Information and maps taken from Wikipedia.

Southeastern Pampanga Development Caucus/Group






Apalit (Pop as of 2005: 78,295), Candaba (97,921), Macabebe (68,339), Masantol (48,129), Minalin (35,150), San Luis (46,209), San Simon (41,253), Sto. Tomas (32,695), Arayat (101,792), Mexico (122,503), Sta. Ana (45,439).




Significance of the Area


The towns lie within the lowest portion of the Pampanga River Basin and historically they comprise the early settlements from which the Kapampangan race and culture developed.


The area is critical for various concerns of the national government that include:


1.      Environmental Protection, Conservation and Management that spans the length of the Pampanga River in the province up to Manila Bay;

2.      Agriculture and Aquaculture that can feed the growing demands of the nearby National Capital Region and surrounding growth centers;

3.      Flood mitigation and Water Management;

4.      Alternative routes and transportation for trade and commerce through Pampanga;

5.      Balanced land utilization for a model of sustainable development in Central Luzon;

6.      Eco-tourism.


Objectives of the Caucus/Group


  1. To promote and live fully the spirit of the Local Government Code that mandates the local government units to be active partners in national development and implementers of programs and projects within their areas of jurisdiction and responsibility.
  2. To promote cooperation and establish effective coordination among member local government units in addressing mutual cross-border concerns.
  3. To build and beef up capabilities of member local government units to plan and implement projects in relation to the above-mentioned concerns.


Member Local Government Units


Map of Pampanga showing the location of Apalit1. Apalit

Barangays of Apalit



San Vicente








San Juan





Barrio Capalangan which derived its name from the Kapampangan word "Palang" meaning machete or bolo is believed to have been founded by the son of a certain Gatbonton named Pangpalung who in his in youth was called Macapagal. This barangay was the home of Panday Pira, the first known Filipino maker of cannons. He manufactured cannons called lantakas for the troops of Rajah Soliman and after the Spanish conquest of Manila, he worked for Adelantado and Governor General Miguel Lopez de Legaspi.

Puerto Sulipan was once the haven of Philippine high society and elite circles of the rich and famous in politics and in business during the time of Capitan del Pueblo Don Joaquin Arnedo-Cruz and his beautiful and highly sophisticated wife, Dona Maria de la Paz Sioco y Arnedo-Cruz. Their palatial home was the venue of big parties attended by high government officials from Manila and European royalty. Their son Don Macario Arnedo, a four-term elected governor of Pampanga during the early years of the 20th century continued with his wife Dona Maria Espiritu Arnedo the traditional luxurious banquets and balls in barrio Sulipan. The people of Sulipan are famous for their exquisite cuisine which they acquired from Spanish and European chefs while Spanish ships were anchored in Puerto Sulipan for repairs and maintenance. Don Emilio Gonzalez, Capitan Juan Padilla, Anacleto Indiongco, Barrio Chieftain Simeon Torres-Simon and his four younger brothers, Lorenzo, Isaac, Miguel and Francisco Simon were among these Apalitenos who mastered the art of Spanish and European cooking and baking which have been carried by Kapampangans from generation to generation.

With about 72 square kilometers in land area, the town of Apalit has twelve barangays.

Apalitenos are also noted for their cottage industries such as weaving of cloth, mats, hats, pottery and metal working in gold, iron and silver.

Apalit is also a farming and fishing town. However, during the last few years, commercial and manufacturing firms have been established in this town. Several banking institutions, shopping malls, department stores, supermarkets, movie theaters, restaurants are also flourishing in the business area of the town.

Map of Pampanga showing the location of Candaba2. Candaba


Candaba, Pampanga is a Philippine town noted for its productive farmlands where sweet watermelons were made popular. It is known for its wide and scenic swamps, migratory birds, mudfish, catfish and many others. Candaba, once known as Candawe, has also become a major source of tilapia and duck eggs.

It is one of the oldest settlements during the pre-Hispanic time, and long before the encomenderos took hold of the town in 1593.

Basically a fishing and farming community, the place was administered by "datus" even as early as 1577. Topographically, Candaba, specially the swamps for what it became famous, represents the lowest point in Central Luzon.

