old colour=bg#9900FFtxt=#00FFFF Withania somnifera {Solanaceae},<BR>(or,ALMOST A PANACEA) image; and MAIN SEARCH PAGE AND INDEXING WITH PICTURES


Withania somniferaAtropa belladonna Brugmansia aurea Brugmansia suaveolens Brugmansia versicolor Brunfelsia pauciflora var. calycina Brunfelsia unidentifed Capsicum chinense Capsicum gemnifolium Capsicum pubescens Cestrum alternifolium Cestrum nocturnum Cyphomandra betacea Iochroma unidentified Lycianthes unidentified Lycium carolinianum Nicotiana glauca Solandra longiflora Solandra maxima Solanum asarifolium Solanum auriculatum Solanum jasminoides Solanum quitoense Solanum seaforthianum Solanum wendlandii Streptosolen jamesonii Withania somnifera Contact:=Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Conservatory & Gardens 75 North Eagleville Rd., Unit 3043 Storrs, CT 06269-3043 Office: (860) 486-0809 Greenhouse: (860) 486-4052 Fax: (860) 486-6364SEARCH THESE RESOURCES ON UNIVERSITY SITE

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Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal General information: Query NCU-3e Common Name: Family: Solanaceae Juss. Country of Origin: Australia, E. Asia, Africa. Habitat: Open places, disturbed areas etc. shruA stony places.OTHER LIST LOCATIONS, Distributional range: Native: Africa: Algeria; Angola; Botswana; Cape Verde; Chad; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Malawi; Mali; Mauritius; Morocco; Namibia; Nigeria; Somalia; South Africa - Cape Province, Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal; Spain - Canary Islands; Sudan; Tanzania; Tunisia; Uganda; Zimbabwe Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan; Arabia; Iran [s.]; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey Asia-Tropical: India; Pakistan; Sri Lanka Europe: Greece [incl. Crete]; Italy - Sardinia, Sicily; Spain [incl. Baleares] Description: Additional Common Names: Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi, Samm Al Ferakh USES COMMON TO VARIOUS SOCIETIES, Abortifacient; Adaptogen; Antibiotic; Aphrodisiac; Astringent; Deobstruent; Diuretic; Narcotic; Sedative; Tonic. Ashwagandha is one of the most widespread tranquilisers used in India, where it holds a position of importance similar to ginseng in China[238]. It acts mainly on the reproductive and nervous systems, having a rejunative effect on the body, and is used to improve vitality and aid recovery after chronic illness[238, 254]. The plant is little known in the West[192]. The whole plant, but especially the leaves and the root bark, are abortifacient, adaptogen, antibiotic, aphrodisiac, deobstruent, diuretic, narcotic, strongly sedative and tonic[169, 192, 238, 240]. Internally, it is used to tone the uterus after a miscarriage and also in treating post-partum difficulties[192]. It is also used to treat nervous exhaustion, debility, insomnia, wasting diseases, failure to thrive in children, impotence, infertility, multiple sclerosis etc[238]. Externally it has been applied as a poultice to boils, swellings and other painful parts[192, 240]. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[238]. Some caution is advised in the use of this plant since it is toxic[K]. The fruit is diuretic[240]. The seed is diuretic and hypnotic[240]. Other Uses Repellent; Soap. The fruit is rich in saponins and can be used as a soap substitute[169, 192]. The leaves are an insect repellent[169].
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MORE MEDICINAL INFO Edible Uses Curdling agent. The seeds are used to curdle plant milks in order to make vegetarian cheeses[183, 240]. Medicinal Uses Disclaimer Abortifacient; Adaptogen; Antibiotic; Aphrodisiac; Astringent; Deobstruent; Diuretic; Narcotic; Sedative; Tonic. Ashwagandha is one of the most widespread tranquilisers used in India, where it holds a position of importance similar to ginseng in China[238]. It acts mainly on the reproductive and nervous systems, having a rejunative effect on the body, and is used to improve vitality and aid recovery after chronic illness[238, 254]. The plant is little known in the West[192]. The whole plant, but especially the leaves and the root bark, are abortifacient, adaptogen, antibiotic, aphrodisiac, deobstruent, diuretic, narcotic, strongly sedative and tonic[169, 192, 238, 240]. Internally, it is used to tone the uterus after a miscarriage and also in treating post-partum difficulties[192]. It is also used to treat nervous exhaustion, debility, insomnia, wasting diseases, failure to thrive in children, impotence, infertility, multiple sclerosis etc[238]. Externally it has been applied as a poultice to boils, swellings and other painful parts[192, 240]. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[238]. Some caution is advised in the use of this plant since it is toxic[K]. The fruit is diuretic[240]. The seed is diuretic and hypnotic[240].
sTIL MORE HEALTH DATA ONWithania somnifera (Ashwagandha) Therapeutic Actions: Anemia with emaciation Anti-inflammatory Antitumor activity, in animal studies Ayurvedic superior rejuvenative herb for the muscles, bone marrow and semen Catalyzes the anabolic processes of the body Free-radical scavenging activity Hypotensive Immunomodulating Increases phagocytosis and intracellular killing of peritoneal macrophages Inhibits aging Nervous exhaustion Nurtures and clarifies the mind promoting dreamless sleep Promotes the healing of tissue Regenerates the hormonal system Sedative Stimulates the immune system Stress-induced health conditions Clinical Indications: Aging prevention Alzheimer's Chronic fatigue syndrome Hypertension Impotence due to aging or stress Insomnia Memory loss Multiple sclerosis Anemia Aspergillus infection Chronic inflammation Cognitive function deficits Depressed white blood cell count due to cytotoxic drugs Glandular swelling Infertility Problems of old age Contraindications: Pregnancy Drug/Nutrient Interaction: No interactions have been reported Chemical Constituents: Ashwagandholine, an alkaloid Withaferin A, has significant antitumor and radiosensitizing effects in experimental tumors of animals in vivo, without any noticeable systemic toxicity Withanolides, steroidal compounds whose action and appearance resemble the active constituents of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) known as ginsenosides
