Hde.geocities.com/baerbel_beuse/eng_sails.htmde.geocities.com/baerbel_beuse/eng_sails.htm.delayedxYJ #FOKtext/html8&'##Fb.HThu, 08 Nov 2007 15:21:09 GMTMozilla/4.5 (compatible; HTTrack 3.0x; Windows 98)en, *YJ#F sails

Sails and Running Rigging

Description of MIR's Rigging an how it Works.

The MIR's twenty-six sails drive her, in optimum winds, twice as fast as does her auxiliary engine. The sails are set, doused, and trimmed by means of her running rigging. The task of memorizing the location and use of the more than 230 lines may at first seem overwhelming, but it is actually quite simple. The lines can be grouped into a handful of functions; their locations are logically determined by their functions. In addition, most lines are paired and located similarly on the foremast, the mainmast and the mizzenmast. To understand these functions it will first be necessary to examine the MIR's sails.


MIR has fourteen square sails. The sails on the foremast, mainmast and mizzenmast are essentially the same and are made of panels of dacron. The head of the sail is attached to the forward jackstay on the yard by robands. Earrings in the upper comers of the sails are attached to a hook on the earring jackstay and keep the head of the sail taut. The side edges of the sail are the leeches; the bottom edge is the foot; and the lower corners of the sail are the clews. Running along the outer edges of the sails is a wide tabling of dacron, which helps to shape the sails and give them strength.

The bulk of the running rigging is used to set and douse the sails:



The Мир has six staysails, named after the part of the mast supported by the stay on which they are bent, and five headsails. Like the square sails, all are made of dacron. The leading edge of the sail is the luff. Metal hanks are used to bend the luff to its stay. The bottom edge is the foot, as in a square sail, while the aft edge is the leech. The top point of the sail, to which the halyard is bent, is the head; the lower point, at the junction of the foot and the luff, to which the tack pendant is attached, is the tack; and the remaining point at the junction of the foot and the leech, to which the sheet is attached, is the clew. Along the edge of the sail, as with square sails, is a tabling of dacron.

Three lines control the headsails and staysails. A fourth, the tack pendant, runs from the tack to the mast on the staysails and to the bowsprit on the headsails. It is used to hold the sail at the proper distance up the stay. This pendant is permanently attached and is not adjustable.

The sheets themselves consist of two parts. A wire-rope sheet pendant is permanently shackled to the clew of the sail A sheet tackle, whose size depends on the size of the sail, is shackled to an eye on deck and to the pendant. In shifting the sheets the two shackles are unshackled, and the tackle is carried to the opposite rail. The pendant is hauled up and over any lower stays by a cadet stationed in the top. It is then reshackled into the tackle.



The remaining sail, the spanker, although unique, is rigged in a manner analogous to the squaresails. The spanker's parts bear the same names as those of the square sail. The upper aft corner of the spanker is known as the peak, the upper forward corner as the throat, and the lower forward corner at the foot as the tack. The running rigging for the spanker consists of the following:


The lines discussed so far are used primarily for setting and dousing the sails. The remaining type of running rigging is used primarily for trimming the square sails and their yards.

Braces are used to adjust the fore and aft trim of the yards. At the foremast and the mainmast, the lower three braces lead directly to the yardarms from the pinrails, via bumpkins on the side of the ship. The upper two braces lead up the shrouds (of the mast) aft of the mast, on which the yards they control are located, to the yardarms. This arrangement results in a more horizontal lead and makes the yards easier to control. All braces are paired. Whenever one brace is hauled, its equivalent on the opposite side of the ship must be eased.

The braces of the mizzen mast lead all to the main mast, then along the mast down on deck and through blocks before being belayed on the pinrail behind the main mast.

after the handbook of the EAGLE,
converted  for the MIR in Summer 2000 by Nicole Graf and Leonid Il'yinsky (MIR's sail master)