Bibliography for Figures of Speech used in the Bible:

E. W. Bullinger:

Explanation: , , or in or:


, also in: , also in

Excerpts from his Book: or in:

A. E. Knoch:

Classified 64 of them:

And explained them:

Other explanations: , , , from:

Other classifications: ,

Other sites: , , ,

Bibliography for Customs of the Bible:

Some Online Resources:

Alfred Edersheim (The Temple: Its Ministry and Services, Sketches of Jewish Social Life, Bible History, Old Testament, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah);

Ethelbert W. Bullinger (The Witness of the Stars, Number in Scripture, Ten Sermons on the Second Advent, The Apocalypse, How to Enjoy the Bible, Things to Come, The Rich Man and Lazarus: An Intermediate State?); Cunningham Geikie (The Holy Land and the Bible);

John Lightfoot (A Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica, The Brethren of the Lord, On Some Points Connected with the Essenes), et al, books: to download:

Peshitta Lexicon, TWI (ed.):

The Chronology of Christ's Crucifixion & Resurrection

Crucifixion in Antiquity (Heel of a crucified man from Jerusalem, 1st cent. A.D.), by Joseph E. Zias or at

Ancient Diseases In The Land Of Israel (Mikhmanim, Spring 1999), by Joseph E. Zias

The Jewish Roman World of Jesus, by Dr. James D. Tabor

The Ancient Hebrew Language and Alephbet from:

Pillai, K. C.,

Light Through an Eastern Window, Robert Speller & Sons; Publishers (1963, 129 pp.), New York 36, New York ;

Orientalisms of the Bible - [Vol. 1 (1969, 125 pp.), Vol. 2 (1974, 141 pp.)], Munkus Publishing Company, INC., P.O. Box 15, Fairborn, Ohio 45324; Reprint: Mor-Mac Publ. Comp. INC, P.O. Box 984, Fairborn, Ohio 45324, and by: American Christian Press, The Way International (1984), New Knoxville, Ohio 45871;

Old and New Testament Orientalisms - Teachings of Bishop K.C. Pillai - Compiled by Bo Reahard - October 1980 ("Orientalisms: The Bible is an Eastern Book", 10 audiotapes with workbook, New Knoxville, Ohio: American Christian Press, 1980, 1983);

Appreciating Oriental Insights in the Bible (Set 1, 70 pp.; Set 2, 82 pp. Audiotapes and workbooks), Compiled by Christopher C. Geer, Word Promotions Ltd. Glasgow, Scotland.


Fred H. Wight: Manners & Customs Of Bible Lands. Chicago: Moody Press 1953; Reprint: 1994 Edition: Special Billy Graham Crusade Edition.

Examples: Women of the Bible: , ; Ancient Hebrew Clothing: ; Feet Washing:

New Edition: Ralph Gower, Fred H. Wight. The New Manners and Customs of Bible Times. Chicago: Moody Press. March 1999, 393pp. (lots of references in that site)

Some Other Books:

William M. Thomson. The Land and the Book or Biblical Illustrations drawn from the Manners and Customs, the Scenes and Scenery of the Holy Land. Harper & Brothers (2 vols., New York, 1858-9; London, 1860; new ed., with the results of recent explorations, 3 vols., 1880-6). Reprint: Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1954.


Alan Coates Bouquet. Everyday life in New Testament. London, B.T. Batsford. 1953. 236 pp.

James M. Freeman, Manners and Customs of the Bible, NY: Logos International, 1972, 515 pp. Reprint: Mar 1996, Whitaker House, 528 pp. Update: The New Manners and Customs of the Bible, by James M. Freeman and Harold J. Chadwick, Bridge-Logos Publishers, Jan 1998.

Barbara M. Bowen. Strange Scriptures that Perplex the Western Mind. 1944. Reprint. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1983.

E. Norman Gardiner: Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals. Macmillan and Co. London 1910. Olympia, Its History and Remains. Oxford 1925. Athletics of the Ancient World. Oxford 1930: Chicago: Ares 1978.

