Fernando Castro-Chavez.

(This is a work in process. I wish to thank the review of the first topics done by Professor E. McNichols. I encourage the submission of thoughtful insights and corrections.)


Gen. 1:2 tells us that the earth became "tohu babohu" ("without form and void").

Foundational studies are here:

The modern fit of science inside the eternal Biblical truth is profitable, as when we saw the laws of Mendel as an evidence of the creator of order, of the creator of limits to biological change.

Instead of a Big Bang, at the beginning was a big transformation of energy into matter, something like the "Big Compression". Only figuratively we can say that it was like the "freezing of energy into matter" to describe that moment when matter condenses, congeals, or coalesces into mass, it is, into matter.

God created the initial energy and did the transformation of energy into matter. Even today new stars are born. However, today under the normal physical laws created by God, as far as we know, energy is no more created but only transformed (i.e., from calorific, to luminous, to electric, to mechanic, etc.)

The Big Bang theory was proposed by Friedmann and Lemaitre and elaborated by Gamow. In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered the echo of the Big Bang in the black of the sky at night, that can be interpreted equally as the "Big Compression" of energy into matter. Then, the scientific world paradigm changed from a universe that was eternal to a universe that had a beginning. Science then said that our universe had a beginning, that the first word of the Bible is correct: "Bereshit," "In the Beginning."

The second heavens and earth, in which we are now, will be consumed by fire to allow the appearance of the third ones. "We have the sober scientific certainty that the heavens and earth shall ‘wax old as doth a garment’ ... Dark indeed would be the prospects of the human race if unilluminated by that light which reveals ‘new heavens and a new earth.’ " (Kelvin, On Thermodynamics. Source: ['Wax old as doth a garment' is from Psalm 102:26. and the quote marks around ‘new heavens and a new earth’ is from Revelation 21:1]."


The next are the three uses of the word "to create" (Hebrew Bara) in Genesis chapter 1:

First, there was the original creation of the entire universe and of its laws in Gen. 1:1. This was the first heaven and earth, which got destroyed in Gen. 1:2.

God started reordering the universe in Gen. 1:3 but by then He did not need to create anything additional until day five of this re-ordering of the universe. On day five God created the Nephesh (Nefesh), the soul of the animal life, inserting it to allow the existence of aquatic and of flying animals.

Finally, at the end of day six, there was a further creation that brought the spirit of God Himself over human beings only. With that perspective in mind, we can perceive that the Jewsith celebration of Rosh Hashana commemorates not the first (the original creation of heavens and earth), or the second of the creations (the creation of the soul for the living beings in this second earth), but the third one, the creation of the spirit of God Himself over human beings.

The Hebrew word "to create" is used with perfection in the Bible in Genesis chapter 1 only three times: Gen. 1:1, then the origin of animal soul life and then the origin of God's spirit on man. We have in the Biblical text what we, as inquirers, need to know to develop our research based on a godly foundation.

The Jewish Midrash asks the next question: Why does the Bible begin with the letter Bet? Because Bet (which is written like a backwards C) is closed in all directions and only open in the forward direction. Hence, we can not know what was before Gen. 1:1, only what was after. The first letter in the Bible is Bet, a letter closed in all directions and only open to the forward direction.

Molecules and celestial bodies were created before the catastrophe of Genesis 1:2:

This is what I have read in the Bible related to "Species-Specific Tissues":

1Co 15:39 All flesh is not the same flesh; but one kind of flesh of men, and another flesh of beasts, and another of fish, and another of birds.

The sharp difference is emphasized between feathers, scales, fur, and skin.

1Co 15:40 There are also heavenly bodies and earthly bodies. But the glory of the heavenly is truly different, and that of the earthly different

Then, this is what William Bateson declared related to the verse 40:

"I do not dare to suggest that in magnitude or splendour the field of Genetics may be compared with that now being disclosed to the physicist or the astronomer; for the glory of the celestial is one and the glory of the terrestrial is another." [Bateson, W., The Methods And Scope Of Genetics, 1908, Cambridge University Press, p. 3]

"The glory of the celestial is one and the glory of the terrestrial is another." I can see the amazing fact that on the third day the plants appeared without the need of God to create any molecule (the word "to create" does not appear here!) The Hebrew word "to create" (bara) only appears at the beginning, in Gen. 1:1, and when God puts animal soul in the oceans and in the sky on the fifth day, and when God puts His spirit on man in the sixth day. In some way, maybe dead frozen microorganisms, plants and animals, because everything died in Gen. 1:2 as the word "void" suggests.

