`pl;yhpd; n[Hkdpapy; ngz;fspd; epiy

Nfl; kpyl;

jkpopy; Rjh


,f; fl;Liuahsuhd mnkhpf;fhitr; NrHe;j Nfl; kpy;yl; Muk;gj;jpy; 1969,y; ntspahd mtuJ E}yhd ghypay; murpay; (Sexual Politics) vDk; E}ypd; %yNk cyFf;Fj; njhpate;jhH. Mq;fpy nkhop tpNrl gl;lk; ngw;w ,tH NguhrphpauhfTk; flikahw;wpatH. mtuJ Ma;T E}Yf;F murpaypy; ghy;epiy nry;thf;F Fwpj;J mf;fiw fhl;bapUe;jhH. Mzhjpf;f tho;Kiw njhlHr;rpahf ,Ug;Gnfhs;s ,yFthf;fpa gpw;Nghf;F rf;jpfs; Mw;wpa ghj;jpuk; mit ntw;wp nfhz;l tpjk; mjd; %yk; Gul;rpfu r%f khw;wk; NkYk; gpd;js;s fhuzkhfpg; Nghd tpjk; vd;gd Fwpj;J tphpthf vOjpapUf;fpwhH. ,e; E}y; gpd;dH te;j ngz;zpa Ma;TfSf;F mjpf Jiz Ghpe;Js;s Gfo; ngw;w E}yhf nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. mtuJ E}ypy; xU fl;Liuahd ehrp N[Hkdpapy; ngz;fs; vg;gb elj;jg; gl;lhHfs; vDk; fl;Liu ,q;F nkhopahf;fk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ.

nghJthd Mzhjpf;f murpay; fl;likg;Gf;Fs; elhj;jg;gLk; Vida gpur;rpidfSf;Fs; vt;thW ngz;fs; tpNrlkhf mlf;fg; gLfpwhHfs;. Gdpjq;fspd; ngauhy; mit vg;gb epahag;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j xLf;F Kiwfs; vt;thW jpl;lkpl;L epWtdkag; gLj;jg; gLfpd;wd. ,jid vjpHf;f Kbahj gb mur ,ae;jpuk; vg;gb mlf;FKiwf;F jahHgLj;JfpwJ. tpLjiyapd; ngauhYk;> jha;ehl;bd; tpbtpd; ngauhYk;> ,dj;Jtj;jpd; ngauhYk; ,it vy;yhk; jtpHf;f KbahJ vd;gJ vg;gb ek;gitf;fg;gLfpwJ vd;gJ ,d;iwa fhyfl;lj;jpy; jkpo;r; #oypy; mtrpakhdit. mg;gb xU mDgtj;ijj; ju ,e;j fl;Liu 60 tUlq;fSf;F Ke;jpa #oYf;Fs; nfhz;L NghfpwJ.

`pl;yhpd; N[Hkdpapy; ngz;fSf;F mspf;fg;gl;l ,lkhdJ FLk;gk; jha;ik Nghd;wdtw;iw ngw;Wf; nfhs;sf; $bathwhd epiyNa vd;whYk; mj;NjhL Aj;jk; njhlf;fg;gl;l fhyg;gFjpapy; N[Hkdpapd; Aj;j je;jpNuhghakhdJ Aj;jj; jsghlq;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; njhopw;rhiyfspy; mjpfstpy; ciog;ig nrYj;jpatHfs; ngz;fshtH. fpof;F INuhg;ghtpypUe;J mbik ciog;Gf;F ms;Sg;gl;L te;j fhyj;jpy; ,e;j epiyik mjpfhpj;jJ. 1933 [dthpapy; `pl;yH mjpfhuj;jpw;F tUk; NghJ njhopw;rhiyfspy; gzpGhpe;j ciog;ghsHfspy; 37.3 tPjk; ngz;fshf ,Ue;jdH. 1936MFk;NghJ ngz;fspd; njhif 31.8Mf Fiwe;jJ. vd;wNghJk; 1940 MFk; NghJ kPz;Lk; 37.1 tiu Ntiy nra;Ak; ngz;fspd; tPjhrhuk; caHe;jJ.

