Latinized Kabardian Alphabet

The following are latinized representations of official and literary Kabardian-Cherkess alphabet proposed by Amjad Jaimoukha . Please note that the Kabardians and Cherkess use the same official and literary language. There are only a few lexical differences. All examples are taken from Kabardian-English Dictionary by Amjad Jaimoukha, Amman : Sanjalay Press, 1997. This website is dotted with examples of latinized Kabardian orthography.

Latinized alphabet

English equivalent

Kabardian examples

Cyrillic equivalent

A a

dad, mad, bad

ade : there; father;

dame: shoulder,

wing;

Mira?: Is it this?

B b

B b

balije : radish;

nobe : today;

birib : pomposity

Ch ch

chest, chair

chin : whirligig;

pichin : to tear off;

helech : bad, spoilt

Ch ch

ch followed

by glottal stop

ch e: tail, end; xechin: to emerge (from some mass);

fech : except

I I

D d

D d

dene : where;

dade : grandpa;

jed : hen

Dz dz

adze

dze : tooth; army; yedzin: to hurl;

gwedz : wheat

E e

(initial only in loan words)

schwa; heave n

eksponat : exhibit;

lhepq : nation; race; breed;

nape: face

ei

(never in initial

or final position)

day (short and

undiphthongized )

zeik'we : campaign,

outing

ey

(never in initial

position)

day (diphthongized)

fey : dirty

F f

F f

fe : skin;

qefen : to dance;

nef : blind

F f

f followed by

glottal stop

fi : of good quality;

zefech : initiative;

lif : good man

I I

G g

Spanish/Dutch g,

e.g. lago

gin : gunpowder;

ghwegin : to weep;

zhig : tree

Gh gh

Parisian r

ghasche : life;

ghegha : flower;

ghedirgh : clang

Ghw ghw

gh + w

ghw egw: way, road;

mighwe : misfortune;

ghw neghw : neighbour

Gw gw

Gwent

gw : heart;

gwegwen : large metal pitcher;

degw : deaf

H h

Arabic ح

he : dog;

pihen : to weap;

qwh : ship

I i

(only initial in

interjections)

bin, din, sin

ii : no;

fiz : woman;

qamishi : whip

iy

(never initial)

see

txilhiybl : seven books;

siy : my

J j

J j

jegwn : to play; yejape: school;

dij : bitter

K k

K k

there are no native words in literary Kabardian that have this sound; the equivalent is ch; used only in dialects and loan

words, e.g.

kasse : cash-desk;

stekan : cup;

rak : cancer

Kw kw

could

kw : middle, centre;

dekwn : to cram;

xekw : country

Kw kw

kw with glottal stop after k

kw en: to go;

qekwen : to come;

yemikw : improper

I I

L l

L l

li : meat;

delen : pie;

mil: ice

L l

lh followed by glottal stop

li : man;

milen : not to die;

pschil : slave

I I

Lh lh

Welsh ll , e.g. Llewellyn

lhape : expensive;

delhen : to stroke;

gwlh : bud

M m

M m

mode : there;

qame : dagger;

weram : street

N n

N n

ne : eye;

dene : where;

sin: statue, monument

O o

(initial only in loan words, final in very few words)

So (not diphthongized)

opit : experiment, test;

sode : I accept;

pso : unharmed, intact;

lheposchhepo : barrier, hurdle

P p

P p

pe : nose;

nape: face;

nip: flag

P p

p followed by

glottal stop

pere ?: really?; papu: milk (childs word);

erip : domesticated, tame

I I

Q q

Arabic ق

qakwe : come here;

adaqe : cock;

qiq : stammerer

Q q

q + x

qable : grave;

feqiu : absolutely;

beq : cow-shed

Qw qw

q + w

qwelen : speckled,

spotted;

diqwaqwe : fork, bifurcation;

meqw : hay

Qw qw

q + w

qw e: pig, swine;

chaqwiyt : two cocking pieces;

chaqw : gun cocking piece

R r

(initial only in loan words)

rat (rolled )

roman : novel;

mereim : Friday;

mir : this

S s

S s

simaje : sick, ill;

kwesen : to elope;

tis : sit down

Sch sch

alveolo -palatal sh

sch en: to sell; pschasche : girl;

wesch : axe

Sch sch

sch followed by glottal stop

sch ale: boy, lad;

hesche : guest;

pschipsch : sparkling

I I

Sh sh

shoot

shate : soured cream;

qeshen : fiancée;

yemizesh : indefatigable

T t

T t

tane : calf;

satu : trade;

qat : level, layer

T t

t followed by glottal stop

ti : ram;

yate : mud;

wetpsit : damp (of weather)

I I

Ts ts

cats, bits

tsi : hair;

batse : shaggy;

lits : moss

Ts ts

ts followed by glottal stop

ts e: name;

matse :

grasshopper;

kwets : internal

I I

U u

(never initial)

moon

pud : cheap;

qaru : strength

V v

V v

vi : bull;

gheven : to boil;

bev : abundant (of crops)

W w

well

wane : saddle;

qewat : nutritious;

psinschew : quickly

W w

+ w

w: mouth; zhiedawe: obedient;

schiw : top; button

I I

X x

Scottish/German ch, e.g. loch , ich

xade : garden;

maxe : weak;

ziqiyzix : well-dressed

X x

Spanish j, e.g. jarra

Arabic خ

xarbiz : water-melon;

malhxe : son-in-law;

tsirx : flimsy

Xw xw

x + w

xw : wheat;

qeschexwn : to buy;

delhxw : brother (of a woman)

Xw xw

x + w

xw men: to guard, protect;

Mixwr : seal;

zchexw : rude person

Y y

yes

yape : first;

miyin : not large;

bzchamiy : pipe; zurna

Z z

Z z

zi : one;

eze : skilful;

mez : forest

Zch zch

alveolo -palatal zh

zch e: mouth;

mazche : comb;

leghwpezch : leader of herdsmen

Zh zh

genre, eras ure

zhem : cow;

qwazhe : village;

lhemizh : bridge

glottal stop

ene: three-legged table;

Qie !: Please!;

We!: Oh!

I I

NOTE: In some cases were confusion may arise when reading sh , sch, etc, either as one or two letters, a hyphen could be inserted in the latter case, thus, sh vs. s-h and sch vs. s-ch. There are precedents in European languages. In Catalan, for example, a period is used to distinguish between two consecutive ls ( l.l) and the combined letter ll , while in Scotland a hyphen is sometimes found in words like Ross-shire.

Official Kabardian Alphabet (Cyrillic) *

*

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

* *

I

I

* B. M. Kardanov (ed.), Kabardinsko-russki slovar [Kabardian-Russian Dictionary], Kabardino-Balkarian Science and Research Institute, Moscow : State Press of Foreign and National Dictionaries, 1957 , p12.

Official Adigean Alphabet (Cyrillic) **

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

** A. A. Hatene & Z. I. Cherashe, Adigabzem Yizexef Gwshialh [Explanatory Dictionary of the Adigean Language], Bzem , Literaturem, Istoriem ya Adige Nauchne-Issledovatelske Institut [Adigean Science and Research Institute of Language, Literature and History], Maikop: Circassian Book Press, 1960 , pxvi.



Certain phonetic nuances in Adigean, such as the difference between and , and and , are lost in the Latin system for Kabardian.


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* Schwa in Circassian words.

* * In loan words.