Here I think in freezing temperatures because in that catastrophe the sun and stars were like turned off, not giving heat or light until day four, when God restored them. God then turned their lights on and put them in motion again (the sun, the moon and the stars with the rest of the celestial bodies).

All the "Molecular Biology" survived between Gen. 1:1 and Gen. 1:3. The perfectly created molecules (DNA, RNA, Proteins) in Gen. 1:1 survived "the great dying", "the great impact." Ice comets bombing earth (in my perception of a spiritual and a literal "fall" from heaven) destroying all life on earth, as described in Gen. 1:2. In this same destuction, we can include the death of dinosaurs. And after that, God only needed to re-shape the pre-existing molecules to produce all the new biological organisms (but no more big dinosaurs this time).

As far as we can tell, dinosaurs were present on earth before the first six days of the second heaven and earth, that means before Genesis 1:2.

So, God needed only to create the soul of animals again on the fifth day (yes, because the soul of the dinosaurs and of any other living creature, of any other living soul, was destroyed in the "tohu babohu" of Gen. 1:2).

We have seen that on the fifth day God created the living soul for the animals of the ocean and for the birds. As stated before, every life including breathing dinosaurs completely died in Gen. 1:2. That points out the great difference between animal soul-life created on day fifth and the plant life formed on day three from pre-existing molecules, as the word "to create" does not appear here. The plant life lacks of a soul.

In the sixth day, God just takes the animal soul that He had previously created on the fifth day and puts of it on terrestrial animals, including men.

At the end of the sixth day, God puts that same animal soul in humans because first is the natural, then is the spiritual:

1Co 15:46 But not the spiritual first, but the natural; afterward the spiritual.

The first human being was first natural, then spiritual for a little while. But he lost that spirit of God. Christ then did came to provide the spirit of God back again for every one willing to receive.

Finally at the climax, as performing his final deed to seal His own creation, God creates ("infuses") of His spirit over man for the first time. No other animal received it except of man.

With the celestial bodies it happened the same way as with the earthly biological molecules previously mentioned. The celestial bodies survived, but they were also like the molecules on earth, "frozen" or flooded, static, with all their lights turned off, as it was stated, even the light of the sun at that moment was turned off. Can we imagine the complete universe under water?

God did not need "to create" the celestial bodies again! The word ""to create" is not used for the celestial bodies at the fourth day. As it was stated before, the word "to create" was not used to describe the molecules needed to bring again the plants over the earth on the third day, as they were existing before the "tohu babohu" of Gen. 1:2.

So, those celestial bodies in heaven and these molecules on earth were already there, and God only "turned them on" again.

There is a purpose for the sun appearing only on day four. As time goes by and people understand more about the universe, we can still confidently dig deeper into the Biblical text. As we have said before, the sun was not created on day four; the word "to create" is not used of any celestial body on the fourth day. The original creation of light and the sun was originally created in Gen. 1:1. On day one and on day four God is "turning on" them again. For example on day four God turns on the sun and the stars again; lighting on and putting them in motion again.

So, the fall from heaven of Satan and of his hosts was represented in real terms by the bombing over the earth of many ice filled comets that destroyed life here, an event that happened in Gen. 1:2.

"The great impact," and "the great dying," are synonymous. After that bombing, God needed to form a second heavens and earth, and to create animal life and spiritual men on earth. That was the plan of God. Those things can be better understood by reading the NT. Further, the book of Revelation again declares that in the future there will be new heavens and earth; those will be the third heavens and earth.

The creation of the spirit of God in men:

In the sixth day we need to emphasize that there is a difference between the "spirit of God in men" and the "soul of Adam". "Body, soul and spirit" compose all the human being, we need to see the difference between soul and spirit to "divide the soul from the spirit", and those are references that we found in the NT:

1Th 5:23 And may the God of peace Himself sanctify you, and may your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blamelessly at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Here we can read that the whole of the perfect human being consists of:




With the light provided by that verse of the NT we can better understand a verse of the OT relating the whole of the human being according to God's original purpose:

Isa 43:7 everyone who is called by My name; for I have created him for My glory, I have formed him; yea, I have made him.

The created part of men is the spirit, God's glory in men. The formed part of men is the body, formed from the dust of the earth, and the made part of men is the soul, the active principle, the part of man that makes him move, that makes him be who he is, and includes the nature of man, his thoughts:

1-spirit created (Heb. bara),

2-soul made (Heb. asah),

3-body formed (Heb. yatsar).

There is then a difference between the spirit (the nature of God in the born again Christians) and the soul (the natural human nature). There is also a difference between the spirit of God over men before Christ and the spirit of God inside men after Christ. The difference is that at the beginning the spirit of God was "infused" over man conditionally and after Christ, the spirit of God is dwelling inside the born again Christians, being "infused" into believers unconditionally.