H. A. Harris, Greek Athletes and Athletics (London: Thames & Hudson 1964); Sport in Greece and Rome (London 1972); Greek Athletics and the Jews (Cardiff 1976).

James Neil, Everyday Life in the Holy Land (New York: Cassell and Company, Limited, 4th ed. 1913; Reprint: London: Church Missions to Jews, 1930).

A.N. Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963. Reprint: Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1978.

Bible Atlas Online: introduction in

Archaeology and the Bible:

Biblical Archeology, Ortodox Mission (ZIP File): Brief Study with pictures.

Bible as History, excerpts of the book by Werner Keller (ZIP File): Only Significant Excerpts of the book.

Archaeology and the Bible plus other articles and features in plus

Biblical Archaeology Online:

Biblical Archaeology Society and their Magazines:

Bible-History: example:

Main Events in the History of Jerusalem:

Palestine Explored, Mount Zion, by Rev. James Neil (Author of Palestine Repeopled)

Discovery of the Siloam Tunnel:

Jerusalem: The Circuit of the Walls, by Albert M. Hyamson (Author of "Palestine: The Rebirth of an Ancient People")

The Madaba (Medeba) Map of the Walled Jerusalem (S. VI A.D.)

Books from Etana [Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives] at: :

Hebraische Archaologie, by Immanuel Benzinger. Freiburg i B. und Leipzig: J.C.B. Mohr, 1894:

Biblical Archaeologist/Near Eastern Archaeology (vols. 59-61, SELA Project):

Encyclopaedia Biblica; a critical dictionary of the literary, political and religious history, the archaeology, geography, and natural history of the Bible , by The Rev. T. K. Cheyne, M.A., Dd and J. Sutherland Black, M.A. LL.D. New York, The Macmillan Company; London:Adam and Charles Black, 1899.

Volume I A-D:

Volume II E-K:

Volume III L-P:

Volume IV Q-Z:

The Historical Geography of the Holy Land, by George Adam Smith, D.D. New York and London: Hodder and Stoughton. XVI edition (PDF files):

An older VII edition. New York: A.C. Armstrong and Son, 3 and 5 West 18th Street

London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1901:

Jerusalem: The Topography, Economics, and History From the Earliest Times to A.D. 70, Volume I, by George Adam Smith, D.D., LL.D. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1907:

Volume II:

Lectures on the Religion of the Semites, by William Robertson Smith (New Edition, Revised). London: Adam & Charles Black,1894.

A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature, by Marcus Jastrow. London: Luzac & Co. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. 1903.

Volume I:

Volume II:

Biblical Archaeological Excavations: ,

More on Recent Biblical Archaeological Excavations, from: :

Bethsaida Report on the Season of 2003, By Rami Arav. University of Nebraska, Omaha. May 2004: , also in:

Excavations at Abila of the Decapolis, Northern Jordan, by W. Harold Mare, Ph.D. Director, Abila Excavations. Professor, Covenant Theological Seminary

St. Louis, Missouri. March 2004:

Kursi-Gergesa Excavation 2002 Report, by Charles R. Page, II. Jerusalem Center for Biblical Studies. December 2003:

Caesarea Maritima: 2002 Land Excavations, by Jennifer A. Stabler. February 2003.

The Megiddo Expedition:

Digging Near Jordan:

Tell es-Safi/Gath, by Dr. Aren M. Maeir. The Institute of Archaeology, Bar Ilan University: ,

Recent Archaeological Discoveries at Hazor, by Dr. Jennie R. Ebeling. Lady Davis Fellow at the Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

Davidic and Solomonic Bazaars, by Jeff Blakely, Visiting Professor, Department of Hebrew and Semitic Studies, University of Wisconsin--Madison. May 2003.

Qumran Cemetery (Dead Sea Discoveries 7 (2000): pp. 220-253), by Joseph E. Zias and , ,


Reviewing Books on the History of Israel (in Word Doc): , ,

Tomb with newly discovered inscriptions, by Karin Laub (AP) and

Archaeology and the Bible other books:

Archaeology, History and Society in Galilee: The Social Context of Jesus and the Rabbis, by Richard Horsley, Trinity Press Intl., Nov. 1996, 256pp. (hundreds of books in that site)

James S. Jeffers, The Greco-Roman World of the New Testament Era: Exploring the Background of Early Christianity. Downers Grove: IVP, 1999. 352 pp.

