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Chapter 16 Part 2
In Chicago, John and Henry sang before a crowd of
'Tis coming up the steep of time,
And this old world is growing brighter,
We may not see its dawn sublime,
Yet high hopes make the heart throb lighter.
We may be sleeping under ground
When it awakes the world in wonder;
But we have felt it gathering round
And heard its voice of living thunder,
'Tis coming, coming, O yes, 'tis coming!
"The People's Advent" was a popular poem by Gerald Massey. In 1864, Hutchinson Family friend James G. Clark published a musical setting. But evidently it did not find its audience until it came to John's attention.
Clark is known to have sent John copies of his new songs. So, when John arrived at High Rock in 1865, after a very long tour, it is likely that a copy of "The People's Advent" was there in a stack of mail. Evidently, though, it was November 1867 when one of John's fellow passengers on a train in Missouri was reading Massey's poems and suggested that "The People's Advent" would make a great song. One can easily picture John, once he got back home, rifling through a pile of sheet music to find James G. Clark's score. John and Henry then arranged "The People's Advent" as a duet.
"In each place, said John, was a platform. We would sing": John W. Hutchinson (1896, 1:471).
"The People's Advent" was a popular poem by Gerald Massey": A reformer, Gerald Massey was influenced by the European popular uprisings of 1848. He had a diverse career as a poet, lecturer, and Egyptologist. He may be best remembered today for discovering a hidden or secret drama in Shakespeare's sonnets.
"In 1864, Hutchinson Family friend James G. Clark published": James G. Clark, "The Peoples Advent: A New Quartette for the Times," lyrics: Gerald
I made an extensive search for a couple years - hunting online, writing letters, and asking specialists - before I saw my first copy of the score for "The People's Advent," courtesy of the Chicago Public Library, Music Information Center. Much that has been written about "The People's Advent" could be taken to mean that John created an original musical setting for this song. He or maybe his wife identified the composer by last name - finally - in a program for a concert given late in 1905! See "A Delightful Musical Recital," Hutchinson (MN) Leader, October 20, 1905, p. 1 col. 3.
John and Henry created a new, distinctive arrangement of this song. Their interpretation made "The People's Advent" a high point of their concerts.
In 1864 Clark also published "Beautiful Annie," as "sung by the Hutchinsons."
"Evidently, though, it was November 1867 when one of John's": C. G. Foster to John W. Hutchinson, July 1, 1876, in John W. Hutchinson (1896, 2:351-353).
The extensive, detailed Hutchinson Family timeline used in this study shows no earlier opportunity for the encounter noted in
Over the next four decades, John's singing of "The People's Advent" was praised often by journalists, fans, and members of the family. "The grandeur of the poetry, and the corresponding grandeur of the music," wrote Joshua, "have called forth the admiration of thousands." Judson's daughter Kate called it "soul inspiring" to hear John and Henry sing this song. "It was Henry's magnificent bass solo in 'The People's Advent'," said his proud
John and Henry continued touring through Illinois, giving concerts and singing at rallies on behalf of Grant. They met with Robert G. Ingersoll to plan a series of joint appearances. It must have seemed odd for the deeply religious Hutchinsons to be such close coworkers with Ingersoll, who was becoming well known for his agnosticism. "Partly from principle," said John, "and partly because of the warning furnished by Governor Yates, I made it my way, besides having many talks on the Bible with Ingersoll during our tour, to give him numerous earnest temperance lectures." The Hutchinsons kept campaigning until October 27, when they made their last appearance in Chicago.
John and Henry reached Hutchinson at noon on November 3 and sang in the streets. Lizzie Hutchinson and a Mrs. Alexander went to the polls and asked to vote, but were refused.
Asa and his family were busy on Hassan Farm. They had nearly 100 acres under cultivation. John and Henry visited the day after the election; then they gave concerts in various Minnesota communities. On the 26th, they sang at Minneapolis. Following the show, they learned that Brother Joshua had been sitting in their audience. He was on his way to Hutchinson for the first time. "Hearing that brother John and son were in the city," he wrote, "I hurried to the concert, at Pence Opera House, where they were greeted with the elite of the city, and with his usual enthusiasm, and some new songs, won their approval."
