Charlotte Kellogg

 

 

From JADWIGA (1931, 1936) by Charlotte Kellogg

 

 

PREFACE

[ by Ignace Jan Paderewski, 1932 ]

It is not an easy task to present to English or American readers the biography of a foreign Queen who ruled for a short time in a distant and unknown country, and who lived and died over five hundred years ago. Jadwiga, Queen of Poland, . . . has been for centuries almost entirely unknown to the West of Europe. It evidently is the mission of an American lady, the authoress of this book, to acquaint the English-speaking public with that sublime figure.

      After more than four centuries of eventful and glorious reigning the mighty Polish dynasty of Piast became extinct.  The last direct offspring of that illustrious house, Casimir the Third, died in 1370 without leaving a ma le descendant.  Among the members of the family's collateral branches, no one was worthy of occupying the throne vacated by such a ruler.  Casimir's sagacity and justice, his tolerance and generosity, his keen foresight and constructive genius, had won for him—in spite of his occasionally excessive pacifrism—the surname of "great."  This verdict has been confirmed and maintained by posterity.  A strong, remarkable woman, Casimir's sister, Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary, had already solved the problem of succession to the advantage of the Hungarian dynastic interests.  With her assistance her husband, Charles Robert d'Anjou, King of Hungary, secured the Polish crown for their son, Louis, by a treaty concluded with Casimir in 1339.

      The new king, far from possessing all the eminent qualities of his uncle, was a brilliant, highly educated man and he must have been a suitable, successful, beneficial ruler for the Hungarian people, because his grateful subjects called him "great" as well.  For Poland, however, his reign was disastrous.  Born of a Piast mother, Elizabeth of Poland, married to Elizabeth of Bosnia, whose mother was a Piast princess as well, he never took pains to learn the Polish language and never resided in Poland.   (Etc.)

      For whatever wrong King Louis had done to Poland, the country and the people were richly repaid by his daughter Jadwiga.  When, after two years of interregnum, after many vicissitudes, the Polish leaders succeeded at last in bringing her to Kraków for the coronation, she appeared on the horizon like a bright rainbow following a long and violent storm.  Her beauty and charm, her precocious sagacity and tact, her modesty and piety and her valiant bearing conquered all hearts.  Everybody was happy—except the young Queen.

      In accordance with the customs prevailing at that time among royal houses, Jadwiga, when only seven years old, was betrothed to Prince William, hardly older than herself, son of Arch-Duke Leopold of Austria.  The ceremony of betrothal . . . took place, in 1378, at Haimburg [Hainburg?] with a great display of magnificence and pomp.  It had to be followed by regular nuptials on the date of the couple's coming of age.  Meanwhile the children spent a great deal of time together, at the splendid courts of Vienna or of Buda, and their companionship developed with the years into an ardent, passionate love.  In her purity of heart, Jadwiga, already Queen of Poland, considered herself as indissolubly bound to William, and expected to celebrate the wedding ceremony shortly after the coronation.  But the Council of the Crown did not want to see a German prince sharing with Jadwiga the throne of Poland.  They protested.

      The resistance of the Polish magnates to Jadwiga's intent was the more stubborn as they had already opened negotiations with the delegates of another suitor of their young Queen, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Yagiello.  In their opinion the personal alliance of the two sovereigns would be of immense benefit to both countries and to civilization.  Lithuania, still a small country at the beginning of the XIVth century, had suddenly grown into a mighty state, thanks to the military genius of her rulers, Gedymin and Olgierd, Yahiello's grandfather and father.  Her territory now extended from the Baltic to the Black Sea.  But the illiterate Yagiello and his aggressive, warlike Lithuanians were inveterate pagans, and they were looked upon as a barbarous people.  Yagiello's delegates, two of his own brothers, offered, however, conditions which could not be rejected.  They solemnly pledged that Yagiello, if he became King of Poland, would not only unite the vast Lithuanian territories with hers, restore and assist in regaining her lost lands, and with her defend the united countries against the aggressions of the Teutonic Knights and the Tartar hordes, but he would embrace Christianity with his whole people.   (Etc.)