Heb 4:12 For the Word of God is living and powerful and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing apart of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.

The complete Word of God that we have now (OT + NT) is living and powerful and sharp, and is the only one that can help us to discern the difference between the human soul and the spirit of God that enters inside those humans that have believed that Jesus Christ is their living Lord:

Joh 3:6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

Joh 3:7 Do not marvel that I said to you, You must be born again.

Joh 3:3 Jesus answered and said to him, Truly, truly, I say to you, Unless a man is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.

1Pe 1:23 having been born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, through the living Word of God, and abiding forever.

Joh 6:63 It is the Spirit that makes alive, the flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit and are life.

Act 10:44 While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell on all those hearing the Word.

Pro 1:23 Turn at my warning; behold, I will pour out my Spirit to you; I will make my words known to you.

Rom 8:2 But the Law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has made me free from the law of sin and death.

The medullar scriptures to discern the difference between soul and spirit are present in the New Testament. Here we have the sharp difference and separation between flesh and spirit, with the comandment of Jesus Christ "You must be born again" which is the only thing that allows for the holy spirit from God to penetrate inside a human being, and once this happens, men receive the new nature:

2Co 5:17 So that if any one is in Christ, that one is a new creature; old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new.

Gal 6:15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision has any strength, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.

Scriptures of the Old Testament that make a difference between the soul of man and the spirit of God expressing over man are, for example:

Eze 11:19 And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you. And I will remove the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh

See also Eze 36:26.

Joel 2:28 And it shall be afterward, I will pour out My Spirit on all flesh. And your sons and your daughters shall prophesy; your old men shall dream dreams; your young men shall see visions.

See the initial fulfilling of that prophecy in Act 2:17.

Other amazing scripture that defines the sharp contrast between natural body (which includes body and soul) and spiritual body is:

1Co 15:44 it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body.

By believing in the promises that we read in the NT of the Bible regarding Christ as our living Lord we became partakers of divine nature, as God's holy spirit is his divine nature inside us:

2Pe 1:3 according as His divine power has given to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of Him who has called us to glory and virtue,

2Pe 1:4 through which He has given to us exceedingly great and precious promises, so that by these you might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.

Before hearing the Word of God that we have received in the NT, we were only natural persons:

1Co 2:14 But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.

Rom 8:9 But you are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if anyone has not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His.

See also in that same chapter Rom 8:13, and Rom 8:4-5. And also Gal 5:16-17, Gal 6:8, 1Co 5:5.

Gal 3:3 Are you so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, do you now perfect yourself in the flesh?

The natural man has been alive since after the fall of Adam until the new birth of the believer in Christ. Adam lost God's spirit on him, since that day humans became beings of only two parts: body and soul. The spirit is received by grace when we confess that Jesus Christ is our Lord, raised by God from the dead:

Isa 42:1 Behold My Servant, whom I uphold; My Elect, in whom My soul delights. I have put My Spirit on Him; He shall bring out judgment to the nations.

Mat 12:18 "Behold My Child whom I have chosen; My Beloved, in whom My soul is well pleased. I will put My Spirit on Him, and He shall declare judgment to the nations.

1Co 15:45 And so it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a living soul," the last Adam was a life-giving Spirit.

1Co 15:21 For since death is through man, the resurrection of the dead also is through a Man.

1Co 15:42 So also the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption.

2Co 3:17 And the Lord is that Spirit; and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.

Rom 1:4 who was marked out the Son of God in power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.

1Pe 3:18 For Christ also once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God, indeed being put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the Spirit;

Act 2:33 Therefore being exalted to the right of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the holy spirit, He has poured out this which you now see and hear.

Rom 10:9 Because if you confess the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you shall be saved.

Rom 10:10 For with the heart one believes unto righteousness, and with the mouth one confesses unto salvation.

Rom 10:13 For everyone, "whoever shall call on the name of the Lord will be saved."

God promised to give back to man of His own divine and holy nature, God's gift to men is His own holy spirit for everybody who believes and through everybody who has believed:

Act 8:17 Then they laid their hands on them, and they received holy spirit.

The born again believers that have alread received holy spirit are able to impart the same gift of the nature of God to others: the precious gift of His divine nature:

1Co 2:12 But we have not received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit from God, so that we might know the things that are freely given to us by God.

We have received the gift of holy spirit from God, we are now a new creation in Christ. We were saved by God's grace:

2Ti 1:9 who has saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace which was given us in Christ Jesus before the eternal times.