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and-File name: ASHWAGANDA.doc File type: application/msword Save to my Yahoo! Briefcase - Download File - Need Help? http://www.wrc.net/phyto/Ashvagandha.html Education Amalaki, Ashvagandha, Bala, Bhringaraja, Chandana, Gokshura, Haritaki, Mandukaparni, Vacha, Vibhitaka Ashvagandha, 'smelling like a horse' Botanical Name: Withania somnifera, Solanaceae Common Name: Asgandh (H), Amukkira (T), Winter Cherry (E) Part Used: root, leaves, fruit Dravyguna: root. ·Rasa: tikta, kashaya ·Vipaka: katu ·Virya: ushna ·Karma: Vatapittahara, Kaphakopa, balyam, vajikarana, tonic, adaptogen, relaxing nervine, post-partum tonic, immunomodulant, astringent, galactagogue, diuretic, thermogenic (Dash 1991, 59; Dash and Junius 1983, 155; Frawley and Lad 1986, 160; Varier 1996, 409) Indications: ·Root: asthma, bronchitis, edema, leucoderma, anorexia, consumption, asthenia, anemia, exhaustion, aging, insomnia, ADD/ADHD, neurasthenia, infertility, impotence, repeated miscarriage, paralysis, memory loss, multiple sclerosis, immune-dysfunction, carcinoma, rheumatism, arthritis, lumbago (Dash 1991 59; Dash and Junius 1987, 155; Kirtikar and Basu 1993, 1775-76; Frawley and Lad 1986, 160; Nadkarni 1976, 1293-94; Varier 1996, 409) ·Leaves: used internally for fever and hemorrhoids; externally for wounds, hemorrhoids, tumors, tuberculous glands, anthrax pustules, syphylitic sores, erysipelas, and in ophthalmitis (Kirtikar and Basu 1993 1775-76; Varier 1996, 409) ·Fruit: used externally in ringworm (Kirtikar and Basu 1993 1775-76) Contraindications: Caution should be used with clients on anticonvulsants, barbituates and benzodiazepines. Ashvagandha is traditionally avoided in lymphatic congestion, during colds and flu, or symptoms of ama (Frawley and Lad 1986, 160). Toxicity: None reported (Aphale et al 1998). Dosage: root ·Churna: 3 5 g b.i.d. - t.i.d. ·Kashaya: 100 mL t.i.d. ·Tincture: fresh root, 95%, 1:2; dried root, 50%, 1:4; 1 10 mL t.i.d. Medical research: ·Adaptogen: The traditional use of Ashvagandha as a rasayana has been validated by scientific investigation. Wistar rats treated with an extract of Withania somnifera showed better stress tolerance in cold water swimming tests (Archana and Namasivayam 1999). ·Antiinflammatory: A methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Withania somnifera had antiinflammatory activities comparable to that of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (al-Hindawi et al 1992). An 80% ethanolic extract of Withania somnifera displayed significant antiinflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema (al-Hindawi 1989). ·Antioxidant: An aqueous suspension of root extract of Ashvagandha prevented the rise of experimentally induced lipid peroxidation in rabbits and mice (Dhuley 1998a). An extract of Withania somnifera, consisting of equimolar concentrations of sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin A, induced an increase in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in rat brain, consistent with other research that reports an antioxidant, immunomodulant and antiinflammatory activity (Bhattacharya et al 1997). ·Cancer: The administration of Ashvagandha rasayana (an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation containing Ashvagandha) significantly reduced the lung tumor nodule formation by 55.6% in experimental animals (Menon et al. 1997). An alcoholic extract of the dried roots as well as withaferin A isolated from the extract showed significant antitumor and radiosensitizing effects in experimental tumors in Chinese hamster cells, without any noticeable systemic toxicity (Devi 1996). The steroidal lactone withaferin A displayed significant antitumor and radiosensitizing effects, inhibiting tumor growth and increasing survival in Swiss mice inoculated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (Devi et al 1995; Sharad et al 1996). The administration of an extract of Withania somnifera was found to significantly reduce leucopenia induced by cyclophosphamide treated experimental animals, indicating its usefulness in cancer therapy (Davis and Kuttan 1998). The administration of methanolic extract of Ashvagandha was found to significantly increase the WBC count in normal Balb/c mice and reduce leucopenia induced by a sublethal dose of gamma radiation. Withania increased bone marrow cellularity and normalised the ratio of normochromatic erythrocytes and polychromatic erythrocytes. This observed activity was thought to be due to stem cell proliferation (Kuttan 1996). ·Central Nervous system: Isolated constituents of Withania somnifera (sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin-A) increased cortical muscarinic acetylcholine receptor capacity, partly explaining the cognition-enhancing and memory-improving effects traditionally attributed to Ashvagandha (Schliebs et al 1997). A methanolic extract of Withania somnifera inhibited the specific binding of [3H]GABA and [35S]TBPS, and enhanced the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to their putative receptor sites, suggesting a GABA-mimetic activity (Mehta et al 1991). A commercial root extract of Withania somnifera used repeatedly over 9 days attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine and suppressed morphine-withdrawal jumps (Kulkarni and Ninan 1997). ·Immunity: Myelosuppressed mice treated with an extract of Ashvagandha displayed a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, platelet count and body weight as compared to controls, as well as increased hemolytic antibody responses towards human erythrocytes (Ziauddin et al 1996). Researchers at the Amala Cancer Research Centre in Kerala, India, found that the administration of an extract from the powdered root of Withania somnifera enhanced the levels of interferon gamma, interleukin-2 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor in normal and cyclophosphamide-treated mice, suggesting an immunopotentiating and myeloprotective effect (Davis and Kuttan 1999). Mice infected intravenously with Aspergillus fumigatus and treated for 7 consecutive days with an oral preparation of an extract of Withania somnifera at a dose of 100mg/kg displayed increased phagocytic activity and prolonged survival time (Dhuley 1998). The antifungal activity of Withania has been confirmed elsewhere, attributed to the withanolides (Choudhary et al 1995). ·Musculo-skeletal: A herbomineral formulation containing roots of Withania somnifera, the stem of Boswellia serrata, rhizomes of Curcuma longa and a zinc complex (Articulin-F), was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study in clients with osteoarthritis. The results produced a significant drop in severity of pain and disability, although radiological assessment did not show any significant changes. Sideeffects were minimal and did not necessitate the withdrawal of treatment. (Kulkarni et al 1991) Comments: Ashvagandha is the Indian equivalent to Ginseng (Panax ginseng)., but unlike Ginseng, Ashvagandha has a sedative rather than stimulant action on the central nervous system, making it a superior medicine for exhaustion with nervous irritability. A rejuvenating preparation can be made by mixing Ashvagandha with 10-15% Pippali, taken with one half part ghrita and 1 part honey on an empty stomach, morning and evening. Ashvagandha is a useful nervine, taken before bed to relax and nourish the body in deficiency diseases, but is only seen to be efficacious when taken on a sustained basis- it is not a sufficient sedative to treat acute insomnia. For poor memory, lack of concentration and in the treatment of ADD/ADHD Ashvagandha may be used in equal proportions with Brahmi and Ling zhi (Ganoderma lucidum). Ashvagandha is widely used in any debility, emaciation or consumptive condition, in both adults and children (Kirtikar and Basu 1993, 1775; Nadkarni 1976, 1294). As its name ‘smelling like a horse?suggests, Ashvagandha is an important vajikarana rasayana, indicating the sexual potency of a stallion, and is used in the treatment of infertility, impotence and “seminal depletion?