      Many a month she desperately fought against the merciless exigencies of the State.  All her plans for a secret marriage, for abdication, for flight were frustrated by the ever-watchful though respectuflly affectionate Council of the Crown.  Seeing the futility of all her efforts, the distressed Queen tried to find solace and fortitude in the small chapel adjoining the ancient Cathedral of Cracow.  One day, after long hours of fervent prayers, she heard . . . "voices" from above calling upon her to perform a royal duty. . . .   She listened.  With the humility of a pious, medieval soul, she obeyed.  For the safety of her country and people, for the trimph of Christianity, she forsook her dreams of childhoo,d her desires of youth.  She married Yagiello.

      Thus came a miracle unique in the annals of europe.  Following the sacrifice of a young Queen, two inimical countries, two ever-warring nations, concluded a lasting peace.  They joined together their destinies.  They formed a federation, a union wchich lasted undisturbed over four hundred years and even survived Poland's partitions.

      True to his word, Yagiello faithfully fulfilled all his promises.  Within a short time, by persuasion, by command or by force, indeed he converted his whole people to the Catholic religion.  There was at first much discontent, of course, but the simple, naive people, seeing that the destruction of their idols, the killing of their sacred serpents, the burning of their holy oaks had not been followed by the collapse of the world, nor punished by any other minor calamity, peacefully accepted the new creed, and soon became a civilized nation.  The Western culture applied to a fertile soil did not fail to produce abundant fruit.  A great many distinguished Polish writers, poets, scientists, musicians, statesmen, heroic captains, of purely Lithuanian or Slavic stock, were born in the old Yagiellonian dominions.

      As to Yagiello, gifted as he was, discreetly influenced by his in so many ways superior, though much younger, consort, he did not lose time in adapting himself to the new conditions.  A born ruler, wise and just, with his natural impetuosity considerably softened by a profound religious feeling, he easily adopted Western, Polish ideals and swiftly turned into a great constitutional King.  In recognition of his noble character, of his absolute honesty and loyalty, Jadwiga appointed him as her only successor.  The dynasty he found was one of the most illustrious that ever ruled on earth.  Under the reign of the Yagiellonian House Poland attained the summit of her prosperity and power.

      When looking back at Jadwiga’s distressingly short life, one cannot help wondering at her achievements.  As a girl of sixteen, after having heroically given up her personal happiness, she realizes the profound truth of one of her teacher’s Scribe John’s saying: “Life’s bright objective is the complete gift of itself to others.” Since pxii that moment all her marvelous gifts are wholeheartedly dedicated to State affairs and to the welfare of her people.  Endowed with indomitable energy, with an astounding instinct for statesmanship, she takes an active part in every deliberation of the Council of the Crown.  Her sense of justice is so strong, her judgment so sound, and her influence so great that both the King and the nobles cannot but bow before her opinion. During one of Yagiello’s frequent journeys, when only seventeen years of age, she decides to march at the head of a small army of Polish knights into Red Ruthenia, so willfully annexed by her own father, King Lois. Everywhere enthusiastically received by the population, she definitely restores that rich province to the Polish Crown.

      This was her only military operation which did not, however, involve the loss of one single human life. In everything else she was true to her lofty mission as an apostle of peace. She acted as a peacemaker between Yagiello’s brother, Skirgiello, and his cousin, the ambitious, adventurous, and remarkably gifted Prince Witold ; she reconciled several other very quarrelsome members of Yagiello’s numerous family ; she practically pacified Great-Poland by putting an end to the long, implacable feud between the two powerful clans of Grzymala and Nalencz.