Eph 2:5 (even when we were dead in sins) has made us alive together with Christ (by grace you are saved),

Eph 2:8 For by grace you are saved through faith, and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God,

Eph 2:9 not of works, lest anyone should boast.

Eph 2:10 For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to good works, which God has before ordained that we should walk in them.

We were saved by grace and not by works but after our salvation God want us to do His good works.

The Jewish concept of the human "Neshama" is NOT the only thing that differentiates humans from animals, the crucial point is "the spirit of God inside men", as we have read in the verses from the NT, God calls it the new creation:

Gal 6:15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision has any strength, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.

We need to renew our minds to believe what we have now and the power that we have now to do what God want us to do. That process of the renewing of our mind is called to put on the new man:

Rom 12:2 And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, in order to prove by you what is that good and pleasing and perfect will of God.

Eph 4:24 And you should put on the new man, who according to God was created in righteousness and true holiness.

The spirit of God inside man is "the image of God in men":

Joh 4:24 God is a spirit, and they who worship Him must worship in spirit and in truth.

Phi 3:3 For we are the circumcision who worship God in the spirit and rejoice in Christ Jesus and have no confidence in the flesh.

According to the Jewish concept of the human "Neshama" there are two "categories" of human soul: first, the animal soul within men, which is in the blood.

The Bible describes that the soul (translated as life) of the flesh is in the blood:

Lev 17:11 For the life of the flesh is in the blood. And I have given it to you on the altar to make an atonement for your souls. For it is the blood that makes an atonement for the soul.

This should be properly translated: "For the soul (Nepesh, Nephesh, Nefesh) of the flesh is in the blood."

But the second category of soul within men is the human soul properly speaking, as every human "soul" will be raised at the end but not so the "soul" of the animals:

Rev 20:4 And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the witness of Jesus and for the Word of God, and who had not worshiped the beast nor his image, nor had received his mark on their foreheads, nor in their hands. And they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.

Rev 20:5 But the rest of the dead did not live again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection.

Rev 20:6 Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. The second death has no authority over these, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with Him a thousand years.

Rev 2:11 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. He who overcomes will not be hurt by the second death.

The soul of animals will not be raised again, not even for a brief season, not for a moment, as will be the case of the bad humanity.

The animal soul within men just disappears with the last breath of men.

But then, there is still the human soul within men resting at the Sheol to be raised again, and that precisely is the plus, every soul of men will be raised at the end, when compared not so any of the animals.

The animal soul, which is in the blood (the Nefesh) is not spiritual, not eternal. It was indeed created by a spiritual creator, as everything else. Again, the human soul life in the blood is the same as the animal soul life, the real and enduring difference today is being made by the spirit of God in men.

The "human soul" (the Neshama), when separated from its Nephesh, the "soul that is in the blood", goes equally to the "Sheol", as does the animal soul. The difference is that every "human soul" is going to be raised again at the end, to know its final fate. Not so "the souls of the animals." That "human soul", the "Neshama", is different from the animal "Nefesh" (or "Nephesh") in that aspect of needing to be raised again; for some that did evil, it will be only temporary and then they will die again forever. However, the crucial point not to be dismissed is "the spirit of God in men", "the image of God in men", which can be perceived especially by putting together the scriptures of the NT dealing with that subject. Unfortunately again, the NT is still rejected by the authentic Israelites of today.

We need to study deeper that subject to discern the difference between the animals and the natural man, and between the natural man and the spiritual man. The last one is the only one that is going to live forever in the presence of God, with Christ as their leader.

The promise of God: "To Live Forever":

This first resurrection corresponds to the resurrection of the just:

Luk 14:14 and you shall be blessed, for they cannot repay you; for you shall be repaid at the resurrection of the just.

Act 24:15 And I have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust.

This resurrection of the just was promised in the OT:

Dan 12:13 But you go on to the end, for you shall rest and stand in your lot at the end of the days

Job 19:25 For I know that my Redeemer lives, and He shall rise on the earth at the last;

Job 19:26 and even after they corrupt my skin, yet this: in my flesh I shall see God,

Job 19:27 whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not a stranger's; though my heart be exhausted in my bosom.

The resurrection of Jesus Christ was already promised in the OT:

Act 2:29 Men, brothers, it is permitted to say to you with plainness as to the patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.

Act 2:30 Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, He would raise up Christ to sit upon his throne,

Act 2:31 seeing this beforehand, he spoke of the resurrection of Christ, that His soul was not left in Hades, nor would His flesh see corruption,

Act 2:32 God raised up this Jesus, of which we all are witnesses.

Act 2:33 Therefore being exalted to the right of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He has poured out this which you now see and hear.

