Monica Schoenwaelder 
BSc(Hons) PhD
University of Colorado, Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, 347 UCB, Boulder Colorado 80309 USA.

1/  Clayton M.N., Kevekordes K., Schoenwaelder M.E.A., Schmid C.E. & Ashburner C.M. (1997) Parthenogenesis in Hormosira banksii (Fucales, Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina 41: 23-30.

Schoenwaelder M.E.A. & Clayton M.N. (1998) The secretion of phenolic compounds following fertilization in Acrocarpia paniculata (Fucales, Phaeophyta).  Phycologia 37(1): 40-46

Schoenwaelder M.E.A. & Clayton M.N. (1998) Secretion of phenolic substances into the zygote wall and cell plate in embryos of Hormosira and Acrocarpia (Fucales,Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 34(6): 969-980.

4/  Schoenwaelder M.E.A. & Clayton M.N. (1999) The role of the cytoskeleton in brown algal movement. European Journal of Phycology 34: 223-229.

5/  Schoenwaelder M.E.A. & Clayton. M.N. (1999) The presence of phenolic compounds in isolated cell walls of brown algae.  Phycologia 38(3): 161-166.

/  Schoenwaelder M.E.A. & Clayton M.N. (2000) Physode formation in embryos of Phyllospora comosa and Hormosira banksii (Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 39(1): 1-9.

7/  Schoenwaelder M.E.A. & Wiencke C. (2000) Phenolic compounds in the embryo development of several northern hemisphere fucoids. Plant Biology 2: 24-33.

8/  Sandhage K.H., Dickerson M.B., Huseman P.M., Caranna M.A., Clifton J.D., Bull T.A., Heibel T.J., Overton, W.R., Schoenwaelder M.E.A. (2002) A novel, bioclastic route to self-assembled, 3D, chemically tailored meso/nano structures: shape-preserving reactive conversion of biosilica (diatom) microshells.  Advanced materials  14(6): 429-433.

9/  Schoenwaelder M.E.A. (2002)  The occurrence and cellular significance of physodes in brown algae. Phycological Reviews 21). Phycologia 41: 125-139. Together with front cover picture.

10/  Schoenwaelder M.E.A. (2002)  Physode distribution and the effect of thallus sunburn in Hormosira banksii (Fucales, Phaeophyceae).  Botanica Marina 45: 262-266.

11/  Schoenwaelder M.E.A., Wiencke, C., Clayton, M.N. & Glombitza, K.W. (2003) The effect of elevated UV radiation on Fucus spp. (Fucales, Phaeophyta) zygote and e,bryo development.  Plant Biology 5: 366-377. Together with the front cover picture.

My research interests centre on plant cell biology. I have projects working on the biology of marine algae, particularly on reproduction and cell biology of fucoids and the effect of Ultra Violet Radiation on algal development. Much of my work has focused on early development and brown algal phenolic compounds.
Brown algal phenolic compounds or
phlorotannins are found packaged within membrane bound physodes. They absorb in the UV range of the spectrum.  Phlorotannins appear to play multiple roles in brown algae, at both the cellular and organismal level.  Physodes are a major constituent of adult plants, as well reproductive cells and juvenile stages.  They are formed in the perinuclear region of the cell by the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum, and moved around the cell by actin microfilaments and microtubules.  During fucoid development, phenolics are the first component of the primary cell wall to be secreted after fertilization.  Following germination, they are conspicuous in the developing rhizoid tips.  The first indication of cross wall formation is the lining up of physodes in the presumptive plane of cell division, where they are involved in formation of the cell plate and the ensuing cross walls.
Young zygote, physodes near periphery.
Germinated zygotes, physodes in rhizoid tip.
Physodes line up at cross walls.
I am also working on Gravitropism in plant roots.  The organized placement of ER around the cell periphery of gravity sensing columella cells appears to be important for the gravitropic response in roots of higher plants.  It has been hypothesized that statolith sedimentation onto ER cisternae mediates the gravitropic response. I am currently using the techniques of high pressure freezing, freeze substitution, followed by 3D tomography to characterise the ER and actin networks in root columella cells.