      Mindful of the ties that had been binding her father, King Louis, to the Order of Teutonic Knights, Jadwiga did all she could to prevent an open war with the greedy and unrelentingly aggressive monks. She saw the terrible suffering that must desolate her land once the Order’s and Poland’s forces were in battle. While people blessed her for having saved them from that war thus far, Yagiello, troubled without respite by unceasing assaults and pxiii plundering of the border lands, could hardly control his impatience. But Jadwiga remained inflexible in her determination to preserve peace.       . . . . she yielded to the Kings’ and the Council’s wishes and went with a gorgeous retinue to personally confer with the Grand Master of Marienburg, the capital of the Order. The conferences proved to be of no avail. The demands of the monks were so exorbitant that the Queen interrupted further discussions and, in a voice in which the note of prophecy mingled with bitterness and indignation, said: “So long as I live the Crown will endure your iniquities, but after my death the chastisement of heaven will fall upon you and then inevitable war will consummate your ruin.”

      And, indeed, eleven years after Jadwiga’s death, Yagiello, at the head of the Polish and Lithuanian armies, inflicted upon the Order of Teutonic Knights, the 16th of July, 1410, a crushing, decisive defeat.

      Jadwiga’s generosity was inexhaustible. While bountifully helping the poor of her country, she built numerous hospitals, schools, convents, and churches. She established many scholarships for the Lithuanian youth at the University of Prague. But the principal object of her affection and solicitude was the University of Kraków, founded by her grand-uncle, Casimir, in 1364. During her lifetime she bought several houses in order to provide the grounds to surround that institution and the permit the extension of its buildings. In her last will she directed “one half of the proceeds from the sale of all I have, jewels, clothes, ornaments, possessions of every pxiv kind, I leave to the University of Kraków, and the other half to be divided among the poor.” Thus, thanks to the thoughtful and munificent bequest of the Queen, the University of Kraków was enabled to become one of the important centers of knowledge in old Europe.

      Jadwiga’s private life was marked by many cruel bereavements. She had to mourn nearly all those who were dear to her heart. By a few days only she survived her little daughter and died in 1399, leaving a memory that seems to be imperishable.

      The people of Poland . . . will be deeply grateful to Mrs. Vernon Kellogg for having paid such a beautiful and glowing tribute to their cherished Queen. In the graphic and captivating narrative which follows these lines the readers will find a true picture of a wonderful life. With the painstaking erudition of an historian, with the imagination of a poet, with manly vigor and womanly fondness of detail, Mrs. Vernon Kellogg undertook an arduous task and brought it to a successful end. She loves Jadwiga. And a work of love is bound to succeed.

[ signed, ‘I J Paderewski’ ]

IGNACE JAN PADEREWSKI

JADWIGA Poland's Great Queen
by Charlotte Kellogg
New York : Macmillan 1932.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to acknowledge her indebtedness to the following persons for their generous assistance in her research : in Kraków—first, to Professor Jean Dabrowski, of Kraków University ; then to Director Adam Chmiel of the old archives building, Professor Roman Dyboski, Doctor Stanislas Tomkowicz, and Miss Marja Slomcznak. In Warsaw, to Professors Oskar Halecki and Szymon Askenazy, and to Doctor Janusz Pajewski, of Warsaw University. In Budapest, to Count Kuno Klebelsberg, Minister of Education ; Doctor Ida Bobula ; Doctor Dennis Janossy, Doctor Kalman Lux. In Vienna, to Doctor Lothar Gross, Director of Archives. In Königsberg, to Doctor Max Hein, Director of Archives, and Doctor Forstreuter, his assistant. In Vilno, to Doctor Stanislas Lorenz, Conservator of Monuments.
      In addition to this scholarly assistance, the author is grateful to many others for friendly aid in her quest. She would mention especially Reverend Coleman Nevils, S. J., President of Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. ; Mr. Tytus Filipowicz, Polish Ambassador in Washington ; Count Lazlo Szechenyi, Hungarian Minister in Washington ; Doctor Herbert Putnam, Librarian of the congressional Library, Washington ; Professor Tibor Kerekes, Georgetown University, Washington ; Professor J. Strohl of Zurich ; Mr. Butler Wright, American Minister in Budapest ; and Mr. Mical Sokolnicki, Chief of the Historical Division, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Warsaw ; and to Mrs. Mary Roberts Rinehart.