1935,y; A+iy 26 md;W Njrpa ciog;Gr; Nrit rl;lj;jpd; fPo; ngz;fs;-Mz;fs; ,U jug;gpdUk; fl;lha Njrpa Nritf;F mkHj;jg;gl;ldH. 1940,y; ,e;j rl;lj;ij kPwKbe;j ngz;fspd; vz;zpf;if kpff; FiwT. jpUkzk;> jha;ik kw;Wk; FLk;gk; gw;wpa fw;gpjq;fSk; gpur;rhuq;fSk; vt;thwpUe;jNghJk; ehrp Ml;rpapd; fPo; njhopy;Ghpe;j ngz;fspd; njhif epr;rakhf mjpfkhf ,Ue;jJ. ,jpy; cs;s Mr;rphpak; vd;dntd;why; ehrp n[Hkdpapy; NtW Jiwfspy; ngz;fSf;F ,Ue;j ,lk; gw;wp njhpAk; NghJ jhd;. gy;fiyf;fof gpuNtrk; njhlHghf filg;gpbj;j nfhs;ifapd; fhuzkhf ngz;fspd; gpuNtrk; 10f;F 1 Mf ,Ue;jJ. ,uz;lhk; epiy ghlrhiy khztHfspy; %d;wpy; ,uz;L tPjk; ngz;fshf ,Ue;jdH.

,tw;iw Muha;e;Jnfhz;L NghdNghJ vkf;F fpilf;f KbTfs; ,Jjhd;. ngz;fis kPz;Lk; tPl;Lf;Fs; Klf;fp itj;jpUg;gJ vd;gJ ehrpr; rpe;jidapd; gpujhd Nehf;fkhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. khwhf rfy caH njhopy;fspypUe;Jk; mtHfis ePf;fp mtHfis Fiwe;j Cjpak; ngWk; njhopyhsHfshf Mf;FtjhfNt ,Ue;jJ.

1934,y; ehrp itj;jpar; rignahd;wpy; ciuahw;wpa itj;jpaj;Jiw jiytH nlhf;lH thf;dH ,g;gbf; $wpdhH. ehq;fs; ngz;fSf;F caH fy;tpia mspf;Fk; vz;zj;ij tpl;LtpLNthk;' vd;whH mtH.

Gjpa Kiwapid vjpHj;J jkJ Fuy;fis ngz;fs; ntspg;gLj;jhkYkpy;iy. jpk; vDk; nlhf;lH Nrhgp Nrhf;> gHdH> md;dh ngg;hpl;]; Nghd;NwhH ,jpy; mlq;fpdH. Mdhy; ,tHfspd; Fuy;fs; gbg;gbahf Cikahf;fg;gl;ld. Gjpa mur ae;jpuk; cWjpg; gLj;jg;gl;ljd; gpd; ePjpgjpfshf flikahw;Wk; chpikAk; ngz;fSf;F kWf;fg;gl;lJ. 1936 MFk; NghJ ePjpkd;wq;fspy; ve;jnthU gjtpiaAk; ngz;fs; tfpg;gJ jil nra;ag;gl;lJ. ehrpfs; gjtpf;fkHe;j NghJ ua;f;];lhf; vDk; gpuNjr Ml;rpapy; ngz; cWg;gpdHfs; 30 NgH mq;fk; tfpj;jdH. 1938,y; xU ngz;Zk; mq;fk; tfpj;jpUf;ftpy;iy.

,Nj fhyg;gFjpapy; gpur;rhu rhjdq;fshy; jha;ik fUj;jhf;fq;fSk; FLk;gk;> tPL> caH Fz;fs; vd;gd gw;wpa fUj;JUthf;fq;fSk; gug;gg;gl;ld. ,jd; Nehf;fk; ngz;fis ciog;gpy; <LgLj;JtjpypUe;J mfw;Wk; Nehf;fj;ijf; nfhz;ljhfNt ,Ue;jpUf;f KbAk;. ,uz;L tUkhdKila FLk;gq;fSf;F vjpuhf Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l rl;lq;fSk;> ve;jtpj fhuzKkpd;wp jpUkzkhd> jpUkzkhfhj ngz;fis njhopypUe;J ePf;fg;gl;lijAk; ehk; ftdj;jpw;F vLf;f Ntz;LtNjhL ,t;thwhd Nkw;Njhw;wj;jpy; epiyikfs; cUthFk;NghJ jd;id cW ciog;Gr; re;ijapy; Fiwe;j Cjpaj;jpw;F js;sg;gl;Nlh my;yJ cjtpahsuhfNth js;sg;gLk; epiyikia nksdkhf Vw;Wf;nfhs;s jahHgLj;jg;gl;lhs;.

