Copyright © 1992 by T.E. Bearden. All Rights Reserved.

Updated Jan. 29, 1992

In 1991 we ended Phase I, and began the opening round of Phase II of our decades-long operation. Phase I was to alert the free nations to the dangers of Soviet scalar EM weapons, and the necessity of countering them. That phase has been successfully completed. There are now three other nations - not hostile to the U.S. - that have developed and deployed scalar EM weaponry. The Soviets/KGB are soundly checked by these three nations, with regards to scalar EM weaponry.

The goal of the phase II operation is to get cheap, clean energy from the vacuum, obtain antigravity, and develop scalar EM healing of notorious diseases such as cancer, leukemia, AIDS, etc. In this phase we are now publishing papers in the orthodox literature that carry the message. Our target is the bright young graduate students and postdoctoral candidates who are becoming increasingly curious in this area. We will try to get as many of these interested as possible. The idea is to have about 100 "seed cells", in major universities, so that these young tigers do the necessary phenomenology experiments and produce the necessary theory extensions. If we can reach that number of seed cells, then those young Turks will turn over the present physics. That Phase II operation has begun.

For example, in mid-1991 we gave (in absentia) two fundamental papers to a very large symposium (IECEC '91) in the Boston area. The symposium was sponsored by IEEE, AIAA, and many of the other leading technical societies of the U.S. The two papers are published in the Proceedings by the American Nuclear Society. [Ref 1,Ref 2]One of these papers [Ref 1] tells what is wrong with quantum mechanics, electromagnetics, and general relativity - that is, what actually prevents their unification. It also tells what has to be done to unify them. I emphasize that the thesis in this paper is testable on the laboratory bench; it isn't just conjecture.

The second paper [Ref 2] is rather unique, to say the least. In it I openly released the basic universal mechanism that is capable of directly tapping the potential energy of the vacuum, electromagnetically. That's a secret eventually worth billions of dollars; I freely gave it to everyone. I discovered the theoretical mechanism, so it was mine to give. The paper reported on Floyd Sweet's (my colleague for several years) vacuum triode which successfully taps the vacuum's virtual photon flux energy to produce 500 watts of time-reversed electrical power, with only 330 microwatts of normal power input. That device has been in existence since 1987 or earlier.

There are several hundred papers in the nonlinear optics literature that prove that the fundamental pumped phase conjugate mirror (PPCM) mechanism works, in the macroscopic world. I seem to have been (in 1986/87) the first person to openly treat the nucleus of the atom as a PPCM.In a proprietary 1986 draft and later 1987 paper given to Sweet, I produced the basic theory of how Sweet's vacuum triode device (which then was producing 6 watts output) was tapping the vacuum energy. To do so, I treated the Whittaker bidirectional EM wave components of a scalar EM potential

introduced onto the nucleusas a set of wave/antiwave pairs or pump waves.This application simply uses the internal scalar potential's internal structuring as clearly established by Whittaker in 1903.[Ref 3] With the internal Whittaker wave/antiwave structure, one can establish a self-oscillation (self-pumping) on the barium nucleus, in and of the virtual photon flux (VPF) exchange between the nucleus and its immediately surrounding vacuum.[Ref 4]

When that is successfully done, the material containing the barium (in Sweet's case, barium ferrite magnets) is activated. That is, VPF exchange energy is rhythmically flowing into the barium nucleus and back out again in a 60 Hz wave as a wave of pure VPF stress potential; a pure scalar EM wave, which is composed of (and can be decomposed into) phase-locked AM oscillations of the set of Whittaker biwaves composing the potential.

With this Whittaker decomposition, the self-oscillating barium nucleus is then a self-pumped phase conjugate mirror. Note that this "nucleus as a pumped phase conjugate mirror" approach is a universal scheme for tapping the trapped energy in a massless scalar EM potential in the vacuum, without depleting the potential.