The swamps are communal fishing grounds encompassing some 430 square kilometers of highly arable land.

Nowhere in Pampanga can one find any more fertile land than that of the Candaba swamps due to its sustained deposits of humus and decaying vegetable residues. Migrant wild ducks and various bird species escape winter winds from China and Siberia making Candaba their yearly sanctuary. Bird watching in the swamp is a tourist attraction.

The barangays of Candaba are Bahay Pare, Bambang, Barangca, Barit, Buas, Cuayang Bugtong, Dalayap, Gulap, Dulong Ilog, Lanang, Lourdes, Mangumbali, Mandasig, Mandili, Mangga, Mapaniqui, Paligue, Pangclara, Pansinao, Paralaya, Pasig, Pescadores, Pulong Gubat, Pulong Plazan, Salapungan, San Agustin, Santo Rosario, Tagulod, Talang, Tenejero, Vizal San Pablo, Vizal Santo Cristo, Vizal Santo Niño.

Candaba has developed into 3 regions because of its geographical characteristics. The Tagalog region comprising of 14 barangays shares border with Bulacan, the Capampangan region, comprising of 8 barangays lies farther north sharing boundaries with both Bulacan and Nueva Ecija, while the town center, the Poblacion with 11 barangays is separated by the vastness of the Candaba Swamp.

Candaba has a total of 18,711 hectares of agricultural land with 5,433 farmers. During the rainy season it decreases to 12,425 hectares with 3,875 farmers.

Aside from rice, the other significant agricultural products are green corn involving some 332 hectares and 194 farmers and melon covering some 226 hectares with 105 farmers. About 60 hectares are used for commercial growing of various lowland vegetables.

Candaba has 462 fishpond operators utilizing some 3,425 hectares of wetland. The rivers and their tributaries are inhabited by various species of fish that provide sources of income for marginal fishermen and trappers.

Tilapia is the main produce of the fishponds contributing significantly to making Pampanga the top tilapia producer of the country.

A fledgling ornamental fish industry exists in Candaba offering good prospects for the highly lucrative Koi industry.

3. Macabebe

Map of Pampanga showing the location of Macabebe

Macabebe is an ancient town of the province of Pampanga that is intrinsically linked to the water. It is little known fact that the Macabebes were the first known Kapampangans (Henson 1955:115). During the beginning of the Spanish period in the Philippines, Macabebe was already considered as one of the oldest in the eleven more important communities of Pampanga. The oldness of the town owes much to its location along the Rio Grande de la Pampanga. This river’s water routes and northern tributaries gave birth to all the early major settlements of the province. The English translation of Macabebe (bordering river banks) reveals the antiquity of the town once it is realized that the word Pampanga means the same.

The fact that the dialect of the Macabebes is more severe and louder is attributed to how the ancestors of the town must have shouted their ideas across the waters.

The Pampanga River is a valuable resource to the Macabebes, just as it has always been. Fish are still a major source of livelihood for the people of the town. Fishponds now occupy more than 90% of Macabebe.


Macabebe has 25 barangays:

  • Batasan
  • Caduang Tete
  • Candelaria
  • Castuli
  • Consuelo
  • Dalayap
  • Mataguiti
  • San Esteban
  • San Francisco
  • San Gabriel (Pob.)
  • San Isidro
  • San Jose
  • San Juan
  • San Rafael
  • San Roque
  • San Vicente
  • Santa Cruz (Pob.)
  • Santa Lutgarda
  • Santa Maria
  • Santa Rita (Pob.)
  • Santo Niño
  • Santo Rosario (Pob.)
  • Saplad David
  • Tacasan
  • Telacsan




4. Masantol


Map of Pampanga showing the location of MasantolAlthough this town is still called Masantol which means abounding in santol trees, there are that not many santol trees growing anymore in this area. Several tropical fruit trees grow in backyards but not in large numbers or in mass production. According to Mr. Manny Fajardo, a descendant of one of the founders of the town and the son of a former mayor of Masantol, that if the town will be renamed today, the appropriate name should be "Masugpo" in Tagalog or "Maparo" in Kapampangan.because of the abundance of shrimps in the fishponds and rivers in this town.

