A Study of Psychological Strategies in Discourse Context
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the psychological strategy on discourse context in communicative situation, which have many factors of psychology, politics, culture, society, economy, ethnic, gender, and so on. As far as we know, discourse patterns change in various of aspects through level of characteristic, dispositions, age, an educational course, status of social, gender, nations, etc. Frequently, we know that linguistic diversity is more than a fact of behavior.
Linguistic diversity serves as a communicative resource in everyday life in that conversationalists rely on their knowledge and their stereotypes about variant ways of speaking to categorize events, infer intent and derive expectations about what is likely to ensure.
We have a direct mention what speaker's main topic is, or we have access to main topic with it's consider what to do a discourse situation. In a dialogue of everyday life, however, we contain many factors of discourse patterns through the schema, setting of situation, and as follows(by Gumperz. 1982).
A contextualization cue is any feature of linguistic form that contributes to the signalling of contextual presuppositions. Such cues may have a number of such linguistic realizations depending on the historically given linguistic repertoire of the participants." ……Although such cues carry information, meanings are conveyed as part of the interactive process. Unlike words that can be discussed out of context, the meanings of contextualization cues are implicit. They are not usually talked about out of context. Their signalling value depends on the participants' tacit awareness of their meaningfulness Thus, this paper will focus on psychological strategy about discourse context in communicative situation and will analyze a movie script.
Ⅱ. Psychological strategies in discourse setting
Before setting of discourse of interpersonal speaking begin, to some extent, we are governed to a setting of psychological background in status of social, job, characteristic, age, requests, approval, begs, and so on. In this situation, the speakers interacts with signal when they are confronted to first situations. And it's described to below:(by Stenstr?m, 1994)
The first topic is most likely to be introduced by means of some linguistic strategy which helps the speaker to get started and prepares the listener for the speaker's next action
In the below movie script, Still Breathing, a pattern of discourse is that grandma and grandson were plotted. They are Ida and Fletcher. Before Setting of discourse to each other begin, they are determined to make a status of conditions and play the instruments with a hobby of musical. They are talking about circumstance situations something without touched main topic. And then, they approach to a gradual main topic that a real meanings are conveyed as part of the interactive process(see script of Still Breathing. 1997).
Ida: Something's changed. You sound different.
Ida: It's your tone. What's her name?
Fletcher: I don't know.
Ida: You've pictured her. Finally.
Fletcher: And you know I don't believe any of that stuff about Dad's vision and going off to find Mom.
In above script, Ida is not expressing for a direct main topic from the beginning but she approaches to the subjects of dialogue according to a situation through interaction. From the topic is going on gradually, Of course, Fletcher understand a main idea that she is concerned about his lover. First of all, although they speak other topics, they know the content of dialogue from the course of interaction already. We can take the meaning of Ida's as follows: "Something's changed. You sound different. It's your tone". Let's describe with minute attention. When he play a sort of musical instruments, Ida said something like that the sound of musical instruments was different from other days. In this manner, Ida is talking about circumstance situations without touching the main topic. As like above discourse, we usually represent a complex psychological strategy on discourse context in communicative situation.(See also, Gumperz, 1982, as same ways)
Mother: Where are your boots?
Son: In the closet.
Mother: I want you to put them on right now.
In above psychological condition of dialogue, the mother asks a question which literally interpreted concerns the location of the son's boots. When he responds with a statement about their location, the mother retorts with a direct request. Her stress on "right now" suggests that she is annoyed at her son for not responding to her initial question as a request in the first place. On the other hand, we want to avoid a direct order for making a friendly mood with the others.
A: Darling, I want to the hospital today.
B: Honey, are you sick?
Don't hesitate to tell me. come on.
A: Please just let me finish and hear me out, will you?
B: All right. Go ahead. You seen touchy.
A: I am pregnant.
Although we come across with a content of discourse such as above situation in everyday life, we do not speak a main message with a pre-psychological strategies. If she reveal to the main topic, namely, "I am pregnant" from the beginning dialogue, the topic finish up simply in itself. But that is not attained to a real discourse situation. The wife(A) may have been a happy situation, or anxieties, ashamedness, astonishment, etc. From these situation, she react against him(B) as following: "Please just let me finish and hear me out, will you?" Thus, gradually she approaches to a main topic that a true meanings are conveyed as part of the interactive process.