[Israelite] Women and House Religion, by Elizabeth Willett. Hebrew Bible translation consultant. SIL International:

The Times and Life of Edward Robinson [an outstanding researcher, his contributions in Biblical geography, and by extension archaeology, were closely tied in origin to the missionary movement], by Jay Williams. The Walcott-Bartlett Professor of Religious Studies. Hamilton College:

Articles on the Ancient World and its Religious Congregations: and its museums today:

Early Christian writings and their social world:

The Establishment and Development of Christianity in the Parthian Empire (1st cent. -224/6 A.D.). By Evangelos Venetis (c.PhD - University of Edinburgh, UK) & Dr. M. Alinia Mozdoor (University of Ioannina, GR) Transoxiana 6. Jul. 2003 (in English and Spanish): , (Los Sasánidas en Africa. Matteo Compareti. Transoxiana 4 - Julio 2002. Also in English), (Los Kurdos. Mónica Cello. Transoxiana 2 - Junio 2001.)

Transoxiana (in Spanish):

"País de los Ríos". Los Hurritas y la meseta de Armenia. Prof. Vartán Matiossián. Transoxiana 3- Nov. 2001: , (Transoxiana 8. Julio 2004) , (Transoxiana 4 - Julio 2002), etc.

Arte culinario en la Antigua Mesopotamia. Lic. Noemí Sierra. Transoxiana 6. Julio 2003:

La Enfermedad y La Farmacopea En Mesopotamia. Lic. Noemí Sierra. Transoxiana 2 - Junio 2001 (in Spanish):

Las sandalias en el Antiguo Egipto. Alejandra R. Cersósimo. Transoxiana 4 - Julio 2002.

The Meaning Of The Chronogenealogies Of Genesis 5 And 11. Gerhard F. Hasel. Professor of Old Testament and Biblical Theology. Andrews University. Origins 7(2):53-70 (1980): from:

Some notable works by Jeffrey H. Tigay, University Of Pennsylvania:

Some Archaeological Notes On Deuteronomy:

"Archaeology" Of The Bible And Judaism In Late Antiquity And The Middle Ages:

The [Hebrew] Calendar And Theology:

Hebrew-Guide To Biblical Research. William H.C. Propp (Revised 1997; updated 2002):

"He [Adam] begot a son [Seth] in his [Adam's] likeness after his image" (Gen. 5:3):

"He [Moses] had not become wrinkled [even if old]" (Deut. 34:7):

Parashat Terumah (Exodus 25-27:19) [The design and construction of the mishkan, the portable sanctuary in the desert]:

The Significance Of The End Of Deuteronomy (Deut 34:10-12):

Related to the Aserah as an idolatric and cultic object representing "god":

List of Publications by Meir Bar-Ilan:

Other Biblical Research Tools:

Greek and Hebrew Concordances:

James Strong's Concordance and Lexicon with Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Lexicon or Thayer's Greek Lexicon, Dictionaries, Concordance of RNKJV, Encyclopedias, Roget's Thesaurus, etc.


Visual Greek System (full NT to download in colored PDF, by Peter Coad):

The Bible Truths Greek Online Study Course, by Don Martin:

An Online Textual Commentary on the Greek Gospels (Second Edition). 23.01.2004:

F. Wilbur Gingrich and Frederick W. Danker. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich. 2d ed., rev. and augmented. Translated and Adapted by Walter Bauer's 5th ed., 1958. (Walter Bauer, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979) , (review of Bauer/Danker, Greek-English Lexicon) from: ,

Interlinear Greek/English New Testament from 1894 Scrivener Textus Receptus with Strong's Numbers, plus 1881 Westcott-Hort Greek Text, 1550/1894 Textus Receptus, with Grammatical Tags and Strong's Numbers, 1991 Byzantine Greek Text

Fresh Download, easy-to-use download manager (bah, they request you to register "for free", they say, after about 23 days):

Constantine von Tischendorf. Novum Testamentum Graece : ad antiquissimos testes denuo recensuit, 8. Ed. Leipzig : Giesecke & Devrient, 1869.