The potential in the vacuum is a function of vacuum VPF activity; the potential is continually replenished by the vacuum itself. The EM energy trapped inside the potential can be tapped forever, if the potential is not bled off by translating electrons (or other charged particles).

Then all that remains to be done to tap this vacuum-furnished "pumping" energy, is to utilize standard 4-wave mixing theory from nonlinear optics, and introduce a small signal wave input. By standard textbook theory, up to all the energy in the pump waves will then be emitted by the nucleus as a phase conjugate replica (PCR) (time-reversed replica) of the signal wave input.

In other words, an amplified EM energy wave

in this case, 60 Hzwill come from the self-pumped nuclei and will backtrack the path taken by the signal wave, in accordance with the so-called distortion correction theorem of orthodox nonlinear optics.[Ref 5]In this fashion, the energy in a potential established in vacuum can be directly tapped, taken from the VPF exchange with the nucleus, and gated out of the atom and into the external circuit, to power an external load.

The tapping device is not a closed system, but is open to the flow of energy from the vacuum to the nuclei and back. All systems everywhere are open to this in-and-out VPF flux exchange anyway. Normally, however, the two VPF flowsThis "nucleus as a Pumped Phase Conjugate Mirror" mechanism is the fundamental secret of all legitimate Over-Untiy devices that tap vacuum energy.in and outare equal and opposite, and so the energy exchange between vacuum and nucleus is in equilibrium. In that case, none of the VPF exchange energy is gated out to the external circuit.In the "activated" case, however, the two VPF flows (between the nucleus and the vacuum) are not equal, because part of the flow energy that accumulates in the in-surge into the nucleus is gated out of the atom and into the external circuit.

Hence the vacuum/nucleus flux exchange system is not locally in equilibrium, because part of the in-flow is being gated by 4-wave mixing accomplished in the PPCM barium nuclei, into forming an organized PCR wave, which in turn goes on out of the atom instead of back to the vacuum. Any local vacuum energy extracted is just instantly replaced by the surrounding vacuum - just as a raging ocean instantly refills the hole left in dipping out a spoonful of water.

So in the self-oscillating PPCM nucleus, part of the vacuum influx energy is gated into an organized phase conjugate replica (PCR) wave, instead of simply being flux-exchanged back to the local vacuum. This amplified PCR wave backtracks the path previously taken by the input 60 Hz signal wave, and thus proceeds out of the vacuum-pumped nuclei, through the atom's electron shells, into and through the material lattice, and arrives in the outer circuit, which is connected to the external electrical load.

The device thus powers the external load directly off the energy organized and gated from the local vacua surrounding the excited, activated, self-pumped barium nuclei.

In his second vacuum triode, Sweet obtained 500 watts of negative electrical power out (at 60 Hz and 120 volts), with an input (signal wave, in nonlinear optical PPCM terminology) of only 330 microwatts (10 volts, 33 x 10-6 amps) from a small 60 Hz oscillator. That's about a 1,500,000 power gain. Not too bad at all.Sweet later "close-looped" the device, tapping off a wee bit of the output, and using it as the rigidly clamped positive-feedback input. So his later devices put out 500 watts, directly from the vacuum, without any external input at all.

Sweet has also built devices having 1,000 watt output and 5,000 watt output. The devices also are solid state, with no moving parts.

A nominal Sweet device outputs 1,000 watts of time-reversed (PCR) EM power at 60 Hz and 120 volts. It weighs 6 pounds, and can be rigged to simultaneously produce antigravity, while it is producing its negative power.

However, there are still some serious problems with stability, etc. Also, there are serious legal problems, and in fact the entire thing has been in litigation. It may be that nothing will ever be possible with this device, because of the horrendous legal entanglements. But the device is real, it works (albeit it is just a laboratory demonstration device, and not at all a production-ready model). It proves the principles, and the report is now in the standard literature.