Joshua had left for Minnesota back on November 16, making concert stops along the way. After reaching Minneapolis, he stayed for three days with John and Henry, appearing in concert one evening. Then he left on the train, transferred to a stagecoach, switched again to an ox sled, and traveled the last five miles or more on foot.
While Joshua was visiting family and making friends in Minnesota, his occasional singing partner, Kate Hutchinson, "Queen of Song," and John's former harpist, Jack Whitcomb, were performing in the New York area with the Peak Family Bell Ringers.
Abby spent the winter of 1868-1869 keeping warm in Florida. Meanwhile, Viola was enjoying a stay at High Rock.
"The grandeur of the poetry, and the corresponding grandeur": Joshua Hutchinson, A Brief Narrative of the Hutchinson Family (Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1874), 47.
"It was Henry's magnificent bass solo in The People's Advent": John W. Hutchinson 1896, 2:288).
"Partly from principle, said John, and partly because of the warning": John W. Hutchinson (1896, 1:472).
"Lizzie Hutchinson and a Mrs. Alexander went to the polls": The same day in Vineland, NJ, Frances D. Gage led 172 women in a march to the polls, where they demanded to vote. See "Equal Rights," New York Times, May 14, 1869, p. 8 cols. 1-2.
"Asa and his family were busy on Hassan Farm. They had nearly": John W. Hutchinson (1896, 1:475).
During most of 1868, Asa devoted himself to his family, to farming, and to making improvements on his property in Minnesota. At the time of a reunion concert in July 1869, we are told something about the recent activities of John and Abby, but we are only told that Asa and his family came from their Minnesota home.
"Hearing that brother John and son were in the city, he wrote": Joshua
"While Joshua was visiting family and making friends": Evidently Kate remained with the Peak Family through the 1868-1869 season.
Members of these various groups aligned and re-aligned in interesting ways, such as this example of Judson's daughter and John's harpist performing together with the Peak Family. Recently I have seen an old concert bill for a large company which included, among others, a former member of the Peak Family, a future Alleghanians piano accompanist, and two future husbands of two future Alleghanians.
"Abby spent the winter of 1868-1869 keeping warm in Florida": "The Hutchinson Family's Reunion at Milford, N.H."
Most New Englanders can readily see the value of heading south for the winter. But in the case of the Pattons, there was probably a lot more science to it. First and probably most importantly, Ludlow became a travel writer, a thing he clearly enjoyed. Travel was a great adventure, and he probably had a solid idea where he wanted to go. The Pattons also had a close friend, Dr. Joseph W. Howe. Dr. Howe had an unusual collection of specialties, and one of them was winter health resorts. Though his later book on the subject was geared toward people with serious health problems, there is nothing stopping those with lesser difficulties or those who are simply trying to ward off cold-weather trouble from benefiting from these winter resorts. See Joseph W. Howe, Winter Homes for Invalids: An Account of the Various Localities in Europe and America Suitable for Consumptives and Other Invalids During the Winter Months (New York:
I chafed somewhat under the restraint of being kept in the house on account of heavy snow storms,
Thus Cleaveland John Campbell came sledding into the world.
John was home for the birth of his first grandchild; but he was probably anxious to return to Chicago, before Henry could make another career change. When John got back on January 22, he and his son immediately began rehearsing for a series of concerts. They made the rounds of churches and missions.
At this time, evangelist Dwight L. Moody was active in Chicago. He engaged John and Henry to sing at his mass meetings on Sunday evenings at Farwell Hall. Often he would draw
On February 25, the Hutchinsons lost a dear friend, with the death of Dr. Edward A. Kittredge in Newton, Massachusetts, at the age of 58. His funeral was held at the First Universalist Church of Lynn, and he was interred at the Eastern Burial Ground, very near the Hutchinson family graves.
A Salem native, Kittredge was a died-in-the-wool eccentric, so he fit in nicely with the Hutchinsons. Trained in allopathic medicine, Kittredge traveled to Europe to study hydropathy and was there when the quartet toured the United Kingdom. A practicing physician and a serious advocate of the water cure system, nonetheless as a public speaker he was hilarious. Some thought that Dr. Kittredge saved Abby's life, at the time of her 1849 illness. Dr. Edward Kittredge was a significant contributor to Hutchinson Family history, mostly through his newspaper writings under the pen name "Noggs."
