Some Implications for the Study of Intelligent Design Derived from Molecular and Microarray Analysis

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And one related Appendix: Putting Limits on the Diversity of Life. Limiting first, the classification of 'True Species' ('Kind') to organisms that can have fertile offspring, some examples are provided:

The same principles illustrated with "Adaptive Comparisons of Cave Animals"

My Recent postings for "The Beginning of Non-Evolutionary Alternatives Inside Science":

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08 March 2004. (Text in Spanish; Texto en Castellano)

Independent Biotechnologist


There are several implications for intelligent design of molecular work using Microarray Analysis (including the paper in PDF). Here are some of them:


1- The discovery of real genes being expressed in a particular tissue [1] can be contrasted from artifacts, which are products of the methodologies used, as the host-vector interactions leading to an artificial rearrangement-splicing described elsewhere [2].


2- The discovery of genes expressed only in particular organisms or species ("species specific genes") can be emphasized as a product of intelligent design, as these are not present in any other organism, discarding a continuous evolutionary way of transmission of genetic material, and enforcing the discontinuous, non-linear origin of the genomic organization of living beings.


3- The discovery of genes expressed only in a particular tissue can also help us understand the precise and meticulous design to fulfill the specific purpose for that tissue in particular, every cell working as a coordinated machinery with an intense molecular communication in order for the complete body of an organism to be able to work as it was intended to be.


4- The significance of these primary points can be applied to other areas of knowledge with the same confidence; for example, regarding dating methodologies that lead to wrong interpretations, as they are based solely on the imaginations of their producers and users; or, i.e., the interpretations of the experiments related to the work of Stanley Miller, are based in imaginary scenarios that upon a further review became inconsistent, even among themselves, and correspondingly, useless as a mistake.


5- A discontinuous presence of genes specific for humans, not present in any other living organism, disproves the continuous and linear order of events conceived by the minds of the promoters of "evolution" and its followers, a fact that is also reflected by the birth of new stars, which disproves a linear derivation of mass if only originated at the moment of the "big bang," etc.


6- New genes can be found as being expressed in unexpected tissues or cells fulfilling their own and particular function inside a specific environment; i.e., inside a cellular organelle.


7- Under environmental alterations, specific cells can start producing genes not supposed to be there, starting the process of disease. If those strange genes can be detected at its genesis, using methodologies like a customized microarray analysis, this can help to prevent them for further development. This in itself also demonstrated that any environmental mutation altering the normal disposition of the gene expression brings with itself negative side effects, not bringing any "evolution," but instead, bringing a pathological state for the organism.


8- By comparing different lineages of the same species, we can be able to discover the real and natural plasticity of the genes, in order to allow the organisms to became adapted to diverse environments, but always under a clear and natural boundary, taking one step forward the study on "the natural limits to biological change" [3]. We can in that way further the study and teaching of the molecular basis of biological change, considering recent molecular discoveries as the molecular quality control mechanisms, all of that explains how a cow can be in a dwarf or a tall line but that it can not change to became, i.e., "a whale".


9- By learning how a normal cell or organism works genetically we can also be able to detect the abnormal and anti-natural characteristics of ancient remains, i.e., skulls and bones of ancient hominids or even to compare the already found frozen remains of mammoths with living elephants, and maybe, if one of them is found frozen on the north pole, of Neanderthals also.




[1] Castro-Chavez, F., Yechoor, V.K, Saha, P., Martinez-Botas, J., Wooten, E., Sharma, S., O"Connell, P., Taegtmeyer, H., and Chan, L. (2003) Coordinated upregulation of oxidative pathways and downregulation of lipid biosynthesis underlie obesity resistance in Perilipin knockout mice. A microarray gene expression profile. Diabetes 52, 2666-2674. URL:


[2] Castro-Chavez, F. (2004) A family of artificial heterotranscripts in Genbank and their EcoRI - related palindromic linkers (Submitted). URL:


[3] Lester, L. P. & Bohlin, R. G. (1989) The Natural Limits to Biological Change. Probe Books, 207 pp. URL:




08 June 2004.

Independent Biotechnology

The classic work of Mendel on the precise inheritance of characters demonstrated an Intelligent Design behind the Laws of Heredity. Those Laws can be linked now to our modern knowledge of molecular biology to provide a clearer account of the molecular basis and limits to biological change and to generate biodiversity. Here are some remarks:

  1. By comparing different varieties of the same species, a database or catalog can be prepared referencing dominant versus recessive genes between groups of organisms able to produce fertile offspring. For example, within the different finches, ducks, cranes, Camelids, Delphiniums, Cetaceans, Coleopteran, Brassica, Canis, etc. I. E., as dogs can be naturally crossed with wolves, also cranes, thus preserving the genetic load of the endangered ones.
  2. The aforementioned classification can be useful for the natural Mendelian engineering of biodiversity to preserve endangered organisms, for example by using the old and well proven method of backcrosses described by Mendel near the end of his classic article [1] and through reciprocal crosses of the desired resulting F2 phenotypes. This approach will produce new varieties, expanding our biodiversity without the primary need of using artificial cloning, recombinant DNA, or any of the molecular biology's techniques, which may be used only under extreme cases of a real and clear need.
  3. This database classifying and comparing dominant versus recessive genes for different species, will be useful in helping us understand the molecular basis of their segregation in the second hybrid generation or F2, enabling us to answer the question: Which molecular difference makes a gene able to become dominant or recessive? The answer will help us understand better the natural span and limits to biological change, discarding 'speciation', which is the speculation of a fictitious transmutation of one species into another. This novel use of the laws of heredity in ecosystems may help us in the production of varieties, races, lineages or sub-species under different and new environments, thus preserving endangered species and generating biodiversity through the intelligent use of those designed Laws of Heredity discovered by Mendel.

[1] Mendel, Gregor. Versuche über Pflanzen Hybriden. Ver. Natur. Verein. Brünn, Bd. IV für das Jahr 1865, Abhandlungen, 3-47. English version: URL:

"In these pages I have only touched the edge of that new country which is stretching out before us, whence in ten years' time we shall look back on the present days of our captivity. Soon every science that deals with animals and plants will be teeming with discovery, made possible by Mendel's work. The breeder, whether of plants or of animals, no longer trudging in the old paths of tradition, will be second only to the chemist in resource and in foresight. Each conception of life in which heredity bears a part - and which of them is exempt? - must change before the coming rush of facts."

[p. 208, in: William Bateson, Mendel's Principles of Heredity a Defence, 1902. Cambridge University Press. 212 pp: (PDF files)]

Appendix 1: Some Considerations On The Six Days Of Genesis Chapter One (a work in process):

Appendix 2: The Non-Evolutionary Mechanism of Sexual Reproduction, Sexual reproduction is incapable of supporting evolutionary change and Other Species-Specific Sexual Issues:

Appendix 3: Putting Limits on the Diversity of Life. Limiting first, the classification of 'True Species' ('Kind') to organisms that can have fertile offspring, some examples are provided:

Appendix 4: Common Design and Fertility Test:


To see the PDF file of this document:

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To see my other posting in Literature Reviews depicting an Article that demonstrates that the animal life on the ocean appeared at the same time, thus "Putting Limits on the Diversity of Life". We know by the Bible that the animal life in the ocean appeared at the beginning (Gen. 1:1; Is. 45:18), then at the rebellion of Lucifer the earth became without form and void (tohu-bohu in Gen. 1:2) and after that, in the fifth day of the re-ordering of the universe, God created the animal life in the ocean again, as we read in Gen. 1:20-23). These two explosions of life and the interval of destruction have been discovered by scientists (the "gap" in the graphic):

To see other of my recent postings:

At the rebellion of Lucifer the earth became without form and void (tohu-bohu in Gen. 1:2), the interval of destruction discovered by scientists ("the great impact", or, "the bombing of the earth by many enormous ice-filled comets") can be seen in the careful Biblical Study "Without Form and Void" done by Arthur C. Custance:



To go to "That Blessed Hope", a site with works done by Ethelbert W. Bullinger:


To go to "Water in the Outermost Space":

A Scientific Approach to the Conception of Jesus Christ:

The discovery of the Siloam Tunnel backs up the Biblical Text (an article published in Nature):

The "Fallen Empires", backing up the accuracy of the Biblical Text:

Outstanding Biblical Studies:

[Back to] An Education with a Godly Foundation (Noah Webster's Example):

The Bible was the Foundation for the Greatness and Glory of the U.S.A., we Pray that the Bible will be Again the Centerpiece of that big Civilization, and of Many Others, before the Coming of our Christ to take us away, to us, the members of his Body, his Church:

Museo de las Sagradas Escrituras A. C. (MANA), Mexico (links at the end in English):

Practical benefits of "The Critical Analysis of Evolution" proposed by Bryan Andrew Leonard to The Kansas State Department of Education.

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