Jadwiga, Queen of Poland, Washington : Anderson House 1936, p xvii.
Jadwiga, Poland's great queen, New York : Macmillan 1931, pp. xxiii-xxiv.

 

 

Author Kellogg, Charlotte. Title Prelude / by Charlotte Kellogg. Publisher [Los Angeles] : Ward Ritchie Press, c1960. Description 51 p. : 1 ill. ; 25 cm. Language English Note A poem. "300 copies ... have been printed in December 1960."

Author Kellogg, Charlotte. Title Paderewski. Publisher New York, Viking Press, 1956. Description 224 p. 22 cm. Language English Subject Paderewski, Ignace Jan, 1860-1941.

Author Kellogg, Charlotte Hoffman Title Pacific light / by Charlotte Kellogg Publisher Washington, D. C., Anderson house, 1939 Description x, 67 p. ; 22 cm Language English Note Poems "First printing, June, 1939."

Author Kellogg, Charlotte. Title Jadwiga, Queen of Poland / by Charlotte Kellogg ; with a preface by Ignace Jan Paderewski and an introduction by Frank A. Simonds. Publisher Washington : Anderson House, 1936. Description xxiii, 251 p., [8] leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm. Language English Note Bibliography: p. [243]-244. Subject Jadwiga, Queen, consort of Wladisław II Jagiełło, King of Poland, 1374-1399.

New York Public Library http://catnyp.nypl.org   6 Jan 05

Author Kellogg, Charlotte. Title Jadwiga, Poland's great queen, by Charlotte Kellogg; with a preface by Ignaz Jan Paderewski, and an introduction by Frank H. Simonds. Imprint New York, The Macmillan Company, 1931. Descript xxvi p., 1 l., 304 p. front. 23 cm. Subject Jadwiga, Consort of Vladislaus II Jagiello, King of Poland, 1371-1399.

University of California http://melvyl.cdlib.org 6 Jan 05

Author Kellogg, Charlotte. Title Jadwig, [?] Poland's great queen, [ . . . . ? ?] Publisher New York, The Macmillan company, 1931. Description xxvi p., 1 l., 304 p. front. 23 cm. Language English Subject Jadwiga, Queen, consort of Władysław II Jagiełło, King of Poland, ca. 1374-1399.

Author Curie, Marie, 1867-1934. Title Pierre Curie. Translated by Charlotte and Vernon Kellogg. With an introduction by Mrs. William Brown Meloney and autobiographical notes by Marie Curie. Publisher New York, Macmillan, 1923. Description 242 p. illus., ports. 22cm. Language English Subject Curie, Pierre, 1859-1906.

Author Kellogg, Charlotte. Title Bobbins of Belgium; a book of Belgian lace, lace-workers, lace-schools and lace-villages, by Charlotte Kellogg. Publisher New York, London : Funk & Wagnalls, 1920. Description 314 p. front., illus. (incl. map) plates (part double) ports. 20 cm. Language English Note Part of plates printed on both sides. Subject Brussells Lace Committee.

Author Kellogg, Charlotte. Title Mercier, the fighting cardinal of Belgium, by Charlotte Kellogg ... foreword by Brand Whitlock ... Publisher New York, London, D. Appleton and Company, 1920. Description viii p., 1 □., 248, (1) p. front (port.) 19 cm. Language English Note Reprinted in part from various periodicals. Note Bibliography: p. 248-(249) Subject Mercier, Désiré, 1851-1926

Author Kellogg, Vernon L. (Vernon Lyman), 1867-1937. Title Nuova; or, The new bee, a story for children of five to fifty. Publisher Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin company [c1920] Description 7 p.l., 150 p., 1 l. col. front., plates. 23 cm. Author Kellogg, Charlotte. Title Women of Belgium; turning tragedy to triumph. By Charlotte Kellogg, with an introduction by Herbert C. Hoover ... Publisher New York, London : Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1917. Description xviii, 210, [1] p. front., plates. 20 cm. Language English

 

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