John had accepted invitations to sing in New York at the May anniversaries; and on the train, he completed work on a new song for the occasion, "Unite, Unite, To Battle for Right."
Abby was reelected to the Executive Committee of the Equal Rights Association; but Ludlow stepped down from his duties as treasurer and was replaced by John J. Merritt.
At Steinway Hall on May 13, the second day of the meetings, Frederick Douglass argued that a Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, recognizing the right of African-American men to vote, was the most important reform of the day. It should be seen as a step toward the goal of woman suffrage. Reformers were divided over this idea, which was by no means unique to Douglass, as they were divided over the involvement of George Francis Train in the suffrage cause.
"I chafed somewhat under the restraint of being kept in the house": Viola Hutchinson Campbell, Memories of a Busy Life (Plymouth, Mass.: privately printed
The baby was named primarily after his father's older brother, Civil War hero Cleaveland J. Campbell.
The Cleaveland J. Campbell whose birth is recorded here was quite gregarious. He lived late enough that there must be many people still living today who remember him and more than a few who remember him well.
"On February 25, the Hutchinsons lost a dear friend": Alonzo Lewis and James R. Newhall, History of Lynn, Essex County, Massachusetts: Including Lynnfield, Saugus, Swampscott, and Nahant, 2 vols. (Lynn: G. C. Herbert, 1890), 2:31.
"Dr. Edward Kittredge was a significant contributor": Dr. Edward A. Kittredge was also like the Hutchinsons in that his passions ran strong. One might marvel at the degree of his confidence in the water cure. Yet he was not alone in this faith nor in his rejection of the drugs which were commonly used in mid-19th-century medical practice. One might wonder, though, whether his enthusiasm for "starvation" as a broadly-applied medical intervention may have carried him a little far from the mainstream.
Kittredge was involved in the January 8, 1859, Free Church benefit entertainment at Sagamore Hall in Lynn, just prior to Judson's death. After that, for some reason, he seems to disappear, without explanation, from Hutchinson family records.
"Abby was reelected to the Executive Committee": Abby: According to John Hutchinson (1896, 1:490), on June 25, 1869, Lucy Stone went to Rutland to hold a suffrage convention, accompanied by Abby Patton and Henry Hutchinson.
In and around 1869, Lucy Stone's husband, Henry B. Blackwell, tried to have an extramarital affair with a "Mrs. P" of Roseville, New Jersey. Whether or not he was successful is unknown. The identity of Mrs. P is unknown. A Lucy Stone biographer has speculated that Mrs. P may have been Abby Hutchinson Patton. See Andrea Moore Kerr, Lucy Stone: Speaking Out for Equality (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992). Since the publication of Kerr's book, though, this idea has taken on a life of its own; and in some quarters, Blackwell's known pursuit of some unidentified Mrs. P has turned into a consummated extramarital affair with Abby that was common knowledge. A note in a history of woman suffrage said the Pattons resided in Roseville, but no such information has surfaced in this study from any other independent source. John, to the contrary, placed the Pattons' residence at Orange, New Jersey, both shortly before and shortly after Blackwell's would-be affair.
Evidence that Blackwell had an affair with Abby is speculative at best; and even Kerr's use of a passage from Abby's 1891 book, A Handful of Pebbles, as evidence is downright puzzling.
There is much we do not know.
Ludlow: "Equal Rights," New York Times, May 13, 1869, p. 1 cols. 6-7.
Dr. Edward Augustus Kittredge (1810-1869)
The thorny matter of free love was debated. "The third resolution," said the New York Times, "declaring that the Convention has no desire to lessen the sanctity of the marriage relation, created some discussion. Mrs. Livermore wanted it put in stronger language. At the West, she said, this woman's movement had to contend against the obloquy of being in favor of the free-love doctrine; she wanted this resolution to rebut that false charge to the fullest extent."