Also, to prove the scalar EM interpretation of gravity and antigravity, at my urgent request in 1987, Sweet specially rigged the device for antigravity production. In the cited paper we report on the highly successful result.The 6-lb. weight of the object was reduced in periodic stages by 90%, on a scale on the lab bench, in a totally controlled, smooth, slow, sustained experiment without transients or sudden surges, jerks, etc. At the same time, the device was steadily producing negative electrical power.

In fact, the method of producing antigravity in a "rigged" unit is simply to force it to process more negative power through the nucleus. Gravitational energy is negative energy, and gravitational power is negative power, as is well known.

It follows that to first order, antigravity can be regarded as simply the outputting or ejecting of negative energy from the atomic nucleus, through the electron shells and into an external load, rather than return of the negative VPF energy back to the vacuum from the nucleus.

The curve is reproduced in the paper, and printed in the proceedings. I had qualitatively predicted the results, prior to the experiment.

What is not printed in the proceedings is that, with another more powerful model, Sweet has actually fully levitated the entire 6-lb unit, and "flown" it above the bench, via this approach to antigravity. So the scalar EM theory works. It's still tricky, and we're just at the stage that normal EM went through with "cat fur, glass rods, and pith balls." But slowly we're getting there. Still, we desperately need to develop good instrumentation for detecting (1) the absolute scalar potential, including its magnitude, and (2) the exact Whittaker bidirectional EM wave harmonic structure of the scalar potential. We know how to approach that problem, but it will be quite expensive, and funding to do that has simply never been available.

To illustrate just how poorly some of the foundations of normal science (including physics) are known, let me point out that the present definition of energy is totally wrong. Now there's a real attention grabber of a statement! Can I prove it? Let's see.The present "definition" of energy in science is usually stated something like this. "Energy is the capacity to do work." Well, that statement happens to be totally, hopelessly false. It isn't even correct logic. Here's why.

What is work? Ultimately, work is the scattering (disordering) of energy. We can always resort to calorimetry, e.g., and determine the warming of a solution (such as water) by a mechanically-powered paddlewheel, to convert mechanical energy to heat energy, etc. But in QM, all mechanical forces are generated by the exchange of virtual photons, so even mechanical force is electromagnetic at base. Hence mechanical force times distance is also EM-generated, at its causative base. Eventually, mechanical and electromagnetic work involves the scattering of EM energy.

So substituting for the term "work" in the accepted definition of energy, the standard definition is really this: "Energy is the (capacity to do) scattering of energy."[Ref 6] That's logically contradictory. It says that energy is just its own scattering! And that's nonsense.

Try it on the notion of a fishhook. I can truthfully state: "A fishhook can be used to catch fish." That's perfectly okay. However, we cannot accurately define a fishhook as "A fishhook IS the capacity to catch fish." That's a non sequitur. We can say, accurately, that "a fishhook HAS the (innate) capacity to catch fish," and that is accurate. That's just a statement about fishhooks, it is not a definition. But we cannot say that "a fishhook IS the capacity to catch fish." Indeed, a fishhook IS a bent piece of wire, where one end is usually curved with a barb on the tip.

Similarly, we can say that "energy HAS the capacity to do work," and that is logically accurate. In that form, it's just a statement of one of the things that energy can be used to do. One can, by scattering the energy, do work - since work is just the scattering of energy in the first place. But one cannot say that "Energy IS the capacity to do work." A thing cannot be defined as just its own scattering!

I find it remarkable

even astoundingthat generations of scientists and engineers have apparently failed to notice this simple, elementary fact. Could it be that all the physicists and engineers are presently wrong in their notion as to precisely what energyis? If so, then (one might say) what, pray tell, is it? What is energy anyway?

