Codigo Bushido Bryan Williams

"Who cling to the life die, who they defy to the death survive" Uyesugi Kenshin (century XVI) Although karate modern has been developed in century XX, derived from Okinawa, at the moment it has been influenced strongly by the psychology of the Japanese martial arts, with the origins and feudales attitudes of such arts. Therefore, it is difficult, if it is not that impossible, to include/understand it without knowing something related to that culture widely. The intention of this chapter is to describe that culture in which he is pertinent for the study of karate. With the opening from Japan to the western commerce in 1853, forced by the American naval power and consequent end of the feudalism, the Samuráis, or class single-breasted uniform jacket, that was almost 2.000.000 within an approximated population of 30.000.000, became an anachronism and in spite of maintaining several rebellions, they were eradicated. Despite their disappearance like social class, all the Japanese Literature, art and the culture were influenced deeply by the traditions of the Samuráis, and his spirit still survives and he is pronounced in diversity of forms. One of them, but smaller it is not in the martial arts, including karate; also we found it in the psychology that motivated to the Kamikaze, or suicidal pilots of World War II, the survival in the forest and the prolonged resistance of 29 years after the war of the ultranationalist Japanese soldiers (like Onoda lieutenant in the Philippines), and in the postwarlike economic policies of Japan. Many Japanese still long for the feudal period like a heroic and romantic time at which the Samurai represented the heroic figure. Therefore, to include/understand karate it is necessary to appreciate the spirit of the Samuráis that still motivates to many of karatekas greater of the world. Of course, this does not mean that this spirit moves to most of karatekas western, or Japanese in any case. Many of the western ones in individual treat it solely like a method battle or self-defense and is only conscious of vague way of which implicit philosophy could be called. The Japanese feudal period lasted of aims of century XII in the middle of the XIX and is comparable in many aspects to the European feudal period. Both maintained rigid hierarchic structures of class and a strict ethical code for the class single-breasted uniform jacket. This code was known in Japan like Bushido, that translated literally means "Military Ways of the Horseman", or appropriate code of conduct for a horseman soldier. In the vertex of the social pyramid he was the Emperor or "Son of the Sky", that was adored until 1945 like a living God; but it did not have any practical intervention in the subjects of State during most of the feudal period. Its main function resided in promoting the culture and the hidden art of the cortesana life, the architecture, the ornamental gardening, the poetry and the girls geishas, for all cuale were applied strict rules. The political power resided into the hands of shogun or ' ' General "that personified to the God of the storm or spiritual father of the Samuráis. Their powers were a combination of those of prime minister and those of a contemporary military caudillo. Under the Shogun they were daimyo or noble of the cut, every one with séquito of assistants or guards (Bushi or Samurai) equivalent to a small private army. The other descending social classes in importance order, more not necessarily of wealth, were the villagers, the craftsmen and the retailers. He is interesting to notice that the retailers - relatively accumulated they were inferior in a social sense to the farmers and the craftsmen, like they were it the Samuráis. The Samuráis was excluded from the commerce and received their payment of the Shogun or daimyo in rice form, that in later years sold generally the merchants when it appeared the money like means of change. Many that they lived in a state of hardened poverty badly considered of taste to speak of money or to worry too much about him. In spite of this they became the ideal of the nation and one of the main subjects of the art and Literature. If he is not that the main one. Bushido: The Samurai Code the criteria with respect to the Samurai vary considerably. For some they were ferocious professional peleadores and ruthless assassins. However the romantic ones see them like comparable idealists the horsemen of the legend of king Arturo. Without a doubt the truth is located between the ends. They had many privileges, they did not work and they were exentos of taxes. Also they had the legal right to right away kill any irrespetuoso plebian. Logic was required mind of some code to avoid the absolute abuse of those powers. This code, the Bushido although never was written up emerged in century XII. Bushido means the code of conduct adapted for the combatant horseman. It has a notable similar to the one of the European feudales horsemen, whose historical period also is very similar. In order to live in agreement with this code, a Samurai would have to be valiant, honorable, motivated by a desire to act with rectitud and justice, would have to be merciful, truthful, courteous, loyal, possessor of a great dominion of able itself and of the autosacrificio. In truth it was a strict code, that without a doubt more of a few let fulfill. Nevertheless, according to the experience of the writer, it is remarkable to observe how many of these characteristics still they are exhibited by many of karatekas greater of the world, in individual that have antecedents of training in Japan. This happens presumably because they were trained in means soaked in the underlying traditions. A much greater proportion of karatekas Western is trained in an atmosphere that even puts emphasis only in the physicist or in the commercial thing. Perhaps this is inevitable, since a cultural characteristic is impossible virtually to transplant everything. This happens specially when the instruction is not into the hands of a Japanese or of somebody trained in Japan; or also if a language problem exists. The emphasis of the Bushido in the military virtue of the fierceness is inevitable and it does not require greater discussion. Despite it is bound of close way with the virtue of the honor, that still is a powerful motivadora force in the modern Japan. With the recent and phenomenal economic development of Japan, the western ones can think that the main motivation of that country is the money. This did not happen in feudal Japan and if today it happens it is by a reason juxtaposed to the one for the honor. The opening forced from that country to the western commerce in 1853, meant a great humiliation for the Japanese, and with object to recover his prestige (honor) they needed to win to the West in his own game. Of there the social revolution, the abolition of the shogunato and the Samurai that had not been able to reject the Barbarians and the importance that they give to the economic and industrial power just like to the military man. He was simply the Bushido spirit adapted to modern circumstances. E1 honor and the own respect was the primary reasons, and the wealth was considered in a very secondary place; although without a doubt, now it has been transformed a symbol of the success and therefore into a test of the recovery of prestige. Between karatekas greater of the world, the honor and the fame continue being the greater impelling force, but as the demand of instructors of karate is so great, inevitably strong financial interests are provoked. As the western feudal code of cavalry dead and is buried long ago, perhaps he is illogical to think that the Japanese continue adhering to their principles of Bushido by more of a century from the collapse of essential his raison d' etre. In such case, it is a great pity. It is to hope that these Samuráis of our days continues agreeing with their Samuráis ancestors, for many of which the loss of honor lead to the Seppuku (kiri)ritual Hara-, that indicates: "When the honor is lost, it is a lightening to die; the death is not but a safe retirement of infamia ". We have the hope like professor Nitobe, of which "the Bushido can disappear like an independent code of ethics; but not thus its power on the Earth; their schools of martial feats or civic honor can be demolished; but their fight and its glory will survive their ruins for a long time ".