mikr;Rg; gjtp tfpj;j tpy;n`k; gphpf; ,d; fUj;jpd;gb jha; jkJ gps;isf;fhf jd;id mHg;gzpg;gJk;> kidtp fdtDf;fhf jd;id mHHg;gzpg;gJk; ngz;fspd; MAl;flikahdJ. jpUkzkhfhj ngz; jd;id ghJfhf;f ngz;fSf;Nf chpj;jhd njhopy;fis nra;tjw;$lhfj; jhd; jd;id Ngzpf;nfhs;syhk;. ,d;ndhUtifapy; $wg;Nghdhy; njhopyhdJ Mz;fsplk; xg;gilf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w NghJk; ehrp murpd; Mzhjpf;fkhdJ Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWtjw;F gpujhd fhuzk; cstpay; hPjpahd kw;Wk; IjPfk; rhHe;jJkhFk;. fl;rpapd; jiytHfs; ntspapl;l mwpf;iffspypUe;J ,J ntspg;gilahf njhpfpwJ. fl;rpapd; Muk;gfhy rpj;jhe;jthjpahf ,Ue;j nfhl;gp nglH kf;fSf;F ngz;fspd; ,ay;G gw;wp njspTgLj;Jk;NghJ ,t;thW Fwpg;gpLfpwhH-

ghypay; [dehafj;ij jpl;lkpl;L A+jg; ngz;fs; vk;kplkpUe;J gwpj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. ,isQHfshfpa ehq;fs; xd;Wgl;L ,jid ,y;yhJ nra;aNtz;Lk;. mg;NghJjhd; cyfpd; kpfTk; Gdpjkhd nghUshd Ntiyf;fhhp kw;Wk; gzpg;ngz;zhf nraw;gLk; ngz;iz kPsTk; ehq;fs; ngw;Wf ;nfhs;syhk;.

1934 nrg;lk;gH 8 md;W E}a;nud;NgHf;fpy; `pl;yH ciuahw;wpaNghJ fl;lw;w ghypay; Gul;rpf;F fhuzk; A+j fk;A+dprNk vd;W $wpdhh;.

ngz;fs; tpLjiy gw;wpa fUj;jhf;fk; fz;nlLf;fg;gl;lJ A+jg;ngz;fsplkpUe;Nj vd;gjhy; mjpy; fUf;nfhz;L ,Ug;gJk; A+j Mj;khNt.

ngz;fspd; epiyik Fwpj;J `pl;yH nfhz;bUe;j nfhs;if kpfTk; njspthdit. VidNahiug;NghyNt mtUf;Fk; ngz;-Mz; ,U ghypdUf;Fkhd NtWghL ,aw;ifahdJ. mtspd; cyfkhdJ fztd;> FLk;gk;> gps;isfs;> tPL. Mdhy; ,e;j rpd;d cyfk; ve;jnthU fhuzj;ijf; nfhz;Lk; ghJfhf;fg; glhtpl;lhy; mijtpl nghpa cyfj;ij ghJfhg;gJ ahH? ngz;zhdts; fdtdpd; cyfj;jpw;Fs; Eioa Kaw;rpg;gJ vkJ czHTfSf;F Vw;Gilajy;y. cz;ikapy; ,e;j ,U cyfq;fSk; NtWNtwhf ,aq;FtJ ,ay;ghdjhfj; Njhd;Wk;. xU rhuhUf;F chpikahtJ vd;gJ czHTG+Htkhd Mj;khHj;j hPjpayhd gyNk. Mz;fNs cyifj; jhq;fp epw;fpd;wdH. ngz;fNs FLk;gj;ij jhq;fp epw;fpd;wdH. ngz;fspd; chpik vd fUj;jg;gLtJ ahnjdpy; ,aw;ifahy; mtSf;F epakkhf;fg;gl;Ls;s tho;f;if Kiwf;Fs; fpilf;ff;$ba ftdpg;G mtSf;F fpilf;fr;nra;tijNa. ngz;fSk; Mz;fSk; G+uzkhfNt ntt;NtW tho;f;ifiamDgtpf;Fk; caphpfs; ,uz;L. Mzplk; Ml;rp nra;tJ jHf;f mwpT. mtd; Muha;thd;. rpy Ntisfspy; Gjpa cyiff; fz;Lgpbg;ghd;. Mdhy; mtdpd; jHf;f mwpthy; ngWk; tpisTfs; ngUk;ghYk; khw;wKwTk; $Lk;. czHTfs; jHf;f mwpit tpl rpy Ntisfspy; Nkyhjpf;fk; nrYj;Jfpd;wd. ngz;fs; vd;gtHfs; czHTfs;."