Here's the precise definition:Energy is any ordering, either static or dynamic, in the virtual particle flux of vacuum.Period. Note that energy overall refers to the flux of any and all kinds of virtual particles in the vacuum. It can be any kind of ordering imposed in or on any or some or all of those particle fluxes.But when you put an adjective modifier in front of the word "energy", then you have selected a particular type of flux. In that case you have to discriminate the type of quantum particle of the field, comprising the flux that is being referred to. Like the following:

Electromagnetic energy is any ordering, either static or dynamic, in the virtual photon flux of vacuum. In other words, for a field energy, one selects only the type of particle in the VPF that is the quantum particle of that field.Let's continue: Nowhere in physics _ in all of physics _ does there appear a legitimate definition of the electrostatic scalar potential. The normal "definition" utilized or advanced is a prescription for calculating its magnitude. I could not find a single physicist or electrical engineer who could accurately define it. So I went to QM and dug out what it is, myself. Let's continue:

A potential is any ordering, either static or dynamic or combination thereof, in the virtual particle flux of vacuum.Note that, according to this definition, a potential is pure energy, a priori. But we must be careful. Because of the nature of the virtual particle flux comprising it, the potential is a collection of individual virtual energies - a collection of the individual energies of a host of individually moving virtual particles. Each particle is still almost totally separate from each other, most of the time. In other words, as an informal analogy, potential is a sort of mostly disintegrated energy, which only has just a touch of integration, enough to allow it to be referred to as a single "collection" or "ordering."

A scalar potential is any static (stationary) ordering in the virtual particle flux of vacuum. A vector potential is any dynamic (nonstationary) ordering in the virtual particle flux of vacuum. So scalar potentials and vector potentials are simply different subsets of the energy domain.

An electrostatic scalar potential is any static (stationary) ordering in the virtual photon flux of vacuum. And so on.

Now those are all precise definitions. To the best of my knowledge, they have not previously appeared in physics.

However, with respect to the electrostatic scalar potential, one still has a conceptual problem. Any photon in the vacuum must of necessity be moving at an average velocity of c, it would seem. So how does one have a "stationary" ordering of these extremely fast photons? In other words, how do you catch and "hold stationary" a particle that's moving at luminal velocity, and have it still continuing to move that fast?It's simply a special case of a kind of "standing wave" stationary solution by another name. Indeed, Whittaker decomposes the scalar potential into bidirectional pairs (in a harmonic series) of EM waves.[Ref 7] In other words, a scalar electrostatic potential internally consists of

and is composed ofpaired EM waves, passing through each other, in pairs in a harmonic set. Sort of like a Fourier expansion set of harmonic waves, coupled with its phase conjugate set that is present at the same time. Notice that the harmonic wavepairs are phase-locked in frequency and time. Hence this structure establishes an organized, standing, stationary spatiotemporal lattice directly in the vacuum potential. It is strongly pointed out that this represents a local organization and structuring of spacetime itself.Further, a given potential created by our circuits is a change in the trapped local EM energy of the vacuum. It therefore represents a local curvature of spacetime, and this local curvature is Whittaker-structured.

So we look at one pair of Whittaker waves, at its wave and antiwave components. We point out that the antiwave is a true phase conjugate (time-reversal) twin of the wave. In that wave/antiwave pair, photons in the wave are moving forward (say, from left to right) in one direction, and antiphotons in the antiwave are moving back (say, from right to left). In other words, photons and antiphotons are present and constantly meeting each other in each wave/antiwave pair.Further, the antiwave is precisely coupled to the wave by phase conjugation. This requires that photons and antiphotons are also continually and precisely coupling

which they can do and will do if one is a precise phase conjugate of the otherand decoupling. But when momentarily coupled, the photon/antiphoton pair have helicity 2. In other words, at that moment the paired system (couple) is stationary. As a crude visual model, each may be visualized as "whirling around" (orbiting) the other momentarily, so that each has tangential velocity c, but oppositely directed, producing a spin-2 system that is momentarily "trapped" and not translating.[Ref 8] In this fashion a photon may be "spatially trapped" in a graviton system, but the individual photon may still be moving with tangential velocity c, even though the graviton system is stationary.Thus what we have in the Whittaker bidirectional wave structure of the scalar EM potential is the continual formation and dissolution of stationary spin-2 gravitons, with photons and antiphotons continually entering and exiting each coupling position. The gravitons resulting from the photon coupling/uncoupling are statistical, for they are continually being created and destroyed.