A: Don't you like me?
B: I think you kind and nice.
You are competent in your work.
You don't know how much respect you.
A: You don't know how much I love you.
B: But you don't know me.
You don't know what I want from a man.
A: I can do anything you want.
B: I am not good enough for you.
I am sure there are many nice
young ladies out there for you.
A: You are the only girl in the world to me.
B: Seems like you don't get it. Let me put it this way.
There is no chemistry, no electricity.
No nothing. Not a bit. Zero. Zilch.
Nil. Buzz off, you dumbhead.
I am sick and tired of you. Get out of my life.
In above script, psychological condition of B refuse a tough love of A from the beginning. But B is not conveyed disapproval of message to A but she says as follow: "I think you kind and nice". You are competent in your work. You don't know how much respect you". And then, she intended to change his mind. But he does not change his mind endlessly. He appeal to her for his burning love, in vain, as follow: "You don't know how much I love you". Again, she says that "You don't know me. You don't know what I want from a man", by polite tone. Because B understand that she was loved by him(A) from the beginning of dis- course, she has, to some extent, a mind of concessions to him. Therefore, she substitutes love by - respect, kind, nice, competent. But he uses the term love directly. Thus, we know that she will not accept his court after all. The terms - respect, kind, nice, competent signal a main message from the beginning of discourse.
Chloe: remember our first date on that bike?
J.C.: Yeah. Do you remember that?
Chloe: Mmm... I hated that bike.
J.C.: You did?
Chloe: Well why d'you think the carb was always failing?
If I hadn't have busted it, you would never have got rid of it.. thinking how cool you looked.
J.C.: You Know what a lease is, don't you Chloe?
Hmm? It's a massive weight around your neck.
Chloe: Good, I'm tired of drifting.
J.C.: Yeah, but you, but you work so hard, you don't have time to party. And you know what happens when you don't party, don't you, Chloe? You get stressed! It's... it's stress and work, and work and stress. And before you know it, Chloe before you know it, you're gonna end up like Terry.
Chloe: Who's Terry?
J.C.: Terry is boring. He's boring with a capital 'B'. I mean, he, he used to gave a life, and then he got his pub. And then and then he changed, just like you're gonna change.
Chloe: Yeah... well maybe it's just you who thinks he's boring.
J.C.: No way... You've just got to see him for yourself!
You'll meet him at the rave tonight, Chloe. And then you're gonna understand what boring really means.
In above setting, J.C. assert that Chloe should not get a pub because he is accustomed to a liberal life. And so, he says, as follows: "Yeah, but you, but you work so hard, you don't have time to party. And you know what happens when you don't party, don't you, Chloe? You get stressed! It's... it's stress and work, and work and stress. And before you know it, Chloe before you know it, you're gonna end up like Terry". On the other hand, Chloe insists that she get a pub for themselves endlessly. Basically, both of them want to change their mind each other. Nevertheless, they do not change their mind with a context of psychological discourse strategies. Again, J.C. says, as follows: "Terry is boring. He's boring with a capital 'B'. I mean, he, he used to gave a life, and then he got his pub. And then and then he changed, just like you're gonna change". They express their main message through the process of a discourse interaction after all.
In conclusion, this paper researched into a psychological strategy on discourse context in communicative situaion. Before the setting of discourse begin, we knew that there were many available situation of psychological strategies. And we knew that discourse situations were governed by a setting of psychological background, namely, a sociocultural factors through the process of interaction in interpersonal.
No Young-hun.(1997). STILL BREATHING. Seoul: Caption English Co. September.
No Young-hun.(1997). SET IT OFF. Seoul: Caption English Co. June.
Gumperz, J.J.(1982). Discourse strategies. cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stenstr?m. A.B.(1994). An introduction to spoken interaction. New York: Longman Inc.
TIME.(1998 June). Blue Juice. 75th anniversary issue. 83.