The Samurais

The previous story is a clear example of seppuku imposed as sentence of death in its honorable form. The Bushido is a current formed from the Buddhism, the Taoísmo, the Zen, the Confucionismo and the Shintoismo. Thanks to this combination, samurais counted on a code of norms of behavior, very difficult to break. From the buddhism it takes, for example, the conception of the death; according to this one, after the death the reincarnation like an average one comes to reach the illumination, therefore samurais knew that this life was transitory and they did not fear to the death, and nevertheless, they preferred the death to the deshonor. They had been born samurais and would die samurais. The buddhism has like departure point the discovery of the pain, according to this, we are victimas of our senses and these they lead us to the error, is then precise to undress of them to accede to the knowledge. By means of the buddhism all egoísmo is suppressed; the physical conscience is eliminated; it invites to be equitable; and not to admit anything like permanent or stable. This happens through the suppression of all sensation, all desire, all hatred. The Taoísmo, thinks that a.C. in the Kingdom of Chen was created by Lao Tse in year 570. The center of this doctrine predominates in the existence of an original principle: the Tao. The Tao is to happen and the goal of all change.

The world, as everything in the universe moves and it organizes in the space and the time by effect of two principles: the Yin and the Yang that take the rate of their march (to all action correspond a reaction of equal intensity and in different sense). By means of the Taoísmo the individual learns to be satisfied to the Nature to accede to the Indefinite power, that is to say, to the wisdom. The nature serves as model the man. From the Zen (part of the buddhism), it takes the philosophy of being the one with the whole, to see the "set like one and the one like set", to arrive through the meditation at a level of thought superior to the normal one. To act without being interrupted by the thought. It does not have you limit, since through the Zen the absolute one is reached definitive. With this ideology samurai managed to perfect itself in the way of the martial arts. From the shintoismo it takes the patriotism, the love to its family and ancestors, the respect to kamis (Gods), the nature and its capacity of astonishment before the divine thing. Thanks to this, the Emperor receives a divine nature before his town, because it is the representation of the Earth Sky. One knows that this religion was founded by the first settlers of Japan. For year 550 d.C. the people of this place did not have a very exact idea of religion, by this shinto original not even had name, single it was a set of ideas that connected to the life, the man and the nature, and that was transmitted orally in legend. The objects of cult of the shintoísmo are kamis of the water, the wind, the fire, the ancestors and give great importance him to the purity and to the purification.

The Earth is taken care of, fed and protected by the Kamis, thus samurai had to help to protect to all without exception.

From the Confucionismo they take the familiar values, that provides the 5 moral relations to them: Love-crew member, Father-son, Husband-woman, Brother smaller greater-brother, friend-friend. Nevertheless since the confucionista doctrine, is of intellectual character, the Japanese created a neoconfucionismo, in which, they would find the truth in different forms, besides to look for it in books. This ideology was created by Confucius and it teaches to the notion of interdependence between all the beings men to us, whom it understands, a rigor in the social and moral classifications. By all the cultural instruction that received, in addition to its knowledge in the martial arts, they were a layer of the society very respected in its days. Its word was guarantee of matchless faith, thus was an offense to request its word in writing. They were able to support everything and not to show no sign of emotion in its faces. Nevertheless, like in all the ideologies, although very near perfectly, all their followers are not faithful to this one, reason why also samurais towards the town is very well known of the injustices of some, sometimes by ridiculous situations that could have stained the honor of these soldiers. Samurais that they did not have master was called "ronin", a classic example of these was Miyamoto Musashi, one of the most remarkable figures of the history of Japan.

Musashi lived in the founding period of the third Government of Campaign, that lasted from century XVII to the XIX. That time was well-known like the Era of the States Soldiers, since the Bushido was open to whatever it could obtain arms by any means. Samurais of low class was raised to overthrow to samurais of high class and Japan sank in the chaos. Because of this, it was needed an elaborated government more, the Era Tokugawa, that the town disarmed and prevailed of its rights to samurais. It divided to the country in small provinces and diminished I number of soldiers, this caused a "unemployment" of samurais. Some of these last ones, were dedicated to be masterful of school, doctors or priests. Others continued practicing the martial traditions and teaching them to others, and other many became criminal bandits and. It is said that Miyamoto Musashi nape of the neck was combed, took a bath, one married, it constructed a house nor it raised no son. It basically followed a ascético way of soldier until the end.

Musashi wrote a called book "the Book of the Five Ring" and in it narrates:

"the science of the martial arts called Personal Sky School both is something that there are been many years perfecting. Now, wishing to reveal it in a book for the first time, I have ascended to Monte Iwato, in the province of Higo, province of Kyushu. Inclining before the sky, venerating to Kannon, it located to me towards the Buddha. I am Shinmen Musashi nonKami, Fujiwara nonGenshin, soldier born in the province of Harima, sixty years of age." "I have dedicated my life to the science of the martial arts since he was young, long ago. It was thirteen years old when I had my first duel. In that occasion it gains my adversary, a teacher of martial arts called Arima Kihei, pertaining to the New School of the Precision. To the sixteen years I overcame a powerful teacher of martial arts called Akiyama, of the Province of Tajima. When it had veintiuno, I went to the capital and I knew teachers of martial arts of all the country. Although I participated in numerous duels, never I let reach the victory."

"Later I traveled of province in province, finding masterful of martial arts of several schools. Although I participated in but of sixty duels, never I lost. All it took place between the thirteen and twenty-nine years." "When I turned the thirty years and I reflected on my experiences, me dí account that had not left victorious because of the completed profit of the martial arts. Perhaps it was because it had an intrinsic capacity for this science and it had not turned aside to me of the natural principles. Also it can have been due to the failures of the martial arts of the other schools. In any case, I practiced next day and night to reach a still deeper principle and spontaneously I arrived at the science of the martial arts. It was fifty years old by that time." "Since then I have spent the time without having no science that to investigate. Trusted the advantage of military science, as I have turned it the science of all the arts and techniques, I do not have teacher in any way." "Now, when writing this book, nonvolume nothing of the sayings of the buddhism nor of the confucianismo, and I use old histories of military narrations or on military science. Having to the Sky and Kannon like mirrors, volume the brush and I begin to write, to four of the dawn of the tenth day, of the tenth month, in the year of 1643." One says that Miyamoto Musashi won in an occasion to an adversary armed of a saber with a wood oar; that it could cut a single grain of rice with its sword in the hair of a person and who never lost a duel. Nevertheless an anecdote exists in which, it faced Muso Gannosuke, teacher in the use of the Bo (wood cane of 1.80m) of the schools Katori Ryu and Kashima Ryu. thinks that Musashi gained the first assault after a fast force deployment and precision to him, and soon he pardoned the life to him.

Muso, defeated, retired to mountains to meditate, and one night arrived the idea to him from a shorter cane, of less of meter and means, to which Jo called, trained with its new weapon and implanted a series of basic techniques soon to look for Musashi. In this occasion, Muso Gannosuke defeated to Miyamoto Musashi and it pardoned the life to him.

Really, the form to be of the Samurais enormously influenced the form to be of the Japanese, assimilating these last many of the characteristics of the personality of bushi in the businesses, the martial arts and in its society.