Those statistical gravitons are what comprise the "electrostatic scalar potential," and constitute the convolution of the locally trapped photons. Consequently, the local EM energy trapped in the scalar EM potential exists in that form.

Note that, because of the arrangement of the photon/antiphoton pairs into a harmonic series, all the EM waves in the entire Whittaker set are phase-locked, as are the gravitons. This means that the phase-locked graviton sets represent an ordered spacetime graviton lattice - containing EM energy ordered both dynamically and statically in frequency, energy, space, and time.

So, the scalar electrostatic potential is actually a hidden graviton latticing organization of local spacetime itself.

It follows that, in photon interactions, normally we actually have a bust-up of a graviton, so that we have two photon interactions,[Ref 9] not one, as follows: (1) the freed forward-time photon interacts with the shell electrons of the atom, which is the reaction contained in the textbooks, and (2) the freed time-reversed antiphoton interacts with the nucleus of the atom to produce Newton's third law reaction force.[Ref 10]

Now that we know that the scalar potential is comprised of gravitons, we can understand why the potential is gravitational (as is well-known in general relativity.)[Ref 11] We also realize something even more important: We realize precisely how gravitational potential is made and sustained electromagnetically. In other words, we now understand electrogravitation. Note that, so far, we have described a very "linear" condition in spacetime, where the local spacetime from one point to its neighboring points does not change in the photon coupling constituency of the graviton lattice. Such a spacetime is locally flat.

However, it follows that we also should be able to do some nonlinear things to make the average photon/antiphoton coupling differ from spin-2. In that case, we can have some multiple photon couplings greater than helicity 2. We can also have the occasional failure of photon and antiphoton to couple, so that the average coupling is less than helicity 2.Because of the continual creation and annihilation of gravitons, in describing "the" graviton we are speaking of the average photon coupling over a finite time, where the average smooths and becomes a constant value, and where by "photon" we refer to both photons and antiphotons.

If so, we then have this characteristic: If the average photon coupling in the vacuum EM potential is spin-2, then that's the "linear" coupling case, and the local spacetime is flat (uncurved). If the average coupling is less than spin-2, then the local spacetime is curved in one direction. It is deficient in photons for its preferred coupling, so it acts as a photon sink, or EM energy sink. So to speak, such a potential/vacuum/spacetime has "unfilled photon holes - sort of a slightly depleted "Dirac photon sea." On the other hand, if the average coupling is greater than spin-2, the local spacetime is curved in the opposite direction. It has a surplus of photons, so it acts as a photon source - in other words, as an EM energy source. In this case, it is a sort of "excited Dirac photon sea."

Just as the spacetime/vacuum possesses a negative energy sea of Dirac electrons, so it possesses a negative energy sea of photons. When it's flat, all the negative energy "holes" are filled with virtual photons. When it's curved in one direction, some of the holes are empty, and the local spacetime will "absorb" some available photons. When it's curved in the other direction, an excess of virtual photons/antiphotons are crammed in there in excess of the holes, so the spacetime will emit photons and serve as an energy source.

Remember that spacetime/vacuum to first order is just scalar potential. We can have a negative or a positive potential, as a delta compared to the normal or ambient vacuum potential. And when we speak of curved spacetime, we are just talking about a surplus or shortage of trapped photon energy coupling density to comprise the local vacuum/potential.

The four words, potential, vacuum, spacetime, and static energy turn out to be essentially identities. Also, all of them have a dynamic substructure. That is, a vacuum per se is structured/ordered, since it is essentially a scalar potential. To first order, it is an electrostatic scalar EM potential, in the manner shown by Whittaker to have an internal bidirectional EM wave harmonic structure.A spacetime is internally structured; this provides direct access to "hyperspace" engineering, since the "internal" part of spacetime is hyperspatial, mathematically. But with the Whittaker approach, it is straightforward to directly engineer this internal hyperspace aspect.