Act 2:34 For David has not ascended into the heavens, but he says himself, "The LORD said to my Lord, Sit at My right hand

Act 2:35 until I place Your enemies as a footstool to Your feet."

Act 2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God made this same Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ.

The second resurrection will correspond to the resurrection of the unjust, the ones that will die again, that will die the second death to live no more. The contrast is clear between the last two different resurrections and its two different fates:

Rev 21:7 He who overcomes will inherit all things, and I will be his God, and he will be My son.

Rev 21:8 But the fearful, and the unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, will have their part in the Lake burning with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.

Rev 20:12 And I saw the dead, the small and the great, stand before God. And books were opened, and another book was opened, which is the Book of Life. And the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.

Rev 20:13 And the sea gave up the dead in it. And death and hell delivered up the dead in them. And each one of them was judged according to their works.

Rev 20:14 And death and hell were cast into the Lake of Fire. This is the second death.

Rev 20:15 And if anyone was not found having been written in the Book of Life, he was cast into the Lake of Fire.

The resurrection of the just is also called the resurrection of life, whereas the resurrection of the unjust is called the resurrection of condemnation:

Joh 5:29 and shall come forth, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have practiced evil to the resurrection of condemnation.

The born again believers are going to be taken out of this world even before the resurrection of the just:

Rom 5:9 Much more then, being now justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.

Rom 6:5 For if we have been joined together in the likeness of His death, we shall also be in the likeness of His resurrection;

1Co 15:51 Behold, I speak a mystery to you; we shall not all fall asleep, but we shall all be changed;

1Co 15:52 in a moment, in a glance of an eye, at the last trumpet. For a trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall all be changed.

1Co 15:53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.

1Co 15:54 But when this corruptible shall put on incorruption, and when this mortal shall put on immortality, then will take place the word that is written, "Death is swallowed up in victory.

1Co 15:55 O death, where is your sting? O grave, where is your victory?"

1Co 15:56 The sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the Law.

1Co 15:57 But thanks be to God who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.

1Co 15:58 So that, my beloved brothers, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not without fruit in the Lord.

1Th 1:10 and to wait for His Son from Heaven (whom He raised from the dead), Jesus, who delivered us from the wrath to come.

1Th 4:13 But I would not have you ignorant, brothers, concerning those who are asleep, that you be not grieved, even as others who have no hope.

1Th 4:14 For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so God will also bring with Him all those who have fallen asleep through Jesus.

1Th 4:15 For we say this to you by the Word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord shall not go before those who are asleep.

1Th 4:16 For the Lord Himself shall descend from Heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ shall rise first.

1Th 4:17 Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. And so we shall ever be with the Lord.

1Th 4:18 Therefore comfort one another with these words.

2Th 2:1 Now we beseech you, my brothers, with regard to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering together to Him,

2Th 2:13 But we are bound to give thanks always to God for you, brothers beloved of the Lord, because God has from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth,

2Th 2:14 to which He called you by our gospel, to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.

2Th 2:15 Therefore, my brothers, stand fast and hold the teachings which you have been taught, whether by word or by our letter.

2Th 2:16 Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, and God, even our Father, who has loved us and has given us everlasting consolation and good hope through grace,

2Th 2:17 comfort your hearts and establish you in every good word and work.

As we have seen before, the final resurrection will be temporary for some humans. For the ones that were so bad that will be raised only to be aware, only to know that they will experience the second death. They need to be informed that they are going to die a second time, and that their death will be to die forever. There will be no more life or resurrection for them.

Human longevity before the flood:

The extreme longevity of the early man, when compared with us is a reality.

In the days after the flood the life span started to be reduced. The sons of the sons of Noah were able to marry only their cousin relatives. Then at the entering of the Israelites to Canaan they got mixed up in their genetics with the people of the land, with the consequence that the life span was reduced to an average of 70-80 years for humanity, as the Psalm 90:10 declares:

Psa 90:10 The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by strength they are fourscore years, yet their pride is labor and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away.

The adversary, the enemy of God has been around even before man existed trying to discredit the Word of God. That adversary Satan, always, since the day that it was found selfishness in his heart, is trying to twist the ways of the Lord. The adversary is trying to discredit any biblical scripture that he can, as the ones that describe an extreme longevity of the humanity that was living before the flood. The particular bones of the archaic humans, of those ancient humans in comparison to the modern humans confirm the scriptures of the Bible.

"Consider the days of old, the years of the many generations" (Deut. 32:7). Why does Moses divide the time in two parts? Consider the days of old' can be before the "tohu babohu" of Genesis 1:2. 'The years of the many generations' can include all the time that runs from day one of this second heavens and earth until the destruction of them by fire.