(Nadkarni 1976, 1293). When mixed with equal parts Shatavari (Asparagus racemosa), it is an appropriate treatment for female infertility and frigidity and is useful in threatened miscarriage. For poor eyesight Ashvagandha powder is mixed with equal proportions of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra root) powder and the fresh juice of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis fruit) (Nadkarni, 1294). An infusion of the leaves may be used in in the treatment of ophthalmia (Kirtikar and Basu 1993, 1776). In the form of Narayana taila, Ashvagandha may be taken internally, 3 10 gtt. b.i.d. for consumption and emaciation in children, and as an enema for anal fistula (Nadkarni 1976, 1294). Narayana taila may also be taken as nasya (2-3 gtt.) in cases of hearing loss and in abhyanga in cases of paralysis, tetanus, rheumatism and lumbago (Nadkarni 1976, 1294). Nadkarni mentions that Ashvagandha is used in the treatment of antiinflammatory joint disease (1976, 1293), but as Lad and Frawley suggest, Ashvagandha can facilitate the production of ama (1986, 160), and thus an eliminative regimen is best utilized prior to using this botanical. Likewise, Ashvagandha is an appropriate remedy in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis (Kirtikar and Basu 1993, 1775-6), but should be used concurrently with dravyas that have a dipana-pacana property to avoid the production of ama. Varrier mentions that a paste made of the roots and bruised leaves may be applied to carbuncles, ulcers and painful swellings (1996, 409). References: al-Hindawi, M.K., I.H. Al-Deen, M.H. Nabi, and M.H. Ismail. 1989. Anti-inflammatory activity of some Iraqi plants using intact rats. J Ethnopharmacol. Sep; 26(2):163-8 Aphale A.A., A.D. Chhibba, N.R. Kumbhakarna, M. Mateenuddin and S.H. Dahat. 1998. Subacute toxicity study of the combination of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in rats: a safety assessment. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol Apr; 42(2):299-302 Archana, R. and A. Namasivayam. 1999. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. Jan; 64(1):91-3 Bhattacharya, S.K., K.S. Satyan and S. Ghosal. 1997. Antioxidant activity of glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera. Indian J Exp Biol. Mar; 35(3):236-9 Choudhary, M.I., Dur-e-Shahwar, Z. Parveen, A. Jabbar , I. Ali, Atta-ur-Rahman. 1995. Antifungal steroidal lactones from Withania coagulance. Phytochemistry Nov; 40(4):1243-6 Dash, Bhagwan. 1991. Materia Medica of Ayurveda. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers. ----------- and Manfred Junius. 1983. A Handbook of Ayurveda. New Delhi: Concept Publishing. Davis, L. and G. Kuttan. 1999. Effect of Withania somnifera on cytokine production in normal and cyclophosphamide treated mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Nov; 21(4):695-703 Davis L. and G. Kuttan. 1998. Suppressive effect of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity by Withania somnifera extract in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. Oct; 62(3):209-14 Devi, P.U. 1996. Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha): potential plant source of a promising drug for cancer chemotherapy and radiosensitization. Indian J Exp Biol. Oct; 34(10):927-32 Devi, P.U., A.C. Sharada, and F.E. Solomon. 1995. In vivo growth inhibitory and radiosensitizing effects of withaferin A on mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Cancer Lett. Aug 16; 95(1-2):189-93 Dhuley, J.N. 1998a. Effect of Ashwagandha on lipid peroxidation in stress-induced animals. J Ethnopharmacol. Mar; 60(2):173-8 Dhuley, J.N. 1998b. Therapeutic efficacy of Ashwagandha against experimental aspergillosis in mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. Feb; 20(1):191-8 Frawley, David and Vasant Lad. 1986. The Yoga Of Herbs: An Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine. Santa Fe: Lotus Press. Kirtikar KR and BD Basu. 1993. Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd ed. Vol. 1-4. 1935. Reprint. Delhi: Periodical Experts. Kulkarni, S.K. and I. Ninan. 1997. Inhibition of morphine tolerance and dependence by Withania somnifera in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. Aug; 57(3):213-7 Kulkarni, R.R., P.S. Patki, V.P. Jog, S.G. Gandage and B. Patwardhan. 1991. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J Ethnopharmacol. May-Jun; 33(1-2):91-5 Kuttan, G. 1996. Use of Withania somnifera Dunal as an adjuvant during radiation therapy. Indian J Exp Biol. Sep; 34(9):854-6 Mehta, A.K., P. Binkley, S.S. Gandhi, and M.K. Ticku. 1991. Pharmacological effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex. Indian J Med Res. Aug; 94:312-5 Menon L.G., R. Kuttan, and G. Kuttan. 1997. Effect of rasayanas in the inhibition of lung metastasis induced by B16F-10 melanoma cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. Dec; 16(4):365-8 Nadkarni, Dr. K.M. 1976. The Indian Materia Medica, with Ayurvedic, Unani and Home Remedies. Revised and enlarged by A.K. Nadkarni. 1954. Reprint. Bombay: Bombay Popular Prakashan PVP. Schliebs, R., A. Liebmann , S.K. Bhattacharya, A. Kumar, S. Ghosal, and V. Bigl. 1997. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem Int. Feb; 30(2):181-90 Sharad, A.C., F.E. Solomon, P.U. Devi, N. Udupa, and K.K. Srinivasan. 1996. Antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of withaferin A on mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in vivo. Acta Oncol. 35(1):95-100 Varrier, P.S. 1996. Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 species. Edited by PK Warrier, VPK Nambiar and C Ramankutty. vol 5. Hyderabad: Orient Longman. Ziauddin, M., N. Phansalkar, P. Patki , S. Diwanay, B. Patwardhan. 1996. Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Ashwagandha. J Ethnopharmacol. Feb; 50(2):69-76



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Weeds Australia: National WeedsStrategyAUZI PLANTZ&WEEDZ+LINKS alexanders ladies herbTHIS HEALING PLANT IS USED AS A ROOT VEGETABLE PARTICULARLY FOR THE BEAUTIFUL AND THE BEAUTIFUL OF HEART!(LOCAL VARIETY EDDIBLE AND WHOLESOME-avoid overhandeling foliage,seeds to anywhere, prefers watery fields)


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Coleus Forskohlii Herb Extract This "power" herb has an active ingredient in it called forskolin. It has been used in ayruvedic medicine for many years. Forskolin's basic mechanism of action is that it increases the amount of cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) in cells by activating an enzyme called adenylate cyclase. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the most important secondary messengers in the cell. It is considered to be one of the most important cell regulating compounds. Under normal circumstances, cAMP forms by adenylate cyclase activation due to hormonal stimulation at the cell receptor site. However, forskolin seems to bypass this reaction and allows for an increase in intracellular cAMP to occur. Why is it important to increase cAMP levels? Well, there are several benefits of this to athletes including relaxation of the arteries and smooth muscles, lowering blood pressure, enhanced insulin secretion (which can help drive carbohydrates and protein into muscle cells for energy and recovery), increased thyroid hormone function (which can help enhance metabolic rate), and significantly increase lipolysis (fat burning). Forskolin also seems to benefit other cellular enzymes as well. The breakdown of fat for fuel (lipolysis) is actually regulated by cAMP. Forskolin has been shown to not only enhance lipolysis but it may also inhibit fat storage from occurring. This is very good news for individuals trying to lose bodyfat and get lean. Another way that forskolin may allow for fat loss to occur is by stimulating thyroid hormone production and release. Thyroid hormone controls metabolism and can enhance metabolic rate, which may translate into more fat loss. One of the overlooked benefits of forskolin includes its stimulation of digestive enzymes, which can allow individuals to digest and assimilate their food better. It has been shown to increase nutrient absorption in the small intestine. Forskolin has been shown to be safe and effective and has a great amount of potential as a sports supplement. As with most dietary supplements, more human research is needed but the future looks bright for this compound. PRODUCT COLEUS FORSKOHLII EXTRACT POWDER 20% BOTANICAL NAME Coleus Forskohli PLANT PART USED Roots DESCRIPTION Dark Brown colour Powder with Odour Characteristic BULK DENSITY (TAPPED) 0.68 g/ml LOSS ON DRYING 2.00% PARTICLE SIZE 100% through 40 Mesh IDENTIFICATION Positive for Forskolin by HPLC ASSAY For Forskolin by HPLC (On 'AS IS' Basis) Above 20% MICRO BIOLOGICAL TOTAL PLATE COUNT 1000 CFU/GM YEAST & MOULD 100 CFU/GM SALMONELLA & E.COLI Negative HEAVY METALS Nil Coleus Forskohlii Herb Extract is drived from roots from Coleus Forskohlii. Coleus is used in India folk medicines and is a traditional digestive remedy. Currently the plant is extensively cultivated is Southern India. Forskohlii helps to lower blood pressure, dilates the blood vessels. It is concerted to be a good Heart tonic. Here we present a list of our main Herbal Extracts only. If you have interest in any other Herbal Extracts please contact us. Name Source of Extract Standardised For Intended Use Aloe Vera Herb 3% Aloein Radio-protective, Moisturizer, Sun screen Allium Sativum (Garlic) Fruit 1% Allicin Promotes skin healing Azadirachta Indica (Neem Seed) Seeds of Neem growing wild throughout India 3% Bitters Antifungal, Bitter tonic, Blood Purifier Adhatoda Vasica Leaf Leaves of plant found throughout norther plain & Himalayas 1% Alkaloids Expectorant antispasmodic Andrographis Panniculata Whole Herb found throughout India, sometimes cultivated 10%, 20% & 50% Androgrphloid by HPLC Antipyretic alternative hepato protective Asparagus racemosus (Satawari) Roots of plant found throughout tropical & sub tropical India Saponin NLT 30% w/w Aphrodisiac Atropa Belladonna Root Plant found in Kashmir, sometimes cultivated 1.5% Alkaloid Bacopa Monnieri Herb The small plant cultivated all over India, found in abundance in wild 10%, 20% & 50% Bacosides by HPLC Improving brain function & reducing stress Boswellia Serrata The gum of the Boswellia serrata tree growing wild in the deserts of India 60%, 70% & 90% Boswellic acids by non aqueous titration Relieving joint pain. Anti-inflammatory Centella Asiatica Herb (Gotu Kola) The tiny plant of Centella asiatica growing in Southern India 10%, 20% & 50% Triterpenoid Improving brain function Cassia Angustifolia Leaves Leaves of cassia Angustifolia being cultivated in South of India 10%, 20% & 45% & 60% Sennosides A+B Laxative Commiphora Mukul The gum of the Commiphora mukul tree growing wild in the deserts of North Western India 3% & 15& Guggul Sterones by HPLC Cholestrol lowering and Energy giving Emblica Officinalis Fruit of tree growing wild in Northern & Central India 25% Tannins Tonic, Astringent carminative, cooling Garcinia Cambogia Fruit The dried fruit collected from the forests of Southern India & South-East Asia Calcium Salts with 50, 60 or 65%Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) Potassium salts(water soluble) upto 50% HCA. Combined Ca/K salts(water soluble) with 60% HCA Magnesium salt (water soluble) Upto 75% HCA. All tests by HPLC Weight management and anti-obesity Green Tea Vastly Cultivated 50% & 60% Polyphenols Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Mulethi) Roots of plant found in desert parts of India. Roots generally imported for extraction NLT 20% Glycyrrhizinic acid Expectorant Guava Leaf Plant cultivated throughout India for fruit 15% Tannins Gymnema Sylvestre The leaves of the climbing plant found in the forests of India 25%, 50% & 75% Glymnemic acids by Gravimetry Management of Blood Sugar levels and promoting healthy pancreas Hibiscus Sabdariffa Flower/Leaves of creper extensively cultivated, found in wild also throughout India 30% HCA by HPLC Shampoo's, Hair Care Hypericum Perforatum (St. John's Wort Extract) The top portion of the bush growing wild in Eastern Europe and South America 0.3% Hypericin by HPLC Anti-depressant Mango Leaf Extract The leaves of Mangifera indica growing all over Southern India 5%, 10% & 80% Mangiferin by HPLC Anti-virat Mappia Foetida Momordica Charantia Fruit Fruit of creper cultivated throughout india 6% Bitters Good for Diobetic Morinda Citrifolia Fruit(Noni) Fruit of tree cultivated throughout India 15% Morindin Immuno-Modulator Mucuna Pruriens Seeds of plant found wild in cntral India 20% L-Dopa Tonic in parkinson disease Nigella Sativa Seeds 3% Bitters & 15% Saponin Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) Leaves of Holy Basil cultivated monthly in North India Tannins NLT 4% w/w For Cough & Cold Phyllanthus Niruri 2% Bitters Liver Tonic Piper Nigrum The dried fruits of Piper Nigrun 95% Piperine by HPLC Known to display CNS depressant & analgesic activity, anti-pyretic effects. Is prescribed for dyspepsia, flatulence and diarrhoea Salacia Reticulata 8% Glycosides Spirulina Powder 60% Protein Food Supplement, Rich in proteins Sida Cordifolia 6% Alkaloid Strychnos 6% Alkaloid Bitter Tonic Tamarindus Indica Fruit Fruit of tree found wild throughout India Brix 65 Antioxidant, Citric Terminalia Arjuna 1% Arjunic Acid Terminalia belerica Extract Tannins NLT -15% w/w Functions Terminalia chebula Extract Tribulus Terrestris Fruit The dried aerial parts of the ground creeper, growing wild all over India 20%, 40% & 60% Steroidal Saponins by Gravimetry Body building and Aphrodisiac Triphla 25% Tannins Normalize Gl tract Turmeric Root Roots & Plant cultivated & used as spice 95% Curcumin Antibiotic, Natural yellow colour Valerian Wallichi Root The roots & rootlets of the plant growing wild in Northern India 0.8% Valerenic acids by HPLC Sleep inducing and anti-spasmolytic Withania Somnifera Root The root of the plant Withania Somnifera also called Indian Ginseng cultivated throughout India 2% Alkaloids and 3% Withanolides both by Gravimetry Promoting vigor & vitality and increasing endurance Zingiber Officinale Tuber (Ginger) The dried rhizomes of Zingiber Officinale cultivated in the warmer regions of South India 5% Gingerols by HPLC Digestive and for relieving motion sickness, nausea and common cold -http://www.indo-world.com- FREE WORLD BOTANICAL RESOURCES INDO WORLD TRADING CORPORATION B-II/6, MOHAN CO-OP. INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, BADARPUR, NEW DELHI – 110 044 (INDIA) Phone: 91-11-51677081 – 84 (4 Lines)Fax: 91-11-51677085 / 51562519 E-mail: Indoworld@vsnl.com Website: www.indo-world.com ABOVE LINK AND DATA- All Copyright Reserved Indo-World Trading Corporation Site Designed and Developed by Digisoft


Herb Information Name: Dianthus Biological Name: Herba dianthi Caryophyllaceae Other Names: Dianthus, Chinese pink flower, Qu mai Parts Used: Whole plant Remedies For: Diuretic, antibacterial, antiparasitic, stimulates peristalsis, lowers blood pressure Drains dampness, clears heat, promotes urination. It is indicated for genitourinary tract infections associated with damp heat, with painful and difficult urination, and possibly with blood. It can be used for damp heat associated with constipation or cessation of menses due to blood stagnation. Dosage: 6-12 grams Combinations: For urinary tract infections, combine 9 grams each of dianthus, plantain seeds, polyporus, and poria, 6 grams of cinnamon twigs, and 20 grams of talcum. For amenorrhea, combine 9 grams each of dianthus, peach seed, safflower, and leonurus. Safety: Dianthus should not be used by pregnant women or by those with deficiency of kidney or spleen qi : Gravel Root Biological Name: Eupatorium purpureum Compositae Other Names: Gravel Root, Gravelweed, Joe-Pye Weed, Queen of the Meadow, purple boneset, trumpet weed, kidney root Parts Used: Rhizome and root Active Compounds: Volatile oil, of unknown composition Flavonoids, including euparin Resin Remedies For: Diuretic, anti-lithic, anti-rheumatic, stimulant, tonic, astringent, relaxant. Gravel Root is used primarily for kidney stones or gravel. In urinary infections such as cystitis and urethritis it may be used with benefit, whilst it can also play a useful role in a systemic treatment of rheumatism and gout. Combinations : For kidney stones or gravel it combines well with Stone Root, Parsley Piert, Pellitory of the Wall or Hydrangea. Description: Found in the USA. Dosage: Decoction: Put 1 teaspoonful of the herb in a cup of water, bring to the boil and simmer for 10 minutes. This should be drunk three times a day. Tincture: Take 1-2 ml of the tincture three times a day. Safety: No information available. Some herbs are known to react with your medication. Please consult your physician before starting on any herb. : Guaiacum Biological Name: Guaiacum officinale Zygophyllaceae Other Names: Guaiacum, Guaiac, Lignum vitae, pockwood Parts Used: The heart-wood Active Compounds: Lignans; furoguaiacidin, guaiacin, furoguaiacin, furoguaiaoxidin. Resin acids; guaiaretic, hydroguaiaretic, guaiacic and a- and b- guaiaconic acids Miscellaneous; vanillin, terpenoids including guaiagutin, guaiasaponin. Remedies For: Anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory, laxative, diaphoretic, diuretic. Guaiacum is useful for rheumatic complaints. It is especially useful where there is much inflammation and pain present. Used in chronic rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis. Aids in the treatment of gout and may be used in the prevention of its recurrence. Due to the high content of resins in this herb, care must be taken with patients with gastritis or peptic ulceration. Combinations : It may be used together with Bogbean, Meadowsweet or Celery Seed. Description: Guaiac is the resin from a tree that grows in West Indies, Mexico, Central America, and northern south America. The crooked trunk grows 30 to 40 feet high and provides lignum vitae, the olive brown, heavy, very hard wood which contains the oily resin. Dosage: Decoction: put 1 teaspoonful of the wood chips in a cup of water, bring to boil and simmer for 15-20 minutes. This should be drunk three times a day. Tincture: 1-2ml three times a day. Safety: Due to the high content of resins in this herb, care must be taken with patients with gastritis or peptic ulceration. No other information available. Some herbs are known to react with your medication. Please consult your physician before starting on any herb. Herb Information Name: Astragalus Biological Name: Astragalus membranaceus Family: Leguminosae Other Names: Huang qi, Astragalus Parts Used: Roots Active Compounds: Astragalus contains numerous components, including flavonoids, polysaccharides, triterpene glycosides (e.g., astragalosides I-VII), amino acids, and trace minerals. Astragalus appears to restore T-cell (a specific type of white blood cell ) counts to relatively normal ranges in some cancer patients. History: Shen Nong, the founder of Chinese herbal medicine, classified astragalus as a superior herb in his classical treatise Shen Nong Pen Tsao Ching (circa A.D. 100). The Chinese name huang qi translates as "yellow leader," referring to the yellow color of the root and its status as one of the most important tonic herbs. Traditional Chinese medicine utilized this herb for night sweats, deficiency of chi (e.g., fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite), and diarrhea. Remedies For: Immune tonic, diuretic, lowers blood pressure, Qi tonic Astragalus is useful for the treatment of: Alzheimer's disease Chemotherapy support Common cold/sore throat Immune function Astragalus is the primary herb used in Chinese medicine to tone the immune system of the lungs. It is useful for conditions of immune deficiency that lead to spontaneous sweating. It is also used for spleen qi deficiency with symptoms of weak, low metabolism; edema; and prolapse of internal organs, as it raises the spleen yang and qi. It can be used for qi and blood deficiency caused by loss of blood or after childbirth. Description: Astragalus is native to northern China and the elevated regions of the Chinese provinces Yunnan and Sichuan. The portion of the plant used medicinally is the four- to seven-year-old dried root collected in the spring. While there are over 2,000 types of astragalus world-wide, the Chinese version has been extensively tested, both chemically and pharmacologically' Dosage: Textbooks on Chinese herbs recommend taking 9-15 grams of the crude herb per day in decoction form made by boiling the root in water for a few minutes and then brewing the tea. Supplements typically contain 500 mg of astragalus. Two to three tablets or capsules or 3-5 ml of tincture three times per day are often recommended. Safety: Astragalus should not be used for cases of excess or when there is deficiency of yin with heat signs, and it should not be used when there is stagnation of qi or dampness, especially when there is painful obstruction. Herb Information Name: Belladonna Biological Name: Atropa belladonna Other Names: Black cherry, deadly nightshade, dwale, poison black cherry, belladonna Parts Used: Leaves, tops, berries Remedies For: Antispasmodic, calmative, diaphoretic, diuretic, narcotic. The narcotic action of belladonna can produce paralysis by affecting the central nervous system. Not to be used without medical direction. Description: Belladonna is a perennial plant found occasionally in waste places in the eastern states of the U.S., more commonly in European pastures, mountain forests, ruins, and waste places. A thick, creeping, whitish, fleshy rootstock sends up an erect, leafy stem that usually splits into three branches and attains a height of up to 5 feet. The dull green, ovate leaves grow in pairs, one leaf being half as large as the other. Belladonna flowers are solitary, bell-shaped, and dull brown to dark purple in color. The fruit is a sweet-tasting, black, shiny berry about the size of a cherry. Safety: The narcotic action of belladonna can produce paralysis by affecting the central nervous system. Not to be used without medical direction. AUTOTAXI.COM-travel by car contactsTravel CONTACTS