Nkw;gb Nkw;Nfhs; `pl;yhpd; Gfo;ngw;w E}yhd kapd; fhk;g; vd;gjpy; vLf;fg;gl;lJ. mjpy; ,d;DnkhU ,lj;jpy; N[Hkdpa ,sk; ngz;fs; murpd; Kd; NrtfHfs;. mts; gpui[ahtJ kzkhdjd; gpd;dHjhd; vd;Wk; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

KjyhtJ ehrp Ntiyj;jpl;ljpd; %yk; Nfhug;gl;l gpujhd Nfhhpf;if ngz;fspd; thf;Fhpikia ,y;yhnjhopg;gJ vd;gJ. 1918,y; itkhH murhy; N[Hkd; kf;fs; ngw;Wf;nfhz;L rHt[d thf;Fhpik ehrp Ml;rp ae;jpuk; gjtpf;F mkHe;jJk; ,y;yhky; nra;ag;gl;lJ. ngz;fs; nghJ tho;f;ifapy; me;epag;gLj;jg;gl;L mur gjtpfspy; ,Ue;J mfw;wg;gLtJk; ehrpfspd; nfhs;ifahFk;. `pl;yhpd; ngz;fs; fy;tpapd; %yk; ,yf;fhf;fpf; nfhs;s Ntz;baJ vjpHfhy jha;ikf;F jahuhtJ Fwpj;Nj vDk; $w;W Kf;fpakhf mtrpag;gLtJ vjw;nfdpy; ,uhZt munrhd;wpy; Ml;gyj;ij mjpfhpg;gjw;fhd ePz;lfhy ,yf;if fUj;jpy; nfhz;Nl. ehl;Lf;fhf kuzkhtjw;fhf Foe;ijfs; mjpfstpy; gpwe;Jnfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. gjptpuijj;jdj;ij fhj;Jf;nfhz;L xU ey;y jhahf ,Ug;gJ xU vLj;Jf; fhl;lhd ngz;zpd; flikahf typAWj;jg;gLtJ ghypay; NjitfSld; fUtsj;ijAk; fl;lhakhf gpizj;J itj;jpUg;gJk; Kf;fpakhd topKiwnad njhpfpwJ. ehrpfs; FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fk; fUf;fiyg;Gf;Fk; vjpuhf nfhz;Ltug;gl;l rl;lq;fs; ,jw;F xU ey;y vLj;Jf;fhl;L. mJ Nghy ,e;j topfspd; %yk; ngz;fspd; ghypay; kw;wk; fUts chpikfis jPHkhdpg;gJk; fl;Lg;gLj;JtJk; murpd; eilKiw jj;Jtkhf ,Ue;jJ.

ehrp fl;rpapd; Muk;gfhyj;jpy; Kf;fpakhd ghj;jpukhw;wpa g;Ny l;];f;spq; vDk; ngz;kzpAk; ,Nj tifahd fUj;Jf;fSf;F Cf;fkspj;Jf ;nfhz;bUe;jhH. mtH ,g;gbf; $wpapUe;jhH. N[Hkdpa ngz;fspd; rPtpaf; flik N[Hkdpa fdtDf;F Nrit nra;tNj. tPl;ilg;Ngzpf;fhj;J MZf;F jpUg;jp Vw;gLj;jf;$ba tifapy; ele;Jnfhs;tNj. vd;whH mtH.

ehrpf; nfhs;ifahdJ MZf;Nf MZf;Fhpa xd;whfNt ,Ue;J te;jJ vd;gJ re;Njfj;jpw;fplkpy;iy. gpurhruj;Jiwf;F nghwg;ghd mikr;rH Nfhagy;]; ,d; fUj;jpd;gb ehrp ,af;fkhdJ ,ay;ghfNt Mz;fspd; ,af;fkhFk;. nghJ tho;f;ifapy; MNyhridfisg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjpy; fbdkhd fhhpakpy;iy. murpay; vDk; kpfg;ngUk; Jiw ,jpnyhd;whFk;. ,J epr;rakhf Mz;fSf;F chpj;jhf ,Uf;f Ntz;ba xd;W. ehq;fs; nghJ tho;f;ifapy; ngz;fis tpul;Lk; NghJ mt;thW nra;tJ mtsplkpUe;J tpLgLtjw;F my;y. mtSf;F caHe;j nfsutk; nfhLg;gjw;fhfNt. ngz;fSf;F chpj;jhd gpujhdkhdJk; Kf;fpakhdJkhd flikahdJ kidtpahjNy. ehq;fs; ,e;j fUj;jpypUe;J jpUk;gpNdhkhdhy; mJ ngUk; Fw;wkhFk;.