The times of old are contained in Gen. 1:1, which was the first heavens and earth. Then, for the second heavens and earth each day of creation is numbered.

There is direction in the flow of history, history is not at random. History is also God's business. Unfortunately, genuine Israelites that rejected to believe on the scriptures of the NT are going to still in the front page of the newspapers once we, all the genuine Born Again Christians are departed. We are going to be taken away from here by Christ Jesus himself. But all the rest, Jewish and Gentiles, all that rejected to believe in the NT are going to be left here on earth. Then they are going to realize that they were missing something and many of them are going to start believingin the revealed word of God of the NT. The same can be said of the Gentiles of that period.

Any human dating methodology is just a "guessing game." And worst if it does not include the flood over all the earth (the universal one of Gen. 1:2 and the earthly one in the days of Noah).

The revealed Word of God was and is not a "guess" of any kind. The Bible says "day one", to begin the account of the second heavens and earth, then the Bible says "second day, third day", etc.

The waters of the flood:

Water alters every dating system; water alters the mineral compositions. The impact on Yucatan, half on dry land and half on the ocean floor and the complete impact on the ocean floor near Australia, I think that both of them happened at the same time to destroy every living being in Gen. 1:2. I think that the dating analysis of the sediments inside the salty seawater provide a very old date when compared to the dating analysis of dry land sediments found on the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico. It will be interesting to date sediments outside the ocean and inside the ocean of that Yucatan's crater to see how their chronologies get altered and change at the presence of the oceanic waters.

Biblical words are not to be understood by their contemporary common definitions. For example, "mayim" typically means water. Waters surrounding our universe are different from the waters that we have in our planet. The waters of day two are then different than the waters of day three. On day two was the vertical separation of the waters, the ones at the bottom were left on and under the earth and the ones surrounding the universe were left at the top. However, the waters of day three were separated horizontally inside our same planet allowing the dry land to appear.

It impresses me that inside the permafrost of the North Pole there are frozen thousands of mammals, i.e., mammoths, but not dinosaurs. Such evidence indicates that the disappearance of the dinosaurs was a separate and different event.

God is light:

The Talmud (Chagiga, ch. 2) analyzes the Hebrew word "choshech" that appears in Genesis 1:2 and explains that it means black fire, black energy, another kind of energy that we can not see. Two verses later, in Genesis 1:4, the Talmud explains that the same Hebrew word "choshech" - means darkness, i.e. the absence of light. As the light of the first day is different from the light of the sun and stars of the fourth day, so darkness in Gen. 1:2 is different also to that darkness in Gen. 1:4.

In the darkness of Gen. 1:2 we can perceive the presence of the adversary and his hosts, which are that black energy. The NT says "there is no darkness in God":

1Jo 1:5 And this is the message which we have heard from Him and declare to you, that God is light, and in Him is no darkness at all.

The same can be said in reference to the light of day one when compared to the astronomical light of day four, which includes the sun and the rest of the stars. Those two kinds of light are also different to the Light that God Himself is: "God is Light."

There was disorder produced by the adversary in Gen. 1:2. Order never arises from disorder spontaneously. There must be a guide to the system. Even the crystals of salt do not arise randomly, they arise because of the laws of nature created by God. Those laws of nature established by God guided the development of the world.

The information that we read in the Bible is not an old and out-to-date information; it is God's perfect Word. It is our understanding that faints.

As God is not the creator of disorder, he created everything perfect in Gen. 1:1, then the adversary rebelled against God. The presence of the adversary is stated with "darkness upon the deep". Then God needed to create a second heavens and earth, as "the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters". The two opposite forces are described there. We have here the six days of creation of our own second heavens and earth in which we are living now. Those are based on the same molecular biology and celestial bodies present on the first heavens and earth, the ones before the "tohu babohu" of Gen. 1:2, as we have seen that the Hebrew word "to create" is not used of them. A third heaven and earth is coming in the future with its own particular characteristics and order. No more night in that new heavens and earth:

Rev 21:25 And its gates may not be shut at all by day, for there shall be no night there.

Rev 22:5 And there will be no night there. And they need no lamp, or light of the sun; for the Lord God gives them light. And they will reign forever and ever.

No more need of the sun or of the moon:

Rev 21:23 And the city had no need of the sun, nor of the moon, that they might shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it, and its lamp is the Lamb.

No more the sea will be, also according to the book of Revelation:

Rev 21:1 And I saw a new heaven and a new earth. For the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. And the sea no longer is.

There will be no more death:

Rev 21:4 And God will wipe away all tears from their eyes. And there will be no more death, nor mourning, nor crying out, nor will there be any more pain; for the first things passed away.

