixtures.  The material in road flares can be mixed with sugar and sulfur and a base powder produces much smoke.  Most of the fuel-oxodizer mixtures, if the ratio is not correct, produce much smoke when added to a base powder.  The list of possibilities goes on and on.  The trick to a successful smoke bomb also lies in the container used.  A plastic cylinder works well, and contributes to the smoke produced.  The hole in the smoke bomb where the fuse enters must be large enough to allow the material to burn without causing an explosion.  This is another plus for plastic containers, since they will melt and burn when the smoke material ignites, producing an opening large enough to prevent an explosion.



7.2     COLORED FLAMES

     Colored flames can often be used as a signaling device for terrorists.
by putting a ball of colored flame material in a rocket; the rocket, when the
ejection charge fires, will send out a burning colored ball.  The ma
terials that
produce the different colors of flames appear below.



COLOR               MATERIAL                        USED IN
ÄÄÄÄÄ               ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ                        ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
_______________________________________________________________________________
red                 strontium                      road flares,
                    salts                          red sparklers
                    (strontium nitrate)
_______________________________________________________________________________
green               barium salts                   green sparklers
                    (barium nitrate)
_______________________________________________________________________________
yellow              sodium salts                   gold sparklers
                    (sodium nitrate)
_______________________________________________________________________________
blue                powdered copper                blue sparklers,
                    old pennies
_______________________________________________________________________________
white               powdered magnesium             firestarters,
                    or aluminum                    aluminum foil
_______________________________________________________________________________
purple              potassium permanganate         purple fountains,
                                                   treating sewage
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ









7.3     TEAR GAS

     A terrorist who could make tear gas or some similar compound could use
it with ease against a large number of people.  Tear gas is fairly complicated
to make, however, and this prevents such individuals from being able to utilize
its great potential for harm.  One method for its preparation is shown below.

     EQUIPMENT
     _________

     1.  ring stands (2)
     2.  alcohol burner
     3.  erlenmeyer flask, 300 ml
     4.  clamps (2)
     5.  rubber stopper
     6.  glass tubing
     7.  clamp holder
     8.  condenser
 
    9.  rubber tubing
     10.  collecting flask
     11.  air trap
     12.  beaker, 300 ml



     MATERIALS
     _________

     10 gms  glycerine

     2 gms sodium bisulfate

     distilled water



1.)  In an open area, wearing a gas mask, mix 10 gms of glycerine with 2 gms
     of sodium bisulfate in the 300 ml erlenmeyer flask.

2.)  Light the alcohol burner, and gently heat the flask.

3.)  The mixture will begin to bubble and froth; these bubbles are tear gas.

4.)  When the mixture being heated ceases to froth and generate gas, or a brown
     residue becomes visible in the tube, the reaction is complete.  Remove the
     heat source, and dispose of the heated mixture, as it is corrosive.

5.)  The material that condenses in the condenser and drips into the collecting
     flask is tear gas.  It must be capped tightly, and stored in a safe place.



7.4     FIREWORKS



     While fireworks cannot really be used as an effective means of terror,
they do have some value as distractions or incendiaries.  
There are several
basic types of fireworks that can be made in the home, whether for fun, profit,
or nasty uses.



















7.41     FIRECRACKERS



     A simple firecracker can be made from cardboard tubing and epoxy.
The instructions are below:

     1) Cut a small piece of cardboard tubing from the tube you are using.
        "Small" means anything less than 4 times the diameter of the tube.

     2) Set the section of tubing down on a piece of wax paper, and fill
        it with epoxy and the drying agent to a height of 3/4 the diameter
        of the tubing.  Allow the epoxy to dry to maximum hardness, as
        specified on the package.

     3) When it is dry, put a small hole in the middle of the tube, and
        insert a desired length of fuse.

     4) Fill the tube with any type of flame-sensitive explosive.  Flash
        powder, pyrodex, black powder, potassium picrate, lead azide,
        nitrocellulose, or any of the fast burning fuel-oxodizer mixtures
        will do nicely.  Fill the tube almost to the top.

     5) Pack the explosive tightly in the tube with a wad of tissue paper
        and a pencil or other suitable ramrod.  Be sure to leave enough space
         for more epoxy.

     6) Fill the remainder of the tube with the epoxy and hardener, and allow
         it to dry.

     7) For those who wish to make spectacular firecrackers, always use
        flash powder, mixed with a small amount of other material for
        colors.  By crushing the material on a sparkler, and adding it
        to the flash powder, the explosion will be the same color as the
        sparkler.   By adding small chunks of sparkler material, the
        device will throw out colored burning sparks, of the same color
        as the sparkler.  By adding powdered iron, orange sparks will
        be produced.  White sparks can be produced from magnesium shavings,
        or from small, LIGHTLY crumpled balls of aluminum foil.

        Example:  Suppose I wish to make a firecracker that will explode
               with a red flash, and throw out white sparks.  First,
               I would take a road flare, and finely powder the material
               inside it.   Or, I could take a red sparkler, and finely
               powder it.  Then, I would mix a small amount of this
               material with the flash powder.  (NOTE: FLASH POWDER
               MAY REACT WITH SOME MATERIALS THAT IT IS MIXED WITH, AND
               EXPLODE SPONTANEOUSLY!)  I would mix it in a ratio of
               9 parts flash powder to 1 part of flare or sparkler
               material, and add about 15 small balls of aluminum foil
               I would store the material in a plastic bag overnight
               outside of the house, to make sure that the stuff doesn't
               react.  Then, in the morning, I would test a small amount
               of it, and if it was satisfactory, I would put it in the
               firecracker.

     8) If this type of firecracker is mounted on a rocket engine,
        professional to semi-professional displays can be produced.

















7.42     SKYROCKETS



     An impressive home made skyrocket can easily be made in the home from
model rocket engines.  Estes engines are recommended.

     1) Buy an Estes Model Rocket Engine of the desired size, remembering
        that the power doubles with each letter.  (See sect. 6.1 for details)

     2) Either buy a section of body tube for model rockets that exactly
        fits the engine, or make a tube from several thicknesses of paper
        and glue.

     3) Scrape out the clay backing on the back of the engine, so that
        the powder is exposed.  Glue the tube to the engine, so that the
        tube covers at least half the engine.  Pour a small charge of
        flash powder in the tube, about 1/2 an inch.

     4) By adding materials as detailed in the section on firecrackers,
        various types of effects can be produced.

     5) By putting Jumping Jacks or bottle rockets without the stick
        in the tube, spectacular displays with
 moving fireballs or
           M.R.V.'s can be produced.

     6) Finally, by mounting many home made firecrackers on the tube with
        the fuses in the tube, multiple colored bursts can be made.



7.43     ROMAN CANDLES

     Roman candles are impressive to watch.  They are relatively difficult
to make, compared to the other types of home-made fireworks, but they are
well worth the trouble.

     1) Buy a 1/2 inch thick model rocket body tube, and reinforce it
        with several layers of paper and/or masking tape.  This must
        be done to prevent the tube from exploding.  Cut the tube into
        about 10 inch lengths.

     2) Put the tube on a sheet of wax paper, and seal one end with epoxy
        and the drying agent.  About 1/2 of an inch is sufficient.

     3) Put a hole in the tube just above the bottom layer of epoxy,
        and insert a desired length of water proof fuse.  Make sure that
        the fuse fits tightly.

     4) Pour about 1 inch of pyrodex or gunpowder down the open e
nd of the
        tube.

     5) Make a ball by powdering about two 6 inch sparklers of the desired
        color.  Mix this powder with a small amount of flash powder and
        a small amount of pyrodex, to have a final ratio (by volume) of
        60% sparkler material / 20% flash powder / 20% pyrodex.  After
        mixing the powders well, add water, one drop at a time, and mixing
        continuously, until a damp paste is formed.  This paste should
        be moldable by hand, and should retain its shape when left alone.
        Make a ball out of the paste that just fits into the tube.  Allow
        the ball to dry.













     6) When it is dry, drop the ball down the tube.  It should slide down
        fairly easily.  Put a small wad of tissue paper in the tube, and pack
         it gently against the ball with a pencil.

     7) When ready to use, put the candle in a hole in the ground, pointed
        in a safe direction, light the fuse, and run.  If the device works,
        a colored fireball 
should shoot out of the tube to a height of
        about 30 feet.  This height can be increased by adding a slightly
        larger powder charge in step 4, or by using a slightly longer tube.

     8) If the ball does not ignite, add slightly more pyrodex in step 5.

     9) The balls made for roman candles also function very well in rockets,
        producing an effect of falling colored fireballs.





8.0     LISTS OF SUPPLIERS AND MORE INFORMATION



     Most, if not all, of the information in this publication can be obtained
 through a public or university library.  There are also many publications that
are put out by people who want to make money by telling other people how to
make explosives at home.  Adds for such appear frequently in paramilitary
magazines and newspapers.  This list is presented to show the large number of
places that information and materials can be purchased from.   It also includes
fireworks companies and the like.



COMPANY NAME AND ADDRESS               WHAT COMPANY SELLS
ÄÄÄÄÄÄ
ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ               ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

 FULL AUTO CO. INC.                     EXPLOSIVE RECIPES,
 P.O. BOX 1881                          PAPER TUBING
 MURFREESBORO, TN
 37133
_______________________________________________________________________________

 UNLIMITED                              CHEMICALS AND FUSE
 BOX 1378-SN
 HERMISTON, OREGON
 97838
_______________________________________________________________________________

 AMERICAN FIREWORKS NEWS                FIREWORKS NEWS MAGAZINE WITH
 SR BOX 30                              SOURCES AND TECHNIQUES
 DINGMAN'S FERRY, PENNSYLVANIA
 18328
_______________________________________________________________________________

 BARNETT INTERNATIONAL INC.             BOWS, CROSSBOWS, ARCHERY MATERIALS,
 125 RUNNELS STREET                     AIR RIFLES
 P.O. BOX 226
 PORT HURON, MICHIGAN
 48060
_______________________________________________________________________________

 CROSSMAN AIR GUNS                      AIR GUNS
 P.O. BOX 22927
 ROCHESTER, NEW YORK
 14692









_______________________________________________________________________________

 EXECUTIVE PROTECTION PRODUCTS INC.     TEAR GAS GRENADES,
 316 CALIFORNIA AVE.                    PROTECTION DEVICES
 RENO, NEVADA
 89509
_______________________________________________________________________________

 BADGER FIREWORKS CO. INC.              CLASS "B" AND "C" FIREWORKS
 BOX 1451
 JANESVILLE, WISCONSIN
 53547
_______________________________________________________________________________

 NEW ENGLAND FIREWORKS CO. INC.         CLASS "C" FIREWORKS
 P.O. BOX 3504
 STAMFORD, CONNECTICUTT
 06095
_______________________________________________________________________________

 RAINBOW TRAIL                          CLASS "C" FIREWORKS
 BOX 581
 EDGEMONT, PENNSYLVANIA
 19028
_______________________________________________________________________________

 STONINGTON FIREWORKS INC.              CLASS "C" AND "B" FIREWORKS
 4010 NEW WILSEY BAY U.25 ROAD
 RAPID RIVER, MICHIGAN
 49878
___________
____________________________________________________________________

 WINDY CITY FIREWORKS INC.              CLASS "C" AND "B" FIREWORKS
 P.O. BOX 11                            (GOOD PRICES!)
 ROCHESTER, INDIANNA
 46975
_______________________________________________________________________________



BOOKS
ÄÄÄÄÄ

THE ANARCHIST'S COOKBOOK

THE IMPROVISED MUNITIONS MANUAL

MILITARY EXPLOSIVES

FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS

































9.0     CHECKLIST FOR RAIDS ON LABS

     In the end, the serious terrorist would probably realize that if he/she
wishes to make a truly useful explosive, he or she will have to steal the
chemicals to make the explosive from a lab.  A list of such chemicals in order
of priority would probably resemble the following:

     LIQUIDS                    SOLIDS
     _______                    ______

     ____     Nitric Acid        ____     Potassium Perchlorate
     ____     Sulfuric Acid      ____     Potassium Chlorate
     ____     95% Ethanol        ____     Picric Acid (usually a powder)
     ____     Toluene            ____     Ammonium Nitrate
     ____     Perchloric Acid    ____     Powdered Magnesium
     ____     Hydrochloric Acid  ____     Powdered Aluminum

                         ____    Potassium Permanganate
                         ____    Sulfur
                         ____    Mercury
                         ____    Potassium Nitrate
                         ____    Potassium Hydroxide
                         ____    Phosphorus
                         ____    Sodium Azide
                         ____    Lead Acetate
                         ____    Barium Nitrate



10.0     USEFUL PYROCHEMISTRY

     In general, it is possible to make many chemicals from just a few basic
ones.  A list of useful chemical reactions is presented.  It assumes knowledge
of general chemistry; any individual who does not understand the following
reactions would merely have to read the first five chapters of a high school
chemistry book.



1.  potassium perchlorate from perchloric acid and potassium hydroxide
     K(OH)       +     HClO     ---->     KClO     +    H O
                   4              4           2

2.  potassium nitrate from nitric acid and potassium hydroxide
      "       +     HNO     ---->     KNO     +     "
                  3             3

3.  ammonium perchlorate from perchloric acid and ammonium hydroxide
     NH OH       +     HClO     ---->     NH ClO     +     "
       3              4                 3   4

4.  ammonium nitrate from nitric acid and ammonium hydroxide
        NH OH       +     HNO     ---->     NH NO     +     "
       3             3                      3  3

5.  powdered aluminum from acids, aluminum foil, and magnesium

A.     aluminum foil    +    6HCl    ---->   2AlCl   +   3H
                                                3            2

B.     2AlCl  (aq)   +    3Mg    ---->  3MgCl (aq)   +  2Al
          3                                  2











     The Al will be a very fine silvery powder at the bottom of the container
which must be filtered and dried.   This same method works with nitric and
sulfuric acids, but these acids are too valuable in the production of high
explosives to use for such a purpose, unless they are available in great excess.



11.0     ABOUT THE AUTHOR



     The author, who wishes his name to be unknown, is presently attending
a college in the United States of America, majoring in Engineering.  He was
raised by his parents on the East Coast, and received his high school education there.  He first became interested in pyrotechnics when he was about eight years of age.  At age twelve, he produced his first explosive device; it was slightly more powerful than a large firecracker.  He continued to produce explosive devices for several years.  He also became interested in model rocketry, and has built several rockets from kits, and designed his own rockets.  While in high school, the author became affiliated with CHAOS, and eventually became the head of Gunzenbomz Pyro-Technologies.  At this time, at age 18, he produced his first high explosive device, putting a 1 foot deep crater in an associate's back yard.  He had also produced many types of rockets, explosive ammunition,and other pyrotechnic devices.  While he was heading Gunzenbomz Pyro-Technologies, he was injured when a home made device exploded in his hand; he did not make the device.  The author learned, however, and  then decided to reform, and although he still constructs an occasional explosive device, he chooses to abstain from their production.  An occasional rocket that produces effects similar to that of professional displays can sometimes be seen in the midnight sky near his college, and the Fourth of July is still his favorite day of the year.



               Pax et Discordia,

               the Author



HERE ENDS THE FIRST PUBLICATION OF THE TERRORIST'S HANDBOOK. THIS IS THE ONLY
AUTHORIZED PUBLICATION, AND THE SOLE PRODUCTION RIGHTS BELONG TO CHAOS
INDUSTRIES AND GUNZENBOMZ PYRO-TECHNOLOGIES.
1