The ultimate engineering is hyperspatial engineering, vacuum engineering, engineering of potentials, engineering of vacuum engines, energizing the vacuum, energizing spacetime, structuring the local curvature of spacetime, engineering the internal electromagnetics, etc. All these things are identically the same thing. They are all part of scalar electromagnetics.

Interference of vacua/potentials generates what we call EM waves in vacuum.[Ref 12] These waves may move either time-forward or time-reversed (antiwaves). You can also engineer this direct scalar interferometry to produce, stabilize, and control EM energy, in static or dynamic form, as Whittaker showed in 1904, even at a distance.[Ref 13]

So, as you might surmise, in scalar EM we can curve local spacetime, and use it as either a source or a sink of EM energy. Once we pay to move a set of charges so as to establish a particular excitation and structure to the local or distant spacetime, so long as we do not allow the depletion of the charges, they continue to "pump" virtual photons (that is what electric charge is, according to QM) and sustain that particular active/excited/ energetic spacetime/vacuum/potential. If virtual EM photon energy is removed from that excited/activated vacuum region, the surrounding activated vacuum instantly replaces it, continually and forever.Now we are free to build a device which (1) establishes the excited vacuum/spacetime/potential in the first place, and (2) then taps off the virtual photon energy of the excited vacuum potential itself, without allowing depletion of the sustaining charged particles that are fixed in position and creating/pumping the virtual photon flux that creates the potential. We can tap the continual power of the Whittaker EM biwaves flowing through the excited vacuum potential forever, without exhausting it. It is simply comparable to putting a paddlewheel in a river, where in this case the Whittaker bidirectional EM wave structure is the river, and a special tapping device or process is the "paddlewheel." We can extract all the energy we wish, forever, from the stream, and the vacuum itself will continually and forever replenish the stream as fast as we extract the power.

So we can build an over-unity machine,

if we tap the locally altered vacuum potential's hidden Whittaker river, rather than releasing the sustaining electrical charges/VPF spray pumps we accumulated to create that altered potential.If you release the charges (the electrons, e.g.) as normal electrical engineers are trained to do, the charges translate and mechanically bang and clang their way through resistances, etc. on the way to electrical ground, depleting the potential in the process. This banging and clanging produces scattering of the order/energy in the potential and hence does work. But that way you only get one shot of it. It's a one-time thing, and then you've got to pay to move in some more charges, build another potential, and release the potential and the charges so the charges will go banging and clanging through the circuit again, scattering energy (order) and producing one-time work again.

That's a very poor way to do business. It's rather like having some free, self-powered pumps, building a dam to hold some water pressure, moving in some of the pumps and pumping up water behind the dam to provide the pressure, then knocking down the dam and releasing the pumps and the water simultaneously, so that the water will rush out and push the pumps along to bump into things along the flow channel and do "banging and clanging" work. Yes, you can get some work done by the pumps one time that way. But it's a "hell of a way to run a railroad!" Yet all our present electrical engineers and electrical scientists are trained to plan, develop, build, and utilize just such crude EM systems!

Charged particles, in quantum mechanics, are engaged in a violent virtual particle flux exchange with the vacuum. The violent virtual photon exchange between vacuum and mass particle is what creates and constitutes the electrical charge on that particle of mass. In other words, the electrically charged particle is nature's little "spray engine" or "spray pump," with respect to virtual photon flux or spray.The magnitude of the electrostatic scalar potential created by the accumulated charges (spray pumps) represents the local magnitude (flux/spray density) of that virtual photon "spray." It has nothing to do with the mass of the charges, except that nature has built those particular masses to be "little self-powered spray pumps."

When we "charge up" an accumulator, such as a steel sphere or a capacitor, we push in the electrons so that they pack closer together, and we thus increase the virtual photon spray density because we've accumulated more sprayers in a confined volumetric region. The volumetric spray density represents the magnitude of the electrostatic scalar potential (ESP), in this analogy.

Contrary to conventional wisdom, Whittaker proved that this scalar potential

this "spray density"is internally organized into hidden, flowing, bidirectional EM waves.[Ref 14] EM forcefield wave Energy is flowing in both directions. In the electrostatic scalar potential, the net Poynting vector resultant is zero, but it is a "sum-zero system" composed of an infinite set of opposite but equal finite Poynting vectors. That zero vector resultant is a scalar EM potential. It's got lots and lots of EM energy flowing both in and out simultaneously, but these flows are normally balanced and in equilibrium.

However, if we could tap the EM energy in those hidden EM waves flowing oppositively inside the ESP, we could extract EM energy from the vacuum. We could "gate" some of the spray energy, that comes in from the vacuum to the charged particle, into the external circuit instead of back out to the vacuum. If so, we can use that "extracted and externally gated EM energy" to power a load.The "nucleus as a Whittaker-pumped phase conjugate mirror" mechanism I found in 1986, furnished to Floyd Sweet in early 1987, and released in 1991 allows precisely that tapping and gating capability.

Here's the magic secret of all electrical over-unity machines:

- Tap the Virtual Photon Spray.

- Tap the energy in the Massless Vacuum Potential.

- Do not release the spray pumps.

- Do not allow current flow in that part of the circuit where the charge pumps are collected to create the potential.

- Or at least allow only the absolute minimum of flow/bleed-off there, of the pumps.

- Organize, gate, and apply the potential spray to the external circuit, where it will attach to available electrons, forming force fields, voltage, and currents to pump electrons around the circuit.

Use those externally powered fields and currents to power the load.You can freely tap the potential's VPF "spray" forever, once one is created in the vacuum. As fast as you scavenge out the power in the spray, it is just renewed by the continued pumping of the charged particle "spray pumps." Nature and nature's excited vacuum potential "flux-spray" provide and replenish that pumping and that power, for free, forever.

So the altered vacuum (potential) is a universal "virtual-photon-flux fuel" if you construct your power units correctly. But you must engineer things one step deeper than the present seriously flawed electromagnetics prescribes.

Similar constructions give the secret of gravity and antigravity, and how to engineer them as well. However, that is beyond the scope of this paper.

As we stated, our attention is no longer directed to scalar EM weapons, but to the Phase II operation. That is progressing; there are at present several legitimate devices or processes that produce overunity. We reiterate that this is nothing mystical; none of these systems or processes is a closed system, so closed-system energy conservation need not apply locally.Indeed, there is really no such thing in the universe as a truly closed system, anywhere. Every system is open to the vacuum's virtual particle flux, and is in fact already in a fantastic virtual particle exchange with the vacuum. Normally, however, the influx and the outflux are equal in absolute magnitude; hence the system is in internal equilibrium vis-a-vis the vacuum.

However, if one breaks the equilibrium in this internal flux exchange, and organizes and gates a portion of that influx on out of the atom and into the external circuits, one can power an external electromagnetic load directly from the extracted vacuum energy.

It is no more mysterious than placing a paddlewheel in a flowing stream, to extract some useful energy as shaft horsepower. We just have a more esoteric stream and a more esoteric paddlewheel.

We also point out that there are no irrevocable "laws" of nature. Every so-called "law of physics" is just a great and useful generalization, based on certain fixed assumptions, that holds in a broad area. If the assumptions are violated, however, the law need no longer hold, and it can be violated.Scientific proof is proof by the experimental method, not by the authoritarian pronouncements of orthodox scientists. Unfortunately, orthodoxy as yet knows nothing of the process we are advancing, or of scalar electromagnetics. In the unorthodox experimental arena, however, scalar EM is still a newborn infant in the womb, but it is thriving and advancing. It is up to us to serve as midwives and get the infant born.

- T.E. Bearden and Walter Rosenthal, "On a testable unification of electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics," Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, August 4-9, 1991, Boston, Massachusetts.