Today we are familiar with digital information, light signals on infrared laser light, in infrared light, or in visible red light. We know that the loss of signal in optical fiber is less than in copper wire. Signals in optical fibers degrade less, and lower power transmitters can be used instead of high voltage electrical transmitters, because no electricity is passed through optical fibers, and there is no fire hazard. With transatlantic fiber optic cables, you have a direct connection with no echoes. God is light, and He is the revealer of His Word. On a pulse of light, information is imprinted. Printing information on light is called today fiber optics: the sending of information through light.

Even energy is under the curse of the universe:

Science has shown that the "substanceless substance" of the energy can change into matter. Einstein's famous equation, E=mc^2, originally was written by him in its constructive way as m=E/c^2, which tells us that energy can change into matter.

Only God is timeless. Even energy wears out inside our second heavens and earth, inside our second universe, as energy is also one of the created things of God, participant today also of the curse of all the creation.

If it is inside our universe under the curse and in "bondage", as here, time also really does pass, even through the fast light beams (300 million meters per second). Remember that the light of God is different than the light previously created and which God ordered to appear on day one of our second heavens and earth, and both are different to the light that appeared on the fourth day proceeding from the sun and the stars. There is a clear difference there. And again, it is the NT, the book of Revelation that corroborates that.

The theoretical temperature of quark confinement, when matter freezes out of the energy is 10.9 times 10 to the 12th power Kelvin degrees divided by (or the ratio to) the temperature of the universe today, 2.73 degrees. Opposite to that, the photosynthesis is the transformation of energy into matter under nice and mild temperature, so God’s biology contradicts the need of freezing temperatures to transform energy into matter. Time after time, we know that God brings the wisdom of the world unto nothing.

The amazing transformation of energy-light (photons) into matter-sugars (carbohydrates), with the addition of the gas CO2 can be seen every day in the photosynthesis done by plants. I like to think that the photosynthesis must be also under the original formula of Einstein, m=E/c^2. His original formula was initially always written by Einstein in the constructive way, energy being condensed into mass or matter.

Day one of our heavens and earth:

The peculiar beginning of that ordering says: "There is evening and morning, day one."

However, for the second day it doesn't say "evening and morning, day two." Rather, it says "evening and morning, a second day." And then continues with this pattern of ennumeration: "a third day... a fourth day... a fifth day... the sixth day."

Only for the first day does the text use a different form, there is not used "first day," but instead "day one" ("Yom Echad"). There is a qualitative difference, as even Nachmanides says, between "one" and "first." The use of the word "one" is absolute, whereas the use of the word "first" is comparative.

As we have seen, "evening and morning" appears in the same style of wording during the six days. Why, as some suppose, needed God to wait for millennia, stalled on day one to continue with the second day?

Einstein wrote of time as being relative, but I don't know of any work of Einstein dealing with the creation of time. Einstein taught us that not only space and matter are dimensional, but also that time is a dimension. The same pattern in the use of "evening and morning" is preserved during the six days to keep us clear of the identity of those days, not different than the 24-hs days that we are living now.

There was a time span in Gen. 1:2, when the earth became "without form and void" ("tohu babohu"). But there was not a variable time span within those six days or between those days and our own 24-hs days.

It is not expressed as "the first day" but as "day one", because it was not really "the first day" of everything that exists in heavens and in earth. That was already done in Gen. 1:1, way far before this specific day one. "Day one" makes sense as being the beginning of a second series of account; i.e., "day one" stands for the beginning of the second heavens and earth.

"Evening and morning", the same 24 hours timing since day one until today:

There were six days of 24 hours each in Genesis 1. There is no significant difference between one day and the next in the seven days of Genesis chapter 1; all those days were days of 24 hours.

Genesis chapter 1 describes God's deeds to re-order a challenged and destroyed universe and earth.

In Psalms 90:4 King David says, "1000 years in Your (God's) sight are like a day that passes, a watch in the night." Time is different from the perspective of men than it is from the perspective of God the Creator. Also Peter describes the same reality in similar terms, when he says that one of our years for God is like 1,000 years. But Peter also, like David, inspired by God declares that 1,000 of our years are like one of his days. Is that a contradiction? No, that demonstrates that God is not subject at all to any kind of time or space:

2Pe 3:8 But, beloved, let not this one thing be hidden from you, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.

But in Genesis 1 it is clearly explained, and with different words when compared with the ones used in Ps. 90:4, that "the evening and the morning were one day", not one millennia or one reducing time-span.

Since the earth is the earth in Gen. 1:1, time is time from and for the earth’s perspective. Was it necessary, as some have said, a different "timing" from the first day on earth, and then a different time for the second day on earth and so on for the rest of the days mentioned in Genesis chapter 1?