 Barangays of Masantol 



San Isidro

Sta. Lucia Wakas



San Isidro Matua

Sta. Monica



San Nicolas

Sto. Nino

Bebe Anac


San Pedro

Sapang Kawayan

Bebe Matua


Sta. Cruz




Sta. Lucia Anac



San Agustin

Sta. Lucia Matua


Shrimp raising has become very profitable. Large acreage of rice plantations have been converted into fish ponds producing shrimps and milkfish. Fishing in rivers and in Manila Bay has been negatively affected by the industrial pollution coming from the factories operating along the sides of the Pampanga River. Rice farming is still the main source of livelihood.

Map of Pampanga showing the location of Minalin5. Minalin


Like a typical town located in the Pampanga delta, the principal industries of Minalin are farming and fishing. Despite of the damages caused by the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and the occasional flow of lahar during rainy seasons, the industrious people of Minalin manage to maintain and continue the economic development of their beloved hometown. Currently, poultry and swine raising is also a major industry in this locality.


Barangays of Minalin


San Francisco 1st

San Pedro

Santo Domingo


San Francisco 2nd

Santa Catalina

Santa Rosario


San Isidro

Santa Maria



San Nicolas

Santa Rita


Minalin which is also known as the "Egg Basket of Luzon" because of its large scale production of eggs and chickens is still a dream town and a tourist attraction for its "Belles of Minalin" New Year’s Celebration in which men dressed as beauty queens ride through town on festive floats. This annual display of beautiful dresses and expertise in women’s make up signifies that this town follows the dynamic changes in women’s fashion not only in the Philippines but also in Europe, Asia and in other countries.


6. San Luis

Barangays of San Luis

San Agustin
San Carlos
San Isidro
San Jose
San Juan
San Nicolas

San Roque
San Sebastian
Sta. Catalina
Sta. Cruz Pambilog
Sta. Cruz Poblacion
Sta. Lucia

Santa Monica
Santa Rita
Santo Rosario
Santo Nino
Santo Tomas


San Luis was originally divided into six geographical divisions: Candola, Bularit, Bonot, San Juan and Pambilog, all on the other side of the Pampanga River. They became the parent barrios of San Juan, San Nicolas, Santa Monica, San Agustin, San Isidro, San Roque and San Jose. Canitapan (now Poblacion) where the church and municipal building now stand was made into eight barrios namely: Santa Cruz Poblacion, Santo Tomas, Santa Rita, San Carlos, Santo Rosario, San Sebastian, Santa Catalina, and Santa Cruz Pambilog.

Map of Pampanga showing the location of San LuisPrior to the construction of the Arnedo Dike during the term of Don Macario Arnedo as governor of the province of Pampanga in 1904-1908, barrio roads and most of the land area were frequently flooded during the rainy seasons because of the overflow of water from the Pampanga River. It was very difficult for the people to travel around the local community to market their farm products, fish and other produce. Due to these annual calamities, the municipal government located in barrio San Isidro was temporarily moved to barrio San Nicolas from July to November until the year 1788 when the final move was permanently made.

Like their fellow Kapampangans and other Filipinos in other towns and cities in the Philippines, the residents of San Luis are peace and freedom-loving people. They consider peace and freedom as two of the greatest gifts of the Almighty to humanity. In essence, they are willing to lay down their lives to maintain peace and order and preserve their freedom. In the bloody revolution of 1896 against Spain and against the United States of America in the early 20 th century as well as during World War II in 1941 to 1945 against Japan, the patriotic people of San Luis took up arms and saw action to defend Philippine freedom. They figured most prominently in the battle against the invading Japanese Imperial Forces. Those who did not enlist in the regular armed forces of the United States of America and the Commonwealth of the Philippines joined voluntarily an armed resistance movement in the early days of 1942.

