History
 

 

 


 

 

 

12th-14th century: Ireland gradually under English rule 

15th century: rebellions against English monarchy no longer independence of Irish parliament (=English consent to Irish laws) 

16th century: start of religious suppression (Henry VIII) when Ireland remains Roman Catholic 

17th century: "Ulster Plantations -- Protestants settle in Ulster (province in the North of Ireland), Irish land given to English landlords 

169o: James II (he caused the "Glorious Revolution ), supported by the Irish, defeated by Protestant William of Orange (King William III) 

19th century: "Unionists , i.e. supporters of continued union with the rest of Britain, O'Connell's success in uniting nationalist and Catholic groups. "Home Rule Movement , demanding an Irish parliament. Sinn Féin want complete independence for Ireland 

1845-195o: the "Great (Potato) Famine results in 2 million dead or forced to emigrate (especially to North America), increases anti-English bitterness and reveals land problems. Ulster (linen trade and ship-building) suffers less 

1916: "Easter Rising in Dublin fails ... Result: Anglo-Irish War and establishment of the IRA 

192o: the "Government of Ireland Act creates The Irish Free State for 26 counties in the South and a new country, Northern Ireland, 6 counties in the north (Protestant majority), remaining part of the UK 

1949: Irish Free State becomes The Republic of Ireland (independent state) 

1968: a Civil Rights march in Derry is brutally put down by the police - start of the so called modern "Troubles in Ireland 

3o Jan 1972: "Bloody Sunday : the British Army kill 13 civil rights marchers in (London)Derry; consequence: more and more people join the IRA bloodshed on both sides (ca. 3.2oo people until today) [IRA: "all killings stem from British ... denial of Irish sovereignty ] 

1994: IRA announces "a complete cessation of military operations (broken by IRA breakaway group/s in 1996 and after) 

since 1996: Peace talks reopened 

Easter 1998: peace-treaty (welcome by more than 70 percent of people in NI), IRA initially resists peace-treaty ("Let us make it clear that there will be no decommissioning by the IRA. ), Real IRA emerges/is formed (May statement claims "ceasefire is over ) 

1998: government introduces the Northern Ireland Bill, designed to implement the Good Friday Agreement The Police (Northern Ireland) Act is passed nine days later, followed by the Northern Ireland (Sentences) Act, allowing early release of paramilitary prisoners Real IRA bombings threaten to hold up the peace process again (esp. Omagh on 15 Aug, 29 killed, soon followed by new Real IRA statement that "all military operations have been suspended ) 

Nov 1999: Mitchell Review - After 10 weeks of talks between the pro-Good Friday Agreement parties, US Senator George Mitchell says the basis now exists for devolution of power and the formation of a Northern Ireland Executive. Direct Rule ends in December and is reinstalled 72 days later later, apparently due to lack of serious commitment on the part of the IRA (arms problem) 

March 2000: New Bloody Sunday inquiry opens 

Dec 12, 2000: Clinton in NI (3rd time), identifies disputes over disarming Northern Ireland's guerrilla forces and establishing a new police force as two issues that could undermine the accord 

2001: some bombings killing more than half a dozen of people, Republican splinter groups suspected; Trimble (minister) resigns as first minister in protest against the Irish Republican Army"s failure to put its weapons beyond use 

Summer-Autumn 2001: Negotiations of the problems, NI Assembly suspended twice to buy time for further negotiations 

Sep 2001: resumption of trouble outside a north Belfast school for Catholic girls, more than 40 police officers wounded 

Oct 2001: IRA announces it has begun decommissioning its arms 

Nov 2001: David Trimble re-elected as leader of the NIA (after some unionist attempts at blocking his election) 

April 2002: The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) announces that the IRA has decommissioned a "substantial amount of weapons IRA states it thus wants to "stabilise the peace process  

August 2002: still different views as to the success and the duture of the peace process, e.g. in Guardian Special NI section; still "small scale murders and bombings, but the "slow walk to peace (Barry Turley, Observer) appears to be irreversible  

 

 

 

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