Regarding the moon, is it any description of the astronauts that have been there as saying that their clocks did run differently there? When traveling, the human body after a little while adapts itself to the local time of a distant country. However, the watch (quartz or mechanic) still works at the same rhythm as before. The traveler only needs to adjust them to the new local time. Einstein’s relativity theory is in relation to the time of one location "in function" of another location, not in relation of the time itself running differently inside any of those locations.

The Israelites of the days of the Apocalypse:

That remnant of israelites faithful to the OT that they accept will be preserved by God in the awful days of the Apocalypse, the days of Revelation. The same book of Revelation indicates that many of them finally are going to believe in Christ Jesus as their Lord.

Wrongfully, the Midrash (Vayikra Rabba 29:1), an expansion of the Talmud, together with the Jewish Sages, states that Rosh Hashana commemorates the soul of Adam, and that the Six Days of Genesis are separate by long aeons of time. Such old Jewish tradition is wrong, both in the use of the expression the "soul of Adam" and also is wrong in differentiating between the days as if they were days-ages in the Genesis record of the first six days of our second heavens and earth. If a human opinion contradicts the Word of God, it is wrong, no matter how old that opinion may be. For example, the opinion of the Jewish leadership of the times of Jesus Christ (pharisees, saducees, scribes, herodians, priests, elders, etc.) was that he was not their Savior.

The universe is aging and expanding like a curtain; at its end it will be removed like an old garment, "shall vanish away like smoke":

Psa 104:2 covering Yourself with light as with a robe; and stretching out the heavens like a curtain.

Isa 40:22 It is He who sits on the circle of the earth, and its people are like grasshoppers; who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them out like a tent to dwell in;

Psa 102:25 Of old You have laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the work of Your hands.

Psa 102:26 They shall perish, but You shall endure; yea, all of them shall become old like a garment; like a robe You shall change them, and they shall be changed

Isa 51:6 Lift up your eyes to the heavens, and look on the earth beneath; for the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall become old like a garment; and its inhabitants shall die in the same way. But My salvation shall be forever, and My righteousness shall not be broken.

The universe is expanding. That's the cosmology of the universe. And that mean it is expanding pushing out an enormous ocean of waters that are surrounding our universe. Outside our universe there is water, not an empty space. The figurative "abode of God" described in the OT is outside our universe over those waters that surround it:

I don’t know how the stretching effect of the expansion of the universe can be directly verified today, but long timings can perfectly fit inside Gen. 1:1 and 2, but not inside day one, and inside the rest of the first six days of our second heavens and earth.

Any dating system or antiquity for the universe, the earth and the living beings, proposed by humans is only human guessing. We know for the Bible that the universe is old, it is very old. A long time had already passed before the six days of Gen. chapter 1. That old time and the world that then was fits inside Gen. 1:1-2:

2Pe 3:5 For this is hidden from them by their willing it, that the heavens were of old, and the earth out of the water, and through water, being held together by the Word of God,

2Pe 3:6 through which the world that then was, being flooded by water, perished.

2Pe 3:7 But the present heavens and the earth being kept in store by the same Word, are being kept for fire until the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men.

Some Conclusions:

The Jewish day is composed from "evening and morning". From evening, as the Jewish day starts after the sun goes down beyond the horizon, to morning. The Jewish idiom "evening and morning" that we see through the six days described in Genesis chapter 1 emphasizes a 24 hours day, we move on earth at 800 miles an hour as we rotate around to get the "evening and morning" out of one 24-hour day.

The flow of time in the Bible is totally in human terms. Adam and Eve lived 130 years before having children. Seth lived 105 years before having children, etc.

At the creation of man at the sixth day, the exact same words of "evening and morning" are used again, as they have been used through all the five days before. The same can be said if we are thinking of the sun from days 1 to 3, where even before the sun was "lighted on" again, the very same expression of "evening and morning" is also used.

At the seventh day, when God rests of His complete re-ordering and creation of our heavens and earth in which we live now, the expression "evening and morning" is not used.

The six days of creation for this second heavens and earth were literal.

This is not the first creation described in Gen. 1:1. There was an interval, a period of destruction in Gen. 1:2 before this six days of re-ordering.

Genesis chapter one is not a parable; it is a literal description of what happened before and since day one of the second heavens and earth, which are the ones on which we are living now. Those descriptions in Genesis are not human words of a mindset of old people; it is God's Word without time or space, God's Word which is eternal and truthful. No matter how old it may be. The writers wrote using their languages but with God's revelation behind them. That revelation of God is beyond time and space. The Author of the Bible was only God, the inspired writers were many.

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