President Magsaysay launched his economic program for rural reconstruction with barrio Santa Monica in the town of San Luis as a model and training center. Large tracts of uncultivated agricultural land for many years were cleared by thousands of trainees from neighboring towns and provinces. To insure the cultivation of the cleared land, to eradicate poverty and illiteracy, and to elevate the standard of living of the people, President Magsaysay dispatched to Santa Monica a group of rural builders under the able leadership of Mr. Labez. This group, also known as the President Magsaysay San Luis Project Committee has successfully sold the idea of self-help to the people in the project area through hard work, patience and determination. Most families are now engaged in poultry and animal industry, almost all backyards are practically green throughout the year with either vegetables or newly planted fruit-bearing trees. The people gave importance to proper hygiene and preservation of life. Support for the farmers became available in buying work animals, farm implements, money for planting, etc. They did not need to borrow funds anymore from moneylenders who charged them with high interest rates. With the help of the national government through the Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration (ACCFA), the economic rehabilitation of the farmers and of the entire municipality was accelerated as envisioned in the rural program of the late President Magsaysay.



Map of Pampanga showing the location of San Simon7. San Simon


San Simon, an emerging business haven in Central Luzon particularly in the province of Pampanga had its humble beginnings in 1770 as a farming village when it was founded by Don Mariano del Pilar de los Reyes and named it Barrio Del Pilar. It was located in a productive agricultural area between the towns of San Luis in the North and Apalit in the South. As the population kept on growing in the local community, the leading citizens of the progressive village initiated a petition to consolidate a portion of the southern part of the town of San Luis and a land area from the northern part of the municipality of Apalit to form an independent municipality. Appraised of the economic potential of a new town and confidence in the management capability of the leaders, the Spanish Governor General at the time during his second term as chief administrator of the Philippines, Don Simon de Anda y Salazar approved the official creation of the town on November 15, 1771.

By the year 1835, the town had eight barrios. However, since the late 1940s, the number of barrios increased to fourteen in a land area of 57.36 square kilometres and by the early years of the 21st century, the population grew to more than 39,000 people. As of today, the barrios or barangays in San Simon are the following:

Concepcion, San Juan, San Pedro (Cutcut), De la Paz, San Miguel (Calonge), Santa Cruz, San Agustin(Tulauc), San Nicolas (Sompong), Santa Monica (Pangkiari), San Isidro (Litlit), San Pablo Libutad, Santo Nino, San Jose, San Pablo (Pulo).

In 1904, the town of San Simon was merged with the municipality of San Luis and about three years after, it became again an independent municipality. In 1920, the geographical boundaries of San Luis, Apalit and San Simon were officially established.

Another factor that contributes to the potential economic growth of San Simon in the 21st century is its geographic location. It is strategically located in the central part of the “W” Growth Corridor of Central Luzon and it is accessible from major road networks and arteries coming from the different provinces of Central Luzon and Metro Manila. From the North Luzon Expressway, one can take an exit through the San Simon Toll Plaza, which is about 45 kilometers from Metro Manila and seven kilometers from San Fernando City, Pampanga and approximately 20 kilometers from the Clark Special Economic Zone in Angeles City.

Taking advantage of the conducive local business environment, tax incentives and availability of skilled workers, many manufacturing and commercial firms have been established or relocated in San Simon. The infusion of private capital investment was about ten billion pesos and expected to increase to more than twenty billion pesos by the early years of the 21st century.

Map of Pampanga showing the location of Santo Tomas8. Santo Tomas

The town of Santo Tomas includes now the seven barangays of Moras de la Paz, Poblacion, San Bartolome, San Matias, San Vicente, Santo. Rosario Pau and Sapa (Santo Nino). It is bounded on the North-East by the provincial capital of San Fernando; on the South-East by the municipality of San Simon; on the South-West by the town of Minalin; and on the North-West by the municipalities of Bacolor and Minalin.

Although the population of Santo Tomas had been consistently increasing from 21,382 in 1975 to 38,483 in 1995 as per the National Census compiled by the Provincial Planning Office, its geographical area remained the same at 21.29 square kilometers. Economic growth and increases in population initiated the creation of two barangays in 1970. These two barangays, Sapa - Santo Nino and Moras de la Paz were former purok or sitios of the progressive barrio of San Matias.

The primary industries of the town are pottery, ceramic, carpentry, trading and farming.

9. Arayat

Map of Pampanga showing the location of ArayatThe municipality of Arayat is endowed with relatively abundant water resources consisting mostly of groundwater, rivers and streams. Pampanga River, Choco River and Paranum River drain it.

