ProtoLanguage-English.htm (9-23) Tlazoltotl Counter




PROTO-LANGUAGE - ENGLISH DICTIONARY
۩ dedicated to the memory of Julius Pokorny ۩
by Patrick C. Ryan ( 8/ 9 /20081 [ revisions and additions ongoing ] )





CLICK ON INITIAL OR SYLLABLE ? || ?E | ?A | ?O | || E | A | O
P? || P?E | P?A | P?O | T? || T?E | T?A | T?O | K? || K?E | K?A | K?O
P?F || P?FE | P?FA | P?FO | T?S || T?SE | T?SA | T?SO | K?X || K?XE | K?XA | K?XO
F || FE | FA | FO | S || SE | SA | SO | X || XE | XA | XO
M || ME | MA | MO | N || NE | NA | NO | Q || QE | QA | QO
R || RE | RA | RO | H || HE | HA | HO | HH || HHE | HHA | HHO
PH || PHE | PHA | PHO | TH || THE | THA | THO | KH || KHE | KHA | KHO
PHF || PHFE | PHFA | PHFO | THS || THSE | THSA | THSO |
KHX || KHXE | KHXA | KHXO
FH || FHE | FHA | FHO | SH || SHE | SHA | SHO | XH || XHE | XHA | XHO
MH || MHE | MHA | MHO | NH || NHE | NHA | NHO | QH || QHE | QHA | QHO
RH || RHE | RHA | RHO


For Pontic stage equivalents, click here.


Entries of the form [Egyptian n '...'] refer to the numbers and sign descriptions on pages 442-543 of Egyptian Grammar by Sir Alan Gardiner, Third Edition, Revised, published on behalf of the Asmolean Museum, Oxford, by Oxford University Press, London.
* * *

Entries of the form [J. n'...'] refer to the numbers and sign descriptions on pages 25-157 of Schriftarchaeologie der altmesopotamischen Kultur by Kurt Jaritz, 1967, Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz. Entries of the form [Comb. n '...'] refer to the combination signs and descriptions on pages 158-416 of the same book.
* * *

Entries after Chinese words of the form [n a(-z').] refer to the numbered character collections in Grammata Serica by Bernhard Karlgren, reprint 1966, Ch'eng-Wen Publishing Company, Taipei.
* * *

Entries of the form [Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff)] refer to the reconstructions in Handbook of Proto-Tibeto-Burman by James A. Matisoff, 2003, University of California Publications in Linguistics, Volume 135, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

pp. 15-6: "More crucial for the complication of TB (Tibeto-Burman) manner developments are the intricate patterns of interaction between prefix and root initial.2 A *voiceless C1 could easily assimilate in voicing to a voiced prefix (e.g. *m-), while a voiceless prefix (e.g. *s-) could devoice or aspirate an originally *voiced C1. The prefix might then drop, leaving only the voicing of the C1 as a trace of its former presence. Nothing in fact is more unstable in diachronic TB phonology than the voicing or aspiration of initial obstruents . . . These apparent "irregularities" are often misunderstood by rigid neo-grammarians (see Miller 1972) who mistake patterns of allofamic variation (conditioned by factors which are not always recoverable) for lack of rigor."
* * *

Entries of the form [Starostin] refer to the reconstructions in a number of languages found at the Tower of Babel website founded by the late Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin and many collaborators.
* * *

Entries of the form *... are reconstructed by the author, and cannot be found in standard lexical works for the early language.
* * *

Every inanimate monosyllable appears to have had
three basic semantic contexts:
the (human) body, plant life, and non-animate nature (mineral).
These will be set off in the dictionary under BODY, PLANT, and MINERAL.
Similarly, every animate monosyllable appears to have had
two basic semantic contexts:
animal(s), and animate (in an ancient view) nature.
These will be set off in the dictionary under
ANIMAL, and (ANIMATE) NATURE.
Characteristic behavior of animates and characteristic qualities
as well as appearance
became the basis for EFFECTIVE and AFFECTIVE verbal ideas.
* * *

Both inanimate and animate monosyllables had GRAMMATICAL uses.
* * *

C and V

indicate consonant and vowel in all derived languages, and
occasionally in the Proto-Language.
* * *

Occasionally the reader will notice that a given cognate in a derived language is listed under two different PL roots. This is because the circumstances do not allow a firm conclusion as to derivation and two different semantic analyses seem plausible.
* * *