ehrp ghPrpypg;G Fwpj;J kpfTk; vkf;F Kf;fpakhtJ mJ ngz;fspd; epiyikia rl;lhPjpapy; fl;Lg;gLj;JtNJ. ehrp mur ,ae;jpuj;jpd; fPo; jpUkzkhfhj ngz;-Mz; Mfpa ,U rhuhhplkpUe;Jk; thp t#ypf;fg;gl;lJ. 1933 A+d; 1Mk; jpfjp Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j tpthff;fld; rl;lk; nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ. mjd;gb tpthfnkhd;wpd; %yk; ngwg;gl;l rfy Foe;ijf;Fk; thptpyf;F toq;fg;gl;lJ. ngz;zpd; ngaUf;F ,e;j fld; toq;fg;gl;lhYk; mjid ngw;Wf;nfhz;lJ Mz;jhd;. ,e;j fld; Kiwapd; %yk; jha;khH njhopy;nra;tJ jilnra;ag;gl;bUe;jJ.

ehrp N[Hkdpapy; FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL gw;wpa gpur;rhuq;fs; nra;tJ itj;jpaHfSf;Ff; $l jilnra;ag;gl;bUe;jjhdJ Nkhrfukhd nrayhf ,Ue;jJ. FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiwfis nra;Jnfhz;bUe;j epiyaq;fs; 1993,d; gpd; %lg;gl;ld. tpNrl mDgkjpg;gj;jpukpd;wp FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL Fwpj;J MNyhrid toq;FtJ gpuRuq;fs; ntspapLtJ tpw;gid nra;tJ jilnra;ag;gl;bUe;jJ.

ehrp muR gw;wpa xl;Lnkhj;j rhuhk;rkhf ghHf;Fk;NghJ Gdpjkhd jha;ik kw;Wk; FLk;gj;jpy; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijg; gw;wpAk; mwpAk; mNj Ntis nghUshjhu fhuzq;fSk; fhuzpahf njhopw;gl;bUf;fpwJ. muRf;F Njitgl;lgb kpfTk; fbdkhd nraw;ghLfspy; <LgLj;Jtjw;fhf N[Hkdpa ngz;fs; njhopy; hPjpahfTk; murpay; r%f gq;fspg;GfspypUe;Jk; me;epag;gLj;jg; gl;lNjhL kl;Lky;yhky; FLk;gj;jpy; midj;J cWg;gpdHfSf;Fk; fl;lhak; epWtdkag;gLtjw;fhf muRf;Fk; FLk;g myFf;Fk; ,ilapy; Nghl;b epiyik vW;gl;lJ.

Mdhy; ehrp muR Mzhjpf;fj;ij rpj;jhe;j topnfhz;L elj;jg;gl;l jd;ik gpujhdg;gl;lJ. ngz;fspd; kPjhd mlf;FKiwfspd; Nky; vOg;gg;gl;l r%f fl;likg;Gf;Fs; rHthjpfhu ,uhZt Ml;rpae;jpuj;ij elj;Jtnjd;gJ ,yFthf ,Ue;jJ.

kPz;LnkhUKiw vkf;F KbTf;F tuf;$bajhf ,Uf;Fk; tplak; ghypay; murpay; r%f mikg;Gf;Fs; nghUshjhu kw;Wk; NtWk; JiwfSld; njhlHGw;wpUf;ff; $Lk; Mdhy; mJ gpujhdkhf VjhtJ tho;Kiw rhHe;j nfhs;ifahfTk; ,Ug;gJ jhd; vkJ ftdj;Jf;FhpaJ. vkJ ,Ug;gpd; kPJ rfy kl;lq;fspypUe;Jk; ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;JfpwJ. vdNt vkJ kugpy; ,Wf;fkhd cstpay; rpj;jhe;j fl;likg;G Njhw;Wtpf;fg; gl;bUf;fpwJ. ,d;W tiu mjpypUe;J vtuhYk; ,yFthf fod;WtplKbahjgb ,Uf;fpwJ.

jkpopy; - Rjh

ed;wp - rf;jp

1