The historic Mount Arayat should not remain a simple tourist spot as declared in November 1993 by Republic Act 7690, because of the increasing number of tourists over the past few years.

By declaring Mount Arayat a world-class ecotourism site environmental awareness would be promoted as concerned government agencies would be mandated to provide financing assistance.

Pampanga residents, particularly those living near the 1,026-meter-high dormant volcano, would benefit if it is declared and developed as an ecotourism center because it will generate additional revenue for the local residents and firms.

Concerned government agencies and civic organizations will also be encouraged to promote the place and invest in tourist-oriented establishments and facilities there.

This is now the most opportune time to develop Mount Arayat as an ecotourism site because of the rising number of local and foreign tourists.

If Mount Arayat is declared an ecotourism facility, roads leading to it would be improved and widened to accommodate the possible increase of tourists.

Arayat is politically subdivided into 30 barangays.

  • Arenas
  • Baliti
  • Batasan
  • Buensuceso
  • Candating
  • Gatiawin
  • Guemasan
  • La Paz (Turu)
  • Lacmit
  • Lacquios
  • Mangga-Cacutud
  • Mapalad
  • Palinlang
  • Paralaya
  • Plazang Luma
  • Poblacion
  • San Agustin Norte
  • San Agustin Sur
  • San Antonio
  • San Jose Mesulo
  • San Juan Bano
  • San Mateo
  • San Nicolas
  • San Roque Bitas
  • Cupang (Santa Lucia)
  • Matamo (Santa Lucia)
  • Santo Niño Tabuan
  • Suclayin
  • Telapayong
  • Kaledian (Camba)

10. Mexico


When water transportation was still the primary means of travelling, the town of Mexico had a river port for passenger and cargo ships. It was then the primary trading center in Eastern Pampanga. The construction of good roads and railroads passing through San Fernando and Angeles diminished the commercial activities in Mexico. The town proper was transferred before the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution to its present location which is on the junction of the national road leading to the towns of Sta. Ana, Arayat and Candaba.

Mexico, known as the cradle of the Socialist Movement in Pampanga is still a farming community with sugar and palay as its principal crops. The town has forty three (43) barangays:

Barangays of Mexico




San Rafael



San Antonio

San Roque



San Carlos

San Vicente



San Jose Malino

Sta. Cruz



San Jose Matulid

Sta. Maria



San Juan

Sto. Domingo


Nueva Victoria

San Lorenzo

Sto. Rosario



San Miguel

Sapang Maisac



San Nicolas




San Pablo




San Patricio


The town of Mexico was not significantly damaged by the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo nor by the annual flow of lahar in other towns. The good people of Mexico responded to the call of duty to care for calamity victims who lost their homes. Thousands of these people who lost their homes are now resettled in Mexico.


11. Santa Ana



Map of Pampanga showing the location of Santa Ana

In olden times Sta. Ana was a vast place of forest bordered by places known as Mexico, Candaba, Magalang and Arayat. A settlement was established by people who came from neighboring towns. Clearing the areas as years passed, they put up a community and livelihood community for their permanent dwelling.

Soon more people came to settle in the place. They selected a leader from the settlers, one who was bravest, the most diligent and how understood the problems of the people. He was addressed as Datu, Gat and Apo.When the Spaniards came, they named the place Sta. Ana.

Santa Ana which used to be called "Pinpin" had its first Augustinian Mission authorized by the first bishop of the Philippines, Don Fray Domingo de Salazar on August 29, 1590, the same date the Augustinian Mission in Arayat was authorized to be founded, both missions were under the jurisdiction of the Parish of Candaba Santa Ana, a farming area that now has tilapia fishponds and a modest poultry industry.

Santa Ana is politically subdivided into 14 barangays.

  • San Agustin
  • San Bartolome
  • San Isidro
  • San Joaquin (Pob.)
  • San Jose
  • San Juan
  • San Nicolas
  • San Pablo
  • San Pedro
  • San Roque
  • Santa Lucia
  • Santa Maria
  • Santiago
  • Santo Rosario

Northwestern Pampanga Development Caucus/Group