Vol. 1: (to search), and (full set, and the same in the other instances)

Vol. 2:

Vol. 3:, part 1:

Vol. 3:, part 2:

Hermann Freiherr von Soden. Griechisches Neues Testament: Text mit kurzen Apparat. Göttingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1913 (in German).

Hermann Freiherr von Soden. Vol. 1, in 3 parts (Untersuchungen, in German):

Hermann Freiherr von Soden. Volume 2 (Text mit Apparat, in German):.

The Greek New Testament Gateway:

Learning Greek: and

The Septuagint Online: ,

E. Brooke, N. McLean, H. St-J. Thackeray, ed. The Old Testament in Greek. London : Cambridge University Press, 1906:

Henry Barclay Swete. Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek. 2nd Ed. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1914:

Studying Origen's Hexapla (in Latin): Fridericus Field. Origenis Hexaplorum: quae supersunt sive veterum interpretum graecorum in totus Vetus Testamentum fragmenta. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1875.

Vol. 1:

Vol. 2:


Marc Brettler. Bibliographic Tools for the Study of Hebrew Bible Texts

The vocalized Hebrew masoretic text of the Tanakh of the Bible.

Studying the Samaritan Pentateuch (in German): August Freiherrn von Gall, ed. Der Hebräische Pentateuch der Samaritaner. Giessen : Verlag von Alfred Töpelmann, 1918:

Links to Other Manuscripts:

I.E., the NT, version of the "Codex Vaticanus": (to search) and (full set, and the same in other instances)

Also In:

I.E., S. R. Driver, An Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament, 9th ed.: (search) (full)

The Folio: Bulletin of the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center:

Textus Receptus, 1873 edition:

Westcott and Hort: The New Testament in the Original Greek:

The Greek Bible, according to Rahlfs (in PDF): and under Freer (in JPG file):

More Manuscripts:


The Complete NRSV Bible TEXT with notes, by Bruce M. Metzger, Zaine Ridling et al, 1989 and 2001: or in html:

The Original Bible Project, edited by Dr. James D. Tabor: and the beautiful simmetry of the Original Bible:

The Parables In The Gospels:

The Bible Translator [full Journal, related to its translation in jpg graphic images]:





From: (Biblical Manuscripts Project in graphic images).

Filología Neotestamentaria (Journal from the University of Córdoba: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 1994-2000)

Ancient Biblical Manuscripts Center (Journal in PDF, 1981-2003):

Journal of Biblical Studies:

Reference Tools and Resources: Bible. John Bulow Campbell Library. Columbia Theological Seminary in Decatur, GA.


More on Origen:, Origen's Philocalia:

Eusebius (Church History; Life of Constantine the Great; Oration in Praise of Constantine):, Praeparatio Evangelica, Demonstratio evangelica (The Proof of the Gospel), etc.:

Some other early Christian writers to download in full (always discern them with the Bible as the higher authority):, or in part:, i.e., Justin Martyr:, Tatian's Diatessaron:, and his address to the Greeks:

Other Tools of General Use:

The Jewish Encyclopedia: (pages in htm and in graphic files)

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911:

Search Online:

Download All: [8,244 kb]

Encarta Encyclopedia:

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary:

Download All (1913 version): [1,501 kb], [1,471 kb], [1,497 kb]

Roget's Thesaurus (1911):

Search Online:

Download All: [1,553 kb]

Third Ed. (1995):

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary and Thesaurus:

To be continued…

Go to Main Page:

Useful Links:

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Tasters of the Word (YouTube), videos recientes: "Astronomía y Nacimiento de Jesucristo: Once de Septiembre Año Tres A.C.", "Estudio sobre Sanidades" (en 20 episodios), "Jesus Christ, Son or God?":

Tasters of the Word (the blog, with: "Astronomy and the Birth of Jesus Christ"):