John said it was then that he and Henry arrived. "We came from the train just as the debate was at its hottest point, went on the stage and sung the song. Lucy Stone assumed a pacific attitude toward the people who were attacked and
"It hardly seems possible," said John, "that it is only a quarter of a century since these questions, which do not now enter to the slightest extent into the question of equal suffrage, were considered of so much importance."
While still in New York, John walked into the offices of the American Literary Bureau out of curiosity. The result of this visit was that soon that operation was booking many of his concerts.
John and Henry were long associated with the Morning Star Sunday School of New York, through their dentist-friend,
The National Woman Suffrage Association was formed at this time, and John and Henry promptly joined. But in November at a convention in Cleveland, another national organization - the American Woman Suffrage Association - was created. The woman's rights movement was now effectively split in two.
After the Civil War, there was much interest in the cause of peace. In June 1869, Patrick S. Gilmore's great Peace Jubilee took place in Boston. The orchestra was composed of
"The third resolution," said the New York Times, declaring": "Equal Rights," New York Times, May 14, 1869, p. 8 cols. 1-2.
"We came from the train just as the debate was at its hottest": John W. Hutchinson (1896, 1:488). See John W. Hutchinson (1896, 1:479-483) for John's similar experiences in Chicago.
This anniversary marked a significant step in the unraveling of a large, loose, pre-war, pre-Emancipation Proclamation coalition of nineteenth-century social reformers.
"It hardly seems possible, said John, that it is only a quarter": John W. Hutchinson (1896, 1:492).
"While still in New York, John walked into the offices": The American Literary Bureau certainly had an impressive name, and this enterprise must have benefited tremendously from its Manhattan location. It is surprising, then, how little information about the Bureau has come to light in this study.
"She was greeted with hearty cheers, it being her first appearance": John W. Hutchinson (1896, 1:489). A performance at Apollo Hall on May 28, 1869, is another candidate for this event.
John and Henry gave many concerts, for the benefit of the Morning Star Sunday School building fund, in the New York area, as well as in eastern Massachusetts.
"But in November at a convention in Cleveland, another": "Woman Suffrage - Call for a National Convention," New York Times, October 20, 1869, p. 2 col. 3; "Conventions," New York Times, November 25, 1869, p. 1 col. 5; "Woman Suffrage," New York Times, November 26, 1869, p. 1 col. 5.
Asa no longer needed to be on the road all the time. He enjoyed and thought well of farming. Yet it didn't take much to lure him back into the music business. This time, the attraction was a reunion of the Hutchinson Family quartet, with Joshua taking the place long held by Judson. On June 19, they gave a concert at St. Paul's Methodist-Episcopal Church in Lynn. They appeared again on July 3 at Milford. "The pieces," said the Farmers' Cabinet, "were rendered with that effect which the Hutchinsons only can give, and were received with much satisfaction and enthusiasm. All that need be said is - their old pieces were the favorites."
Asa gave concerts around Cape Cod; then, with his wife and daughter, he went to Nantucket to visit family. By coincidence, Henry went to Nantucket with another party. And John was not going to be left out. He and Asa agreed to sing for a while with their combined companies. While at Nantucket, they met Samuel B. Spinning, a fine bass singer, and his friend Frank L. Benjamin, a high tenor. Each brother saw these two as possible additions to his company. Evidently John offered them more money, putting at risk his long-standing reputation for thrift; and they both joined his troupe. The combined ensemble filled a series of engagements in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and then separated at Providence.
John's all-male quartet made a tour through parts of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. They sang at the Temperance Alliance Convention in Providence. Then Henry hopped a freight train for Hartford, while the others rested for the night and followed in the morning.
John's troupe reached New York on November 18, with high hopes for the winter season. Around this time, Frank Benjamin let it be known that he would need a higher salary. So John let him go. This is John's official version of the story, and it is probably accurate as far as it goes. But it seems likely that Benjamin, a graduate of the Conservatoire de Paris, was seeking an expanded role in John's company. Later, in the early 1870s, Benjamin shipped to California with the heavily-traveled Alleghanians. He served as the tenor voice and music director of that ensemble, which was then larger and much more musically varied than the Tribe of John. A March 28, 1874, note from the Alleghanians manager, which appeared on a poster advertising upcoming Toronto-area concerts, said that Benjamin "is lying quite ill, having been under the physician's care since our last concerts here." Some references to Frank Benjamin's death were made in connection with his Alleghanians membership, so it seems likely the 1874 note reported his final illness.
"This time, the attraction was a reunion of the Hutchinson Family": The Revels, a seasoned, highly-acclaimed music-theater company out of Boston, presents a wonderful show called "There's a Meeting Here Tonight!" which is based on a fictional Hutchinson family reunion at the North River Road homestead in Milford, New Hampshire, in the years following the Civil War. This production, which features members of the Revels' Circle of Song touring company, coincides quite nicely with this actual 1869 reunion of the Hutchinson Family quartet.
"The pieces, said the Farmers' Cabinet, were rendered": "The Concert by the Hutchinsons," Amherst, NH, Farmers' Cabinet, July 8, 1869, p. 2 col. 3.
"A March 28, 1874, note from the Alleghanians manager": "Music Hall, Toronto," concert poster printed on fabric, s.l.: s.n., March 28, 1874. March 28 is the date of the manager's note.
John's company was in New York to fill engagements made by the American Literary Bureau. The group received $100 a night and gave a number of shows in the city, then sang in the larger towns along the Hudson River. But earlier that year, James Redpath, of the Boston Lyceum Bureau, proposed arranging concerts for John. Through some misunderstanding, Redpath began making engagements for him through the same period covered by the agreement with the American Literary Bureau. "Between the two," said John, "I was kept pretty busy, and we had to do a good deal more travelling than formerly to meet dates in different sections."
Abby, having had an active year, celebrated the new one by leaving New York for Florida on Saturday, January 1, 1870.
Now, back in 1869, the Committee of the Vermont Council of Censors reported in favor of amending the state constitution to recognize the right of women to vote.
[S]he has all the qualifications - the capacity, the desire for the public welfare. She is among the governed. She pays taxes. Even-handed justice, a fair application of the principles of the Declaration of Independence and of our State
"This subject is one that promises to engross the thoughts of this generation, and it will be agitated till in the progress of events the right of woman to vote will not be questioned."
The American Woman Suffrage Association was founded by those who emphasized campaigning for their cause state-by-state. So in 1870 the
As in Kansas, many opponents of woman suffrage were afraid of unwholesome elements in the movement; and they feared this reform would weaken the family. It must have puzzled American Woman Suffrage Association leaders such as Mary Livermore, who had deliberately tried to distance their organization from - and even repudiate - the controversial doctrine of "free love." Possibly the strongest and most prevalent argument against woman suffrage in Vermont was that most women did not want to vote.
"Between the two, said John, I was kept pretty busy": John W. Hutchinson (1896, 1:495).
Later, the Boston Lyceum Bureau became known as the Redpath Lyceum Bureau.
"She has all the qualifications - the capacity, the desire": "Woman's Suffrage," New York Times, August 2, 1869, p. 3 col. 1.
"The American Woman Suffrage Association was founded by those": The National Woman Suffrage Association, led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, preferred to campaign for a woman suffrage amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Not surprisingly, other differences of strategy existed.
"The Convention, said the Vermont Phoenix, was undeniably": "Woman Suffrage Convention," Brattleboro Vermont Phoenix, February 11, 1870, p. 2 cols. 3-4.
Vermonters elected delegates to a Constitutional Convention. When it met, discussion of woman suffrage was not permitted. Only one delegate, Harvey Howes of West Haven, voted to amend the state constitution to provide for woman suffrage. He did not cast this vote, he admitted, because it was what voters wanted. He did it, instead, because it was the right thing to do.
"Vermonters elected delegates to a Constitutional Convention": Deborah P. Clifford, "An Invasion of Strong-Minded Women: The Newspapers and the Woman Suffrage Campaign in Vermont in 1870," Vermont History 43 (Winter 1975): 1-19.
Behold the day of promise comes, full of inspiration
The blessed day by prophets sung for the healing of the nation
Old midnight errors flee away, they soon will all be gone
While heavenly angels seem to say the good time's coming on
The good time, the good time, the good time's coming on
The good time, the good time, the good time's coming on
Brattleboro, Vermont: Published by the author. 2006, 2007.
All rights reserved. Used with permission.
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