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You can learn lot about gardening by reading seed catalogs.

Whether your garden is frozen over or your first freeze is yet to arrive, it’s never too early to start dreaming about next year’s garden. If you set aside a little time this winter to plan what to grow next year, you’ll be rewarded with an early start come spring. Plus, you can make your green thumb even greener just by reading seed catalogs. New gardeners, especially, should read seed catalogs to learn about fruit and veggie varieties that are naturally pest- and disease-resistant, are fabulously prolific, or offer superior flavor and nutrition. It’s also a good way to introduce yourself to underappreciated but fun-to-grow fruits and veggies such as kohlrabi and mouse melons.

The online versions of seed company catalogs are quick and easy to use. Plus, they tend to be more up-to-date.

Lucky for us, it’s easier than ever to find healthy garden seeds that were grown organically and come from solid, open-pollinated stock. Even some of the largest seed companies are beginning to offer a wider selection of organic, non-hybrid, and non-chemically-treated seeds. When possible, order garden seeds from companies based in your area. Their varieties are more likely to be well adapted to your soil and climate. The following seed companies (organized by state; skip to the end for Canadian listings) have a great selection of open-pollinated and organic vegetable and herb seeds, and you’ll learn a lot from their informative catalogs. Their extensive offerings are available online and/or via traditional print catalogs.

Sand Mountain Herbs (Fyffe, Ala.)

Native Seeds / SEARCH (Tucson, Ariz.)
Seeds Trust (Cornville, Ariz.)

Bountiful Gardens (Willits, Calif.)
J. L. Hudson, Seedsman (LaHonda, Calif.)
Laurel’s Heirloom Tomato Plants (Lomita, Calif.)
Mountain Valley Growers (Squaw Valley, Calif.)
Natural Gardening Co. (Petaluma, Calif.)
Ornamental Edibles (San Jose, Calif.)
Peaceful Valley Farm Supply (Grass Valley, Calif.)
Redwood City Seeds (Redwood City, Calif.)
Renee’s Garden (Felton, Calif.)

Botanical Interests (Broomfield, Colo.)
Golden Harvest Organics (Fort Collins, Colo.)
The Garlic Store (Fort Collins, Colo.)

Comstock, Ferre & Co. (Wethersfield, Conn.)
John Sheeper's Kitchen Garden Seeds (Bantam, Conn.)
New England Seed (Hartford, Conn.)

Eden Organic Nursery Services (E.O.N.S.) (Hallandale, Fla.)
The Gourmet Gardener (Live Oak, Fla.)
The Pepper Gal (Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.)
Tomato Growers Supply Co. (Fort Myers, Fla.)

American Organic Seed & Grain (Warren, Ill.)
Underwood Gardens (Woodstock, Ill.)

Great Harvest Organics (Atlanta, Ind.)
The Chile Woman (Bloomington, Ind.)

Blue River Organic Seed (Kelley, Iowa)
Mark Seed Co. (Perry, Iowa)
Sand Hill Preservation Center (Calamus, Iowa)
Seed Savers Exchange (Decorah, Iowa)

Pendleton’s Country Market (Lawrence, Kan.)
Skyfire Garden Seeds (Kanopolis, Kan.)

Ferry-Morse Seed Company (Fulton, Ky.)
Sustainable Mountain Agriculture Center (Berea, Ky.)

FEDCO Seeds (Waterville, Maine)
Johnny’s Selected Seeds (Winslow, Maine)
Pinetree Garden Seeds (New Gloucester, Maine)
Wood Prairie Farm (Bridgewater, Maine)

Pepper Joe's (Timonium, Md.)

Krohne Plant Farms, Inc. (Hartford, Mich.)

Albert Lea Seed House (Albert Lea, Minn.)

Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds (Mansfield, Mo.)
Granny's Heirloom Seeds (Humansville, Mo.)
Pantry Garden Herbs (Cleveland, Mo.)

G & H Garlic Farm (Littleton, N. H.)

Thompson & Morgan (Jackson, N.J.)

Gourmet Seed International (Tatum, N.M.)
Plants of the Southwest (Santa Fe and Albuquerque, N.M.)
Seeds of Change (Santa Fe, N.M.)
Seeds West Garden Seeds (Albuquerque, N.M.)

Harris Seeds (Rochester, N.Y.)
Seedway (Hall, N.Y.)
Stokes Seeds Inc. (Buffalo, N.Y.)
Turtle Tree Seed (Copake, N.Y.)

Appalachian Seeds (Flat Rock, N.C.)
Cornerstone Garlic Farm (Reidsville, N. C.)

Bobba-Mike’s Garlic Farm (Orrville, Ohio)

Abundant Life Seeds (Saginaw, Ore.)
Horizon Herbs (Williams, Ore.)
Nichols Garden Nursery (Albany, Ore.)
One Green World (Molalla, Ore.)
Sow Organic Seed (Williams, Ore.)
Territorial Seed Co. (Cottage Grove, Ore.)
The Thyme Garden Herb Company (Alsea, Ore.)
Victory Seed Company (Molalla, Ore.)
Wild Garden Seed (Philomath, Ore.)

Container Seeds (Wellsboro, Penn.)
Heirloom Seeds (W. Elizabeth, Penn.)
The Cook’s Garden (Warminster, Penn.)
W. Atlee Burpee Co.(Warminster, Penn.)

Park Seed Co. (Greenwood, S.C.)
R. H. Shumway’s (Graniteville, S.C.)
Seeds for the South (Graniteville, S.C.)

Marianna’s Heirloom Seeds (Dickson, Tenn.)
New Hope Seed Company (Bon Aqua, Tenn.)

Garden Store-N-More (LaPorte, Tex.)
Willhite Seed Inc. (Poolville, Tex.)
Bob Wells Nursery (Lindale, Tex.)
Brown’s Omaha Plant Farms (Omaha, Tex.)
Dixondale Farms (Carrizo Springs, Tex.)

High Mowing Organic Seeds (Wolcott, Vt.)

Garden Medicinals and Culinaries (Earlysville, Va.)
Southern Exposure Seed Exchange (Mineral, Va.)

Filaree Farm (Okanogan, Wash.)
Garden City Seeds (Ellensburg, Wash.)
Osborne Seed Company (Mount Vernon, Wash.)

Botanikka Seeds (Iron Ridge, Wis.)
Totally Tomatoes (Randolf, Wis.)
Vermont Bean Seed Co. (Randolph, Wis.)

Boundary Garlic Farm (Midway, British Columbia)
Gardeners Web (Bowden, Alberta)
Hole’s Greenhouses & Gardens (St. Albert, Alberta)
Salt Spring Seeds (Salt Spring Island, British Columbia)
Stellar Seeds (Sorrento, British Columbia)
West Coast Seeds (Delta, British Columbia)
William Dam Seeds (Dundas, Ontario)
Richter's (Goodwood, Ontario)

For more help planning your spring garden, check out the following articles from the Mother Earth News Archive:

Do you order seeds from a great seed company that isn’t on the list above? Tell us about it below!