Circassian Culture & Folklore

The contents of the site are edited by Amjad Jaimoukha and powered by SPINDOX for Research and Publication

This site is mainly concerned with the dissemination of Circassian culture and Circassian folklore. There will be an attempt to increase the Circassian language content on the Internet, which is almost non-existent, mainly due to the woeful neglect of the Circassian institutions in the Caucasus (and elsewhere), which, with very few exceptions, systematically fail to put out information in the Circassian language. The usage and status of the Circassian language shall be monitored on this page.


To relieve the pressure on this page, which is allowed a limited bandwidth, alternative sites have been made available at http://jaimoukha.synthasite.com   and   http://jaimoukha.blackapplehost.com.

Last updated: 5 March 2009

What's new:


    PARLONS TCHERKESSE [Let's Speak Circassian] (New book on Circassian language and culture by Amjad Jaimoukha and Michel Malherbe to be published by L'Harmattan, Paris, Autumn 2009)

A Brief History of Kabarda

       :  ݻ ( I ) [Circassian/English         Journal: 'The Hearth Tree': Circassian Cultural Miscellany]  

The Status of the Circassian Language and Culture in Circassia: Running the Gamut: A Cyber Odyssey Across the Expanse of Circassian Culture and Language in Circassia


The Statue of Princess Maria in Nalchik

Circassian Rocks!

Fascinating Song: Siy Paq!

Circassian Proverbs and Sayings. . The whole book is now available on line in .pdf format (201 pages; about 3,000 Circassian entries with English equivalents and comments, the largest collection of its kind to date). Teachers of Circassian in schools in the Caucasus and the diaspora (and the concerned educational authorities) could do worse than make this book part of the curriculum, whereby the students are subtly directed to appreciate the beauty of the Circassian language through learning by rote selected proverbs and sayings (and their equivalents in English, therefore doubling the benefit). It is suitable for students from the elementary stage to university level.


For researchers actively interested in the revival of the Ubykh language and culture


Featured Books and Articles


A Circassian Toast, by Edward Levedev (Celebrated Circassian poet from Panama)


Circassian Bibliographies & Periodicals


Keeka rika, Epic Circassian War Songs, Heroic Chants,

Ballads for the Brave, and British Jingoism


Circassian Corsets, a Fashion Craze, Amazons, Disposable Body Parts, and Ancient Circassians:

A Quaint Tale Told in Quotes     (Same article in .pdf format)



PDF Converter: http://www.freepdfconvert.com

Forthcoming articles & projects:

Circassian Culture & Folklore


[This page is in both Circassian and English and is legible for the readers of either. It is a companion to the book Circassian Culture and Folklore: Hospitality Traditions, Cuisine, Festivals & Music (Kabardian, Cherkess, Adigean, Shapsugh & Diaspora), Bennett and Bloom, 2009. It is a work in progress: last updated 9 October 2008. Comments and contributions are most welcome] 

Basic information on Circassia and the Circassians:

The Circassians    
()    (updated on Google Knol)
The Kabardians    
()   (updated on Google Knol)
The Hatuqwai Nation   (, )
The Mokhosh, Western Circassians    ()


Circassian & North Caucasian Bibliographies:

Circassian Culture & Folklore:

Purveyors of Circassian culture and folklore:

The Circassian Minstrels ( I) (from the forthcoming book Circassian Culture and Folklore)

The Bag of an Imagined Circassian Minstrel (an ongoing project to recreate an idealized Circassian bard)

Circassian proverbs and sayings:

Circassian Proverbs and Sayings. The whole book is now available on line (some 200 pages; about 3,000 Circassian entries with English equivalents and comments).

Circassian onomastics:

Circassian Names ( I) (Collection of lists of original Circassian first names)

Circassian etiquette:

Circassian Greetings & Salutes  ( I)

Circassian Music:

Circassian Song Lyrics ( ) (a continuously updated collection of song lyrics. Will be divided into genres in good time. Any contribution is most welcome)

Craftsmanship & Cottage Industries:


North Caucasian Weapons


Circassian Language & Literature:


M. Shafei, a neuro-cognitive specialist, has designed a software package to convert Circassian Cyrillic into Latin. All you have to do is just insert the text in Cyrillic and press convert. It's magic! The scheme, proposed on this site, and in the book The Circassians: A Handbook (pp 320-4), would make it possible to turn documents and literary classics into Latin script, if ever a decision is made to discard insular Cyrillic.

Circassian Religion & Mythology:

Ancient Circassian Religion & Mythology

Circassian Pantheon

Circassian New Year  

The Nart Sagas of the Circassians:

(The Nart Tales of the Circassians)

Selected Nart tales:

Sosriqwe Fetches Fire
(Circassian equivalent of the Prometheus legend)

The Story of Lhepschs Iron Tongs

More Nart tales

Circassian Societies:

The Social Structure of the Circassians

The Kabardian Class System: Social Hierarchy in Eastern Circassia

Circassian Family Life
The Circassians in Jordan

The Circassians in Jerash (possible booklet project; last modified: 10 August 2008; comments and suggestions are welcome)
The Circassians in Kosovo Polje

The Circassians in Poland: The Five Princes from the 'Five Mountains'

New booklet: ЖЭМЫХЪУЭ ЛЪЭПКЪЫМ И ТХЫДЭ (The History of the Jaimoukha [Jamoukha, Jamokha] Clan), by: Ahmed (Yura) M. Zhemix'we, Nalchik: M. and V. Kotlyarov Publishing House, 2008. (Тхылъ зытхар: Жэмыхъуэ Мухьэмэд и къуэ Ахьмэд [Юрэ])

Circassian History:

The Circassians in the Mamluk Kingdom
The Caucasian Borderland



North Caucasian Federation: Part I: The Northwest Caucasus: Or, the Recreation of Circassia (and eventually Greater Circassia)

Mapping Circassian Responses to the August 2008 Caucasian War:

Personal Musings on the Current Political Situation of the Circassians and Circassian Independence


Day of Mourning, Day of Hope [ ]


If you want to obtain copies of the books shown on this page, please contact SPINDOX for Research and Publication at: jaimoukha@gmail.com

SPINDOX is committed to the publication of high quality books on the Caucasus and the Middle East in the West.

SPINDOX also offers editorial and translation services.


The Circassians: A Handbook
(Click for more details)
Amjad Jaimoukha

Available for purchase.

Published by Curzon Press (ISBN 0 7007 0644 5)
(Curzon Press is now RoutledgeCurzon ,
part of the Taylor & Francis Group )
In the Series: Caucasus World
Distributed in the USA by Routledge/New York
Also co-published by Palgrave Macmillan .(St. Martin's Press) in the USA
(ISBN: 0312239947)

Back cover of The Circassians: A Handbook
Click here for reviews and more details

Front cover of The Chechens

The Chechens: A Handbook


Amjad Jaimoukha

(with contributions from JonArno Lawson)


Available for purchase.

Published in January 2005 by Routledge,
part of the Taylor & Francis Group

In the Series: Caucasus World
Also available in a number of e-book formats from the publishers and Amazon.com
More books and articles
by Amjad Jaimoukha:


Circassian Culture and Folklore:

Hospitality Traditions, Cuisine, Festivals & Music (Kabardian, Cherkess, Adigean, Shapsugh & Diaspora)


To be published by Bennett and Bloom in the summer of 2009 in paperback and hardcover. Available for pre-order from Amazon.co.uk.

It will feature a CD 'The Art of the Circassian Minstrels' with some 200 musical pieces (songs and melodies) divided into genres (Pantheonic, Nart epic, heroic/historical, elegiac, laments, plaintive, agrarian and pastoral, nuptial, comic, etc), which would be of particular interest to musicologists and connoisseurs of exotic music. The book will be more than 500 pages.


Kabardian-English Dictionary

Available for purchase.

The second edition of the dictionary is being prepared. It will be an expanded form of the first edition and will be in a much improved format, grace to the vision and dedication of Mr. Yousef Qursha. Expected time of publication of second edition: early 2010.

(Letter A of the Dictionary in .pdf format)

Circassian Cuisine

 The Cycles of the Circassian Nart Epic:

The Fountain-head of Circassian Mythology


Circassian Proverbs and Sayings


Some 3,000 entries in (mainly) Eastern Circassian (Kabardian-Cherkess) in both Cyrillic and Latin orthographies and English equivalents. A feast (to cloyment) for lovers of both the Circassian and English languages. The whole book is now available on line (pdf).


الأمانة العلمية: التحديات في سبيل إحقاقها وكيفية التصدي لها

Scientific Integrity

The whole book is available on line (pdf). It was translated from English to Arabic by Amjad Jaimoukha and Munir Bayouk, and edited by Amjad Jaimoukha.


PhD thesis by Amjad Jaimoukha

'Dissemination of Circassian Culture and Folklore as a Catalyst for Convergence of Disparate Visions for Circassia and as a Precursor to Reunification'   



Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities


Five contributions to the Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities: The Circassians, The Kabardians, The Dagestanis, The Karachai, Jordan. 'The Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities is a three-volume, A-Z encyclopedia, with some 600 essay entries that provide quick and clearly written introductions to minority groups and the themes and concepts that help readers to understand the issues. Entries, ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 words, fall into four main categories: Minority, Topical, Biographical, and Country. Each entry will be followed by a brief list of selected further readings.'

"Undergraduate students and general readers will find this three-volume Encyclopedia a rich source for minority studies... The entries are nuanced and thought-provoking."
Reference & Research Book News

"Because of its wide-ranging scope, rigorous indexing and ease of use, students and researchers from a variety of disciplines will find the Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities extremely valuable... Highly recommended for larger public and academic libraries."
Reference & User Services Quarterly

"This is an invaluable resource for any student or scholar who wants a convenient, scholarly introduction or review concerning the historical or current situation of minorities throughout the world."
American Reference Books Annual



Book project: Circassia Matters


List of contemporary must-read (seminal) books on the Circassians and associated issues (new)


Essential links to sites that promote the Circassian language and culture (to be activated soon)

Check out
Kolumb Internet Bookstore
On-line bookstore specialising in books on the Caucasus, Russia, and oriental cultures

Love is an Observant Traveller: Poems by JonArno Lawson

The Flipside

('Constructive' criticism and controversial issues)

This Website has won the Linguascope Hot Site Award, which acknowledges the quality and content, and the dedication to the development of online language material.



This site has been designated "Cool Site" in the
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in the category

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