- Floyd Sweet and T.E. Bearden, "Utilizing scalar electromagnetics to tap vacuum energy," Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC '91), August 4-9, 1991, Boston, Massachusetts.

- E.T. Whittaker, "On the partial differential equations of mathematical physics," Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355. See also V.K. Ignatovich, "The remarkable capabilities of recursive relations," American Journal of Physics, 57(10), Oct. 1989, p. 873-878. See also Richard W. Ziolkowski, "Localized transmission of wave energy," Proc. SPIE Vol. 1061, Microwave and Particle Beam sources and Directed Energy Concepts, Jan. 1989, p. 396-397.

- This self-oscillation in barium compounds is well-known in nonlinear optics, although it is usually experimentally accomplished in the optical frequency regime. Sweet brilliantly discovered how to initiate this self-oscillation or self-pumping at ELF frequencies, such as 60 Hz.

- For a statement of the distortion correction theorem, see Amnon Yariv, Optical Electronics, Third Edition, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1985, p. 500-501. See also David M. Pepper, "Nonlinear optical phase conjugation," Optical Engineering, 21(2), March/April 1982, p. 156-183 for a good overview of optical phase conjugation.

- Shortly below, energy will be defined as a certain kind of order. So the present "definition" of energy actually is stating that "order is the disordering of order." In that form, the logical contradiction in the "definition" is immediately apparent.

- E.T. Whittaker, 1903, ibid.

- This is true because the wave and antiwave are interferring. Such interference produces galloping waves, whose instantaneous velocity varies from the speed of light.

The galloping wave slows to, say, 0.01 c, then rushes forward again at 100 c, then slows, then speeds up, and so on. Its average velocity is c. But its instantaneous velocity is usually anything but c. See William G. Harter, John Evans, Roberto Vega, and Sanford Wilson. "Galloping waves and their relativistic properties." American Journal of Physics, 53(7), July 1985, p. 671-679.

- Occasionally yet another physicist discovers that photon interaction is actually binary, and that we ignore or discard half of almost all of our measurements. For example, see Richard Kidd et al, "Evolution of the Modern Photon," American Journal of Physics, 57(1), Jan. 1989, p. 27-35. See also R. Chen, "Cancellation of Internal Forces," American Journal of Physics, 49(4), Apr. 1981, p. 372.

- Essentially this has been experimentally proven. E.g., when one has a phase conjugate material, it may emit either photons (a normal wave) or antiphotons (a time-reversed or phase-conjugate wave).

Now, if I am right as to the genesis of Newtonian 3rd law reaction force, then when the material emits a time-reversed wave, or an antiphoton, the material should not recoil. Such experiments have in fact been done in nonlinear optics experiments, and "inexplicably" a phase conjugate mirror material does not recoil when it emits an antiphoton or a phase conjugate wave, seemingly violating Newton's third law! So it seems I am correct after all.

- In the modern GR view, all trapped energy is gravitational. It is the trapped EM energy in mass, e.g., that is gravitational. Mass is in fact a highly intense mass potential. Since any scalar potential is also a form of trapped EM energy, that energy
and hence the potential alsois gravitational in nature.

- E.T. Whittaker, "On an expression of the electromagnetic field due to electrons by means of two scalar potential functions," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Series 2, Vol. 1, 1904, p. 367-372. Here Whittaker demonstrates that the present forcefield electromagnetics can be replaced by scalar potential interferometry. And I'm called a lunatic for speaking of scalar interferometry!

Rigorously the scalar potential is composed of a dynamic, opposing vector forcefield wave internal structure. Internally it's vectorial; externally it's scalar. Whittaker 1903 tells how to make standing scalar potentials; these can be made as beams.

And one can then interfere the two scalar EM beams to produce EM force fields directly in distant charged particle systems, by Whittaker 1904.

- E.T. Whittaker, 1904, ibid.

- Mathematically these hidden waves may be modeled as hyperspatial waves.