FOR PRIMARY STEM FORMANTS, SEE BELOW







* * *







- ? -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic


Chinese ?=y


Tibetan ?=






?A



FOREHEAD

TURN TO

IMMEDIACY

FAMILY

GRASS

TOP

POINTED

BODY

?A, FOREHEAD, BROW (inanimate: literally, 'what is at rest on top')


?A, IMMEDIATE PRESENCE


ADVERBIAL

?A, HERE; IE *a(:) (in Old Indian a:-gam-, approach), 1. e/e:, o/o:, near by, together with


INFLECTIONAL

?A, INANIMATE STATIVE ('be adjective'); IE -(a): in PIE ma:-, ripe, mature (MA-?A)


PARTICLE

?A, interrogative; Egyptian j- in jzt (j + + z.t), what? (? + which + [is] + it); Sumerian a in a-ba, who? and a-na, what?; IE *a(:), *interrogative particle, in Greek :, interrogative particle, and :, what?, pray?, can it be...?; Arabic ?a-, interrogative particle {prefix} (sentence initial); Chinese a, interrogative particle (sentence final)


PRONOMINAL

?A, FIRST PERSON DEICTIC PARTICLE, THIS (NEAR SPEAKER); *a-, listed under 3. e-, ei-, i, fem. i:-, paradigmatically bound pronominal stems 'the, he' (e, i probably originally demonstrative particles)


PLANT

?A, GRASS(-LAND), SAVANNA

?A, BLADE (OF GRASS)

?A, POINTED

?A, PLANT-TOP (FOLIAGE); Egyptian j, *flower (Egyptian M17, 'flowering reed'); in j.w, reeds; Sumerian a-10, *plant-top (J. 658 reads a-10, has a date-palm with the top clearly drawn; and means '(date-)palm')


ADJECTIVAL

?E, HARD


ADPOSITIONAL

?E, OFF, BELOW (PREVERB); IE e/e:, o/o:, adnominal and adverbal particle, approximately 'near by, together with', outside of Aryan and partially even in it fading in meaning, in Germanic arriving at the sense of 'under, after, behind to, back, again, away'


PRONOMINAL

?E, THIRD PERSON DEICTIC PARTICLE (NEAR THING SPOKEN ABOUT), THAT YONDER; Egyptian demonstrative element -j in pj, that; Sumerian demonstrative element -e; IE 3. e-, ei-, i, fem. i:-, paradigmatically bound pronominal stems 'the, he' (e, i probably originally demonstrative particles)


?E + (x), (TRUE PREPOSITIONS)

?E, (PASSIVE IMPERFECTIVE - Stem VI)






* * *



?O



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic


Chinese ?=y


Tibetan ?=








MOUTH

LIPS

THAT

BODY

?O, MOUTH (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to the top of')


PRONOMINAL

?O, SECOND PERSON DEICTIC PARTICLE, THAT (NEAR SPEAKER); *o-, listed under 3. e-, ei-, i, fem. i:-, paradigmatically bound pronominal stems 'the, he' (e, i probably originally demonstrative particles)


?O + (x), (TRUE PREPOSITIONS)







* * *







- -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic



Chinese initial =y; final accented =i

final unaccented=' (rising tone)



Tibetan =y



Tibeto-Burman: A=ya in bya, bee (P?FA-A)

E=yi





A

EYE

SEE

WHITE

WATCH

SEVERAL

BODY

A, EYE(LID), OPTIC APERTURE, SLIT OF THE EYE (inanimate: literally, 'what is at rest on points below


A-RO (+ part), OPTICAL APERTURE; Egyptian jr, *eye (Egyptian D4, 'eye')


HHA-A (water +), TEAR (NOUN)


A, WHITE


VERBAL

A, SEE, WATCH


MINERAL

A, CREVICE


A, SEVERAL (MORE THAN ONE = TWO), BOTH, MANY, MUCH; Sumerian i-11, be much (J. 715 reads i-11, and means 'be much')


GRAMMATICAL

-A, (INANIMATE INDEFINITE PLURAL); IE -i in masculine and feminine plural of o-stems (-oi)







* * *




E

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic



Chinese initial =y; final accented =i

final unaccented=' (rising tone)



Tibetan =y



Tibeto-Burman: A=ya in bya, bee (P?FA-A)

