History of Psychology Timeline (1900 to 1949)

History of the Psychology
A TimeLine of psychological ideas
Marcos Emanoel Pereira

  Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil

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From 1900 to 1949

Henrique Roxo, under Teixera Brandão's orientation, writes Duration of the
Elementary Psychic Acts

Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams

The first volume of Wundt's Völkerpsychologie appears

William Stern publishes On the Psychology of the Individual Differences

Carl G. Jung is appointed Bleuler's assistant

Pierre de Coubertin, the man who created the modern olympic games, coins
the term sport psychology in his articleThePsychology of Sport



Edward Titchener publishes between 1901 and 1905 the four volumes of
his Manual of Experimental Psychology

Sigmund Freud publishes The psychopathology of everyday life

James Baldwin publishes the first edition of the Dictionary of Philosophy and

Pierre Janet and George Dumas found the French Psychological Society

 Gabriel Tarde publishes L'Opinion de la Foule

Ebbinghaus states the famous sentence "Psychology has a long past, but only
a short story"

The physician Luis Simarro becomes the first professor of psychology in Spain


William Stern uses the term Psychotechnique

First laboratory of psychology of Japan is established at the Tokyo University

Willliam James publishes Does consciousness exist?  and  A world of pure

Cattell and Baldwin found Psychological Bulletin

James R. Angell publishes Psychology: An Introductory Study of the Structure
and Function of Human Consciousness

Ezequiel Chaves translates to spanish Titchener’s Elements of Psychology

Karl Pearson publishes a study on the inheritance of human mental characteristics

Charles Spearman publishes his first paper on general intelligence

James Ward and W. H. Rivers launch the British Journal of Psychology

Established in France the Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique

Established the German Psychology Society  (Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Psychologie - D.G.f Ps)


Alfred Binet publishes New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual
level of subnormals.


Medeiros e Albuquerque organizes a laboratory of educational psychology

H. S. Jennings publishes Behavior of the Lower Organisms

James McKeen Cattell publish the first edition of American Men of Science

Ivan Pavlov publishes his findings regarding classical conditioning

The Institute of Applied Psychology is established in Berlin

Psychology appears in the teacher-training college curriculum in the Egyptian
educational system


Maurício de Campos defends the thesis Methods in Psychology

James R. Angell publishes The province of functional psychology

Lightner Witmer publishes Clinical psychology

Carl G. Jung publishes The Psychology of Dementia Praecox

Alfred Adler  publishes his main work: A Study of Organic Inferiority and
Its Psychical Compensation

Russian physiologist and  psychiatrist Vladimir Betcherev publishes
Objective Psychology

William Stern establishes the Zeitschrift für Angewandte Psychologie (Journal of
Applied Psychology)
, the first psychological journal devoted to applied psychology


William McDougall  publishes An Introduction to Social Psychology

Edward Ross publishes Social Psychology: an outline and source book

Walter Dill Scott publishes Psychology of Advertising

Hugo Munsterberg attempts in his book On The Witness Sand to apply
psychology to legal problems

The Sociedad Argentina de Psicologia (Argentine Psychology Society) 
is established

The first laboratory of  psychology in Chile is established at the
Universidad de Chile

Alfred Binet and Theodor Simon begin to develop tests for measurement of
children  intelligence

T. A. Hunter establishes a psychological laboratory at the University of New


Robert Yerkes and Sergius Morgulis publish The method of Pavlov in animal

Freud and  Jung visit the United States during the twentieth anniversary of
Clark University

W. Healy establishes in Chicago the first psychological clinic attached to a
juvenile court

Maria Montessori publishes Corso di pedagogia cientifica (The method of
scientific pedagogy applied to child education)


The Journal of Educational Psychology is founded

Hugo Munsterberg develops attitude test for streetcar drivers

Sigmund Freud publishes The origin and development of psychoanalysis

Carl G. Jung publish The association method

Elton Mayo was appointed to lectureship in philosophy at the University
of Queensland
, Australia


Plinio Olinto publishes Association of Ideas

A. A. Brill founds the Psychoanalytical Association  of New York

Edward Thorndike publishes Animal intelligence

The Journal of Animal Behavior is established

José Ingenieros publishes in Argentina Psicologia Genética , later
Principios de psicologia biológica


E. B. Titchener publishes The schema of introspection

Max Wertheimer publishes the paper Experimental Studies of the Perception
of Movement

Edouard Claparède establishes in Geneva the Jean Jacques Rousseau Institute,
dedicated to educational investigation

George Brett publishes A History of Psychology

The first text which announces in its title that psychology was the study of
behaviour, by William McDougall, appears


John Watson publishes Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It

Hugo Münsterberg publishes Psychology and industrial efficiency

George H. Mead publishes  The social self.

Wolfgang Köhler initiates his studies at the Anthropoid Station in Tenerife

Carl G. Jung departs from freudian views and develops his own theories

Aragão de Souza Pinto defends the thesis Of Psychoanalysis: the Sexuality
of the Neuroses

Italian psychologist Ugo Pizzoli inaugurates in the Escola Normal de São
an experimental psychology laboratory

Edward Titchener publishes On "Psychology as the behaviorist views it, the
official reply to Watson

Hugo Munsterberg uses the term Psychotechnics

Honorio Delgado introduces psychoanalysis in Peru

W. Healy publishes Honesty: A Study of the Causes and Treatment of Disonesty
Among Children

Sigmund Freud publishes the metapsychological work On repression

First department of psychology in India is established at Calcutta University

Lewis M. Terman publishes The measurement of intelligence

The Journal of Experimental Psychology is established

The Division of Applied Psychology is established at the Carnegie Institute of

Wilson and Wilson publishThe Motivation of School Work, the first book to
have the word motivation in its title

Margaret Floy Washburn publishes Movement and mental imagery: outline of
a motor theory of the complexes mental process

Enrique Arágon establishes the first psychological laboratory in the Mexico

A complete account of E. Thorndike's studies is published in the Egyptian
journal Al-Muktataf


Manuel Bonfim publishes Notions of Psychology

The Journal of Applied Psychology is established

Kurt Lewin publishes his first professional work: Kriegslandchaft

In Dresden, Germany, a psychotechnical laboratory for training of railroad
engineers is established

Cai Yuanpei establishes at Beijing University the first psychological laboratory
in China


Fernandes Figueira begins to work in the National Hospice with psychological
tests, using Binet-Simon's tests.

Franco da Rocha  begins to spread  psychoanalysis through courses taught at
the Faculdade de Medicina de São Paulo

Robert S. Woodworth publishes Dynamic Psychology, in which introduces the
concept of drive


Franco da Rocha publishes Freud's Doctrine

Knight Dunlap publishes Are they any instincts?

Karl Bühler  is apointed professor of philosophy and psychology at the Technical
Academy in Dresden

Held in the Swiss city of Lausanne, the First Congress of Sport Psychology and

E. Frost publishes in the Journal of Applied Psychology the article What industry
 wants and does not want from the psychologists

John B. Watson & Rosalie Rayner publish Conditioned emotional reactions.

William McDougal publishes The group mind

The first Spanish journal partly dedicated to psychology is established: Archivos
de Neurobiología, Psicología,Histología, Fisiología, Neurología y Psiquiatría

The first Chinese psychology independent department, at Nanjing University

Köhler, Koffka and Wertheimer establish the journal Psychologische Forschung to
give exposure to the Gestalt viewpoints on psychological problems

The first psychology department  in  Australia is established at the University of


The Brazilian League of Mental Hygieneis established

Edward C. Tolman  publishes A new formula for behaviorism.

John Dewey publishes The Human Nature and the Conduct

Koffka writes in the Psychological Bulletin the introductory statement of the
Gestalt position
for American psychologists

Walter Lippman publishes Public Opinion

J. M. Cattell states: "The army intelligence tests have put psychology on the
map of United States"

Levy-Bruhl publishes La mentalité primitive

Waclaw Radecki arrives in Brazil

The Laboratory of Psychology of Engenho de Dentro is established

Sigmund Freud publishes The Ego and the Id

Max Wertheimer publishes Laws of organization in perceptual forms

Medeiros e Albuquerque publishes the first brazilian book on psychological
tests, The Tests

Isaias Alves works in the Brazilian adaptation of Binet-Simon's scale

Floyd Allport publishes Social Psychology

L.L.Thurstone publishes The nature of intelligence

Max Wertheimer publishes Gestalt theory

The Indian Psychological Association is established

Ulisses Pernambuco establishes in Recife the Selection and Professional
Orientation Institute of Pernambuco

Lourenço Filho assumes the chair of Psychology at the Escola Normal
de São Paulo

Harvey Carr publishes Psychology: a study of the mental activity

E. K. Strong publishes The Psychology of Selling and Advertising

Viennese psychoanalyst Karl Abraham publishes Psychoanalytical studies
about the Character Formation


The first works in the Institute of Hygiene, located in São Paulo, appears

Florence L. Goodenough's Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings was
published, describing Goodenough's Draw-A-Man Test .

Thophilos Voréas, a Wundt' student, teaches a course in psychology at the
school of philosophy at the University of Athens

A psychology laboratory is established in the University of  Athens

The Indian Journal of Psychology  is founded

Lourenço Filho publishes Contribution to the Experimental Study of the Habit

Henri Pieron arrives in São Paulo to teach experimental psychology and

Hugo Münsterberger publishes On the witness stand

Edward Titchener dies

First edition of Psychological Abstracts

First edition of Journal General of Psychology

The International Association of Applied Psychology  is established

Kurt Koffka emigrates to America

Gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Kohler publishes The mentality of apes

Psychology examination of officer candidates becomes obligatory in German

All-Union Society for Psychology Engineering and Applied Psychophysiology
is founded in the U.S.S.R.

Research Center for Economic Psychology is founded in Vienna

L. T. Troland publishes the first general text featuring the word motivation in
the main title, The Fundamentals of Human

Ezequiel Chaves publishes in Mexico Ensayo de psicologia de la adolescencia
(Essay on adolescency psychology)

In the U.S.S.R. the journal Psikhofiziologia truda i psikhotekhnika, later
Sovetskaia psikhotekhnika, is established

A research institute for psychology is opened at the Chinese Academy of

The Egyptian psychologist El-Kabbani conducts the first empirical psychological
research on 4,000 school children


Waclaw Radecki publishes Tratado de Psicologia

Edward Boring publishes the first edition of A History of Experimental

Thurstone and Chaves publish The Measurement of Attitude

Carl Murchison publishes The Psychological Register

First edition of Journal of Social Psychology

Karl Lashley publishes Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence

W. B. Cannon introduces the modern concept of homeostasis in the book
Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage

The Yale' s Institute of Human Relations is established

Wolfgang Köhler publishes An old pseudoproblem

The College of Arts of University of Cairo and Higher Institute of Education
sent their best graduates to study psychology in Europe

Mohhamed M. Said is appointed the first professor of Psychology in
Higher Institute of Education
of Cairo

B. F. Skinner publishes his first experimental paper, On The Conditions of
Eliciation of certain Eating Reflexes

Karl Lashley publishes Basic neural mechanisms in behavior

Enrique Mouchet reorganizes the Buenos Aires Society of Psychology

The first psychological laboratory at theHigherInstituteof Education of
Cairo is established

Henri Ferguson becomes the first to hold the title of Lecturer in Experimental
Psychology at the University of Dunedin,
New Zealand


Enrique Mouchet founded the Institute of Psychology at the Universidad
deBuenos Aires

The Japanese Applied Psychological Association is founded

José Leme Lopes, in Rio and Sylvio Rabello, in São Paulo, introduce the
Rorschach in Brazil

Edward Tolman publishes Purposive Behavior in  man and in animals

Rensis Likert emploies an empirical aproach to the measurement of attitude

Frederick Bartlett  publishes Remembering: A study in experimental and
social psychology



Floyd H. Allport publishes Institutional behavior

Dorothy Thomas attempts to sistematize and quantify the observation of
social behavior

Waclaw Radecki arrives in Uruguay and teach a course of General Psychology

Alfred Adler publishes On the Sense of the Life

C. G. Jung becomes professor at the Federal Polytechnical University in Zurich

Max Wertheimer and Kurt Lewin emigrate to America

The  British Union of Practical Psychologist is established

The Psychological Engineering Section of the State Institute for Experimental
Psychology is abolished in U.S.S.R.

The Japanese Society for Animal Psychology is established

Plinio Olinto publishes Psychology

The discipline psychology becomes obligatory in some undergraduate

Alfred Adler emigrates to America

The American Institute of Public Opinion is established

Jacob Moreno introduces the sociometric measurement technique

Jacob Moreno publishes Who Shall Survive?

The Norwegian Psychological Association   (Norsk Psykologforening)
was established

The first psychological clinical in Egypt founded at  the Higher Institute
of Education


Sylvio Rabello publishes Psychology of the Infantile Drawing

Jean Maugué begins to teach Psychology in Bachelor in Philosophy,
staying until 1944

B. F. Skinner distinguishes pavlovian conditioning and operant conditioning
in the paper
Two Types of Conditioned Reflex and a Pseudo-Type

Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Goldstein emigrate to America

Carl Murchison publishes Handbook of Social Psychology

Egon Brunswik is invited by Edward Tolman to spend a year as a visiting
lecturer at research fellow at the
University of California, Berkeley

Alfred Adler establishes the International Journal of Individual Psychology

Christiana Morgan e Henry Murray develop TAT -  Test of Thematic

Walter Blumenfeld arrives in Peru and works at Institute of Psychology at
Universidad San Marcos

Wolfgang Köhler leaves his chair in Berlin

Kurt Koffka publishes Principles of Gestalt Psychology

Noemi Silveira assumes the teaching of educational psychology at the
Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de São Paulo

The Society for the Psychological Study Social of Issues is founded

Muzafer Sherif publishes The psychology of social norms

Erwin Levy publishes A case of mania with its social implications

Founded the first independent chair of psychology in Finland

Psychological laboratory do Engenho de Dentro  was incorporated by
the University of Brazil

Gordon Allport publishes his most significant work: Personality: psychological

B. F. Skinner uses the term operant for the first time and applies the term
respondent to the pavlovian type of reflex

Donald O. Hebb returns to Canada as fellow of the Neurological Institute
of Montreal

First  psychology program in School of Philosophy and Literature of the
National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM)

Anna Freud publishes The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense

Karen Horney publishes The neurotic personality of our time

Sylvio Rabello publishes The representation of the time in the child

Djacir Menezes publishes in Fortaleza the Dictionary of Pedagogical

B. F.Skinner publishes The Behavior of the Organisms

Henry Murray publishes Explorations in Personality

D. Katz and R. L. Schank publish Social Psychology

The Romanian psychologist Florian Stefanescu-Goanga establishes the
Revista de Psichologie

M. B. Hushiyar establishes the first psychological laboratory and publishes the
first Iranian experimental psychology textbook
(Experimental Psychology)

Arthur Ramos publishes The problem children

John Dollard, Neal Miller and collaborators present the hypothesis of
frustration - aggression
, in the book Frustration and

The Canadian Psychological Association  was established by 38 founding members

The Spanish psychologist Mercedes Rodrigo arrives in Colombia

Emilio Mira y Lopez presents in Royal Society of Medicine in London the Test de
psicodiagnostico miokinetico

A psychology course is taught at the University of Hong Kong


B. Moore & B. Fine publish A History of Medical Psychology

The Instituto de Psicologia is establishedat the Universidad de Chile

The experimental psychological school in Peru  is established at the Instituto
Psicopedagogico Nacional

The first german diploma examination and professional university training in
psychology is established in Germany


S.R.Hathaway e McKinley publish Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

Carl Rogers develops the therapy centered on the patient

The Sociedad de Estudios Psicológicos,Psiquiátricos y Disciplinas Conexas is
established in Ecuador


Clark L. Hull publishes Principles of Behavior

Clifford Morgan publishes Physiological Psychology,  a standard text
for decades

Enrique Mouchet publishes Percepcion, instinto y razon

Bruno Bettelheim publishes Individual and mass behavior in extreme situations

Erwin Levy publishes Some Aspects of the Schizophrenic Formal Disturbance
of Thought.


Plinio Olinto traces an inclusive panorama of the experimentation in The
Experimental Psychology in Brazil

Donald O. Hebb postulates the cell assembly theory

Annita Marcondes de Cabral and Otto Klineberg create the Society of Psychology
of São Paulo

Kurt Lewin organizes the Research Center for Group Dynamics   in the Massachussets
Institute of Technology

The first U.S. state law for certification or licensure of psychologists was signed by
Governor Raymond Baldwin of Connecticut.

Otto Fenichel  publishes Psychoanalytical Theories of Neuroses

K. Duncker publishes in the periodic Psychological Monographs the famous
article On problem solving

The Journal of Clinical Psychology is founded

The journal Egyptian Journal of Psychology, edited by Yousif Mourad and
Mustapha Ziwar, is established

The Australian branch of the British Psychological Society  is established

Fritz Heider publishes Attitudes and cognitive organization

The first number of American Psychologist  is published

Bela Székely publishes Los tests

The Decree 1023 regulates the formation of psychologists in Chile

Psychology as profession begins in Guatemala

The journal Revista de Psicología General y Aplicada is established in Spain

The Korean Psychological Association is established

Jerome Bruner and Cecile Goodman publish Value and need as organizing
factors in perception

Gardner Murphy publishesPersonality: a biosocial approach to origin
and structure

Kurt Goldstein publishes The Organism: A holistic approach to biology
derived from pathology data in men

Roger Barker and Herbert Wright establish the Midwest Psychological Field
dedicated to study of ecological

The Faculdad de Filosofia de la Universidad de Chile initiates the
professionalization of psychologists

Psychology as profession begins in Colombia

Established in France a university degree (licence de psychologie) in psychology

The Belgian Psychological Society  is established

Jaime Zaguirre establishes the first Philipino neuropsychological services unit
at the V. Luna General Hospital


B. F. Skinner publishes Walden Two

E. C. Tolman publish  the paper Cognitive Maps in Rats and Man

Keneth MacCorquodale and Paul Meehl publish On a distinction between
hypothetical constructs and intervening variables

Established the Instituto de Psicologia y Investigaciones Psicologicas in the
Faculdad de Humanidades de La Universidad San Carlos, in Guatemala

The C. G. Jung Institute is established in Zurich

Psychology as an independent university subject begins to be studied in

The Egyptian Association for Psychological Societies (EAPS) is established

The journal Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicotécnica, later Arquivos Brasileiros
de Psicologia
is founded

Jerome Bruner and Leo Postman publish On the perception of incongruity:
a paradigm

Donald O. Hebb publishes The Organization of Behavior

George Miller and Frederick Frick publishes Statistical Behavioristics and
Sequences of Responses

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children  was first published

Gilbert Ryle publishes The concept of mind

Shannon and Weaver publish The mathematical theory of the communication

A conference about scientific and professional formation in psychology is
held in Boulder, Colorado

The Japanese Group Dynamics Association is established

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