E=yi




DIAPHRAGM

WAIST

VOICE

BREATH

STIR

SPEAK

GENITIVE

I

BODY

E, DIAPHRAGM (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved from points below'); Japanese i, stomach


VERBAL

E, BE RAISED (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved from points below'); Sumerian i, raise (J. 270)


VERBAL

E, SPEAK; in Arabic ya?ya?a, call out


GRAMMATICAL


?E,(IMPERFECT{IVE} PARTICIPLE); Egyptian -j, imperfect participle; Sumerian -e, imperfect participle (mar); IE -i-, present (really imperfect) formant; forms nomina agentis (Brugmann 1972: II, 278-84)


ADPOSITIONAL

E-, UP FROM (PREVERB); IE e/e:, o/o:, adnominal and adverbial particle, approximately 'near by, together with', outside of Aryan and partially even in it fading in meaning, in Germanic arriving at the sense of 'under, after, behind to, back, again, away', *up from (cf. Greek he-gero:, wake up)


E, GENITIVE; though the Sumerian genitive is generally regarded as -ak, it is never written -AK but rather as -a of -Ca (or assimillated to the previous vowel) unless followed by a vowel. E. Sollberger regards, therefore, the ending as -a: e.g. g~irab mah an ki-a, the huge neckstock of heaven and earth; e-2 lugal-la, the house of the king. This mode of formation corresponds to the possessive pronouns: g~u-10, my, from *g~a-2 (FA-'?E), I; zu, your, from *za, you (T?E-'?E); a-ni, his, hers, from *an (?A-NA-'?E); these are theoretical absolutive forms from g~a-2-e, za-e, and a-ne (ergative). The Sumerian forms with -k-, e.g. Nin-G~ir-2-su-ke-4, Ningirsu (ergative) is the result of compounding with aka-2, possession (HHA-'E-KHXO, sea-shell, possession; in Egyptian jx.t, possession; IE e:ik-, own, have the power to [for *a:ik-]). This genitive is also seen in IE in the possessive pronouns: me-yo- (for *ma-yo-), my; and in the Latin and Irish genitives in -i:.


PRONOMINAL

E, I (FIRST PERSON SINGULAR); Twi yɛ, we, our, us


E, YOU (SECOND PERSON SINGULAR [POLITE]); Sumerian e, 2 p. sing.; IE in 1. yu-, you (2nd p. dual and pl.) from *yewa (RH EF); 2nd p. sing. primary -i in Lithuanian dirbi and Old Irish -bir (IE bhera:i), you bear





* * *


O

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic



Chinese initial =y; final accented =i

final unaccented=' (rising tone)



Tibetan =y



Tibeto-Burman: A=ya in bya, bee (P?FA-A)

E=yi



FIST

TESTICLE

SQUEEZE

FORCE

CAUSATIVE

STRONG

HOLD

BODY

O, FIST (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to points below'); Egyptian *h, *fist (Egyptian O4, 'reed shelter in fields', rather 'fist'); Sumerian a-2, arm, power, *fist (J. 628, composed of J. 629, 'right hand with arm', and J. 669, grain, water; since WATER is a (HHA), and PLANT-TOP is *a (?A), we assume that an unrecorded reading of J. 669 is a-x, and that it is being used as a phonetic determinant for FIST, i.e. a (O); a-6, *fist (J. 750 reads a-6, and means 'hand')


O, TESTICLE, MALE, SCROTUM, FORMANT OF MALE NAMES


O-E (+ -like), TESTICULAR


O-E (+ -like), BE PROCREATING; Egyptian h(j), husband; Sumerian 'u-5, lord of the house (J. 95)


O-FA (+ set), PAIR OF TESTICLES


O, BE SQUEEZED, HELD TIGHTLY, FORCED, PRESSED OUT; Sumerian i-3, ia-3, *be pressed out, run, sweat (J. 456 reads i-3, ia-3, and means 'be pressed out, run, sweat')


O, SQUEEZE


O, OIL; Sumerian i-3, fat (J. 456)


?O, (MAGICALLY) STRONG


GRAMMATICAL


ADPOSITIONAL

O, TO UNDER, DOWN TO (PREVERB); IE e/e:, o/o:, adnominal and adverbial particle, approximately 'near by, together with' outside of Aryan and partially even in it fading in meaning, in Germanic arriving at the sense of 'under, after, behind to, back, again, away'


O, NECESSITY, OBLIGATION, SUBJUNCTIVE; IE subjunctive suffix -yo; causative suffix -yo


O, PROSPECTIVE, Sumerian u-3, prospective prefix (J. 805)


O, RELATIVE; IE yo-, who, which, listed incorrectly under 3. e-, the, he; Sumerian i-3 or ia-3, normal prefix of verbal forms (J. 456); Akkadian i-, prefix of verbal forms; Arabic ya-, prefix of imperfective verbs (cf. also ?ayyu, which of)


O, OBJECT






* * *







- F -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: F=w

-A-FA-'A ài; -A-FA-HHA-'A ài


Tibetan FO=b


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) FA=wa; ?-wa becomes ?(-)u possibly





FA


PALM

LEAF

FRAGILE

CIRCLE

NUMERALS

NEST

TOPICAL

BODY

FA, PALM, FINGER; (secondary) Egyptian *w, *palm (Egyptian M42, 'flower', really 'leaf'); Sumerian u, finger, hand (for *palm) (J. 750)


FA, NAVEL


FA, FLACCID PENIS (POSSIBLY FORESKIN [ROUND DEPRESSION]); Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) wa, man, father, husband, person


-FA, (MASCULINE); Egyptian -w; Sumerian -a; IE -o, masculine termination; -o, nomina agentis


PLANT

FA, LEAF; Sumerian u-2, leaves, plant (J. 593)


FA, GREEN; Chinese wā, frog (green?)


FA, CIRCLE


-FA, (FORMER OF NUMERALS)


FA, NUMBER, MARK CONSTITUTING A QUANTITY, COMPLETE, NOT DISCRETELY COUNTABLE


GRAMMATICAL

-FA, (INANIMATE DEFINITE SMALL PLURAL), SET; Egyptian -.w, masculine plural; IE -u in nominative, accusative, and vocative masculine and feminine dual of o-stems; IE -u in -u: of u-stems; IE -6 of consonantal stems; IE in -ous (genitive dual)


-FA, (PASSIVE PERFECTIVE - Stem VIII)


-FA, (PERFECTIVE} PARTICIPLE); Egyptian -w, perfective participle; in Sumerian, it can be seen only indirectly, as in ME-FA, name, from ME, be announcing (mu, name, J. 102); in Indo-European -' in tNn--s, stretched, thin, from ten-, stretch out, lengthen (Brugmann 1972: II, 312-18)


FA, FORMANT OF COLOR AND OTHER QUALITY ADJECTIVES


FA, INANIMATE FREQUENTATIVE/ITERATIVE (DO REPEATEDLY [TO COMPLETION])


-FA, NOMINAL TOPICAL


FA, ROUND


FA, BIRD'S NEST, EGG, NESTLING, BIRD; Egyptian w, *egg (Egyptian G43, 'quail chick', rather 'chick recently hatched from egg'); Sumerian u-5, bird (J. 123) {1}; Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) wa, bird, feather; ?u (if ?- is a prefix), egg, sit on eggs


FA, FLATLY CIRCULAR (DEPRESSION)


FA, (FORMER OF BIRD NAMES); IE -u/w in a number of bird names like English daw or mew







* * *


FE


TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: F=w

-A-FA-'A ài; -A-FA-HHA-'A ài


Tibetan FO=b


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) FA=wa; ?-wa becomes ?(-)u possibly


MUSCLE

ENERGETIC

VINE

AGENTIVE

BODY

FE, MUSCLE, STRENGTH (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved from a circle' [unwound])


FE, UNWIND


VEGETABLE

FE, VINE, TENDRIL, TUBULARLY ROUND


GRAMMATICAL

FE, AGENTIVE; Egyptian -w, agentive







* * *


FO


TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: F=w

-A-FA-E ài; -A-FA-HHA-E ài


Tibetan FO=b


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) FA=wa; ?-wa becomes ?(-)u possibly


EAR

HEAR

CURL

THOU

BODY

FO, EAR, CIRCULAR BORDER OF A DEPRESSION/HOLE; Sumerian dialectal wa, *ear (J. 688 reads wa, and means 'ear')


FO, CURL, SURROUND, POSSIBLY FORESKIN, WILT (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to a circle')


FO-T?SE (+ finger), TAIL; IE in wedhel-, tail, listed incorrectly under 10. a(w)e-, blow, etc.


FO-T?SE, WAG


FO, CURL (LOCK, TRESS) OF WOOL


FO, HEAR


GRAMMATICAL

FO, I (FIRST PERSON SINGULAR [POLITE]); Egyptian in w(j), I, me; in Old Perfective 1st p. pl. -wn; Sumerian g~a-2(-e), I (1st p. sing.) ; IE 1. we/e:-, we (dual), wei- (plural) (for *wo/o:- and *woi-) ; in thematic 1st p. sing. present -o: (for *-wo:); Chinese w, I, we


FO, THOU, YOU (SECOND PERSON SINGULAR); IE in oblique cases of 1. yu-, you [plural], we/e:s, wo/o:s







* * *







- F H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: FH=f


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) FHA=wa





FHA



WOLF

WIND

WAIL

ENCIRCLE

AROUND

ANIMAL

FHA, WOLF, PREDATOR (animate: literally, 'who is in movement in a circle'); Sumerian u-5, dog (J. 123); Tibeto-Burman in wan, jackal, wolf, dhole, wild dog


FHA-E (+ -like), WOLFLIKE; Egyptian jw (for *wj), dog


KHE-FHA (grey +), WILD DOG; Sumerian ka-5, *wild dog (J. 657 reads ka-5, and has other readings meaning 'fox' [lub/p] and [puh], 'lion' [lu-5], 'wild boar' [lul], 'jackal' [e-11], 'weasel' [ar] and [ka-5 for ka-6], and 'dog' [lib/p {for *klip}] - it means 'pest'); IE k^wo:- in Cornish ki, dog, listed under k^won-, dog


ANIMATE NATURE

FHA, WIND


FHA, SURROUND, BE AROUND, BE ASSEMBLED IN A CIRCLE, ENCIRCLE


PREPOSITIONAL

FHA, AROUND; in IE w6g- : wa:g-, be bent, in Latin vagor, -a:ri, roam about, spread out


GRAMMATICAL

-FHA, (SMALL ANIMATE DEFINITE PLURAL), (HUNTING) PACK; Egyptian -w, masculine plural; IE V:u in nominative, accusative, and vocative masculine and feminine dual of o-stem (-o:u); Sumerian u-5, *mass (J. 123 reads u-5, and means 'mass')


-FHA, (ANIMATE FREQUENTATIVE), DO AGAIN


-FHA, (REFLEXIVE PERFECTIVE - Stem VII)






* * *

FHE





TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: F=w

-A-FA-E ài; -A-FA-HHA-E ài


Tibetan FO=b


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) FA=wa; ?-wa becomes ?(-)u possibly


SPIDER

WEAVE

SUN

ENLARGE

CLOTHING

ANIMAL

FHE, SPIDER (animate: literally, 'who moves himself from a circle'); Sumerian u-13 (for -x), spider (J. 717 reads u-13, and means 'insect, vermin, venom', and depicts a spider-web)


ANIMAL

FHE, SUN (AS SPIDER); Sumerian u-4, sun (J. 684)


VERBAL - EFFECTIVE

FHE, BE ENLARGED







* * *

FHO





TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: F=w

-A-FA-'A ài; -A-FA-HHA-'A ài


Tibetan FO=b


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) FA=wa; ?-wa becomes ?(-)u possibly


HARE

TREMBLING

SWIFT

HURRY

RING

ASSEMBLY

ANIMAL

FHO, HARE (animate: literally, 'who moves himself (in)to a circle' (burrow)


VERBAL - EFFECTIVE

FHO, BE ASSEMBLING IN A CIRCLE


FHO, ASSEMBLY; Sumerian u-4, meeting (J. 684); u-5, assemblage (J. 123), u-8, herd (J. 850); u-12, people (J. 578)







* * *







- H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial HA=ya; initial HE=e









HA



AIR

HOLLOW

PANT

VAGINA

FEMALE

ON

STATIVE


ANIMATE NATURE

HA, AIR, (animate: literally, 'who is in movement on (across) the top'); IE *a:- in Greek as, breath


HA, INHALED AIR, BREATHE; Sumerian a-2, strength (better: physical energy), *air, lung-power (a person's wind) (J.628)


HA, SKY


ANIMAL

HA, EXHALE(R), GOOSE, DUCK; Chinese yā, duck


ADJECTIVAL

HA, EMPTY, HOLLOW


HA, VAGINA


GRAMMATICAL

-HA, (FEMININE TERMINATION); IE feminines in -a:; Arabic feminine -ah(t)


ADPOSITIONAL

HA, ON, AT (in movement at a stationary point across from/on top of); Sumerian locative -a (for *-ā); IE *a/*a: (listed under 1. e/e:, o/o:), *at (cf. Sanskrit ā, at)


HA, ANIMATE STATIVE ('BE A [NOUN})'; ACTIONAL CONTINUITIVE [last/persist in an activity])







* * *



HE



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese ?=y


Tibetan ?=


RIVER

DESCEND

SINK

DISAPPEAR

ERGATIVE

DOWN

ANIMATE NATURE

HE, RIVER (animate: literally, 'who moves himself from the top of' [cascades down]))


HE, LOUSE; Sumerian 'i-2 (for *'), louse, insect (beetle) (J. 717)


HE, DESCEND; Sumerian e-11(d) (Comb. 3095 = J. 809 + 410), descend; Chinese ē, play up to, pander to


HE, GO, LEAVE, DISAPPEAR; IE in 1. ei- (for *e:i-, cf. Old Prussian e:it, goes), go


GRAMMATICAL

-HE, (RELATIVE FUTURE); Egyptian -j, 3rd p. sing. Old Perfective; in -kj, 1st p. sing. Old Perfective; in -tj, 2nd p. sing. Old Perfective; nomina agentis in -j; imperfective active participles in -j (HE) and -jj ('HE-E); Sumerian mru 3rd p. sing. transitive in -e (Yoshikawa); imperfective participle in -e; IE optative in -ye: and -i/i:; 3rd p. sing. perfect -e; 1st p. sing. perfect in -a (K?E-HE XE -a); 2nd p. sing. -tha (THO-HE THE -tha); imperfective participle in -y(o); nomina agentis in -i


-HE, (ERGATIVE); Sumerian -e, ergative; IE <: in nominative (really ergative) forms where the vocative shows the original intransitive 'subject' form: N. p6t:r (PHO-THO-RO-HE) - V. p6ter- (PHO-THO-'RO); N. k^(u)wo:n - V. k^u(w)on


ADPOSITIONAL

HE, DOWN FROM THE TOP; IE 1. e/e:, o/o:, away







* * *


HO



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese ?=y


Tibetan ?=


LION

ODOR

HEAT

YELLOW

CHARGE

ANIMAL

HO, LION (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to the top of (straddles)')


ANIMATE NATURE

HO, (ROTTEN) ODOR


ANIMATE NATURE

HO, SUN, STAR


HO, HEAT, LIGHT, HOT; IE *o-, to be hot, in Hittite a-, to be hot


HO, YELLOW


VERBAL

HO, (CAUSE TO) GO ONTO, CHARGE, STRADDLE, TACKLE, APPROACH, PUSH ONTO


ADPOSITIONAL

HO, ACROSS TO THE TOP; IE o/o: (listed under 1. e/e:, o/o:), to, with







* * *







- H H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: HH= (not indicated in writing)


Tibetan HHA=H








HHA



WATER

CLEAR

QUAFF

WATERS

SWEET

CAUCASIAN

UNDER

ANIMATE NATURE

HHA, WATER CURRENT (animate: literally, 'who is in movement underneath/below'); Sumerian a, water (J. 949); in(?) Nama , drink


VERBAL - AFFECTIVE

HHA, BE SWEET; Sumerian a-10, sweet (J. 658 means 'sweet', and reads a-10)


HHA, SEMEN; Sumerian a, semen (J. 949)


HHA, MANY; Egyptian j- in old demonstrative plurals, jpn, these


HHA, MOVE


GRAMMATICAL

HHA, (INDEFINITE ANIMATE INCLUSIVE PLURAL); IE -: in nominative, accusative, and vocative masculine and feminine dual of o-stems (-o:)


-HHA, (REFLEXIVE DURATIVE - Stem V)


-HHA, (COLLECTIVE); IE -a:, collective


ADPOSITIONAL

HHA, UNDER, BELOW







* * *


HHE



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic


Chinese initial =y; final accented =i

final unaccented=' (rising tone)


Tibetan =y


Tibeto-Burman: A=ya in bya, bee (P?FA-A)

E=yi


SMOKE

REDDISH

COPPER

BLADE

GO

ANIMATE NATURE

HHE, SMOKE (animate: literally, 'who moves himself from below'); Sumerian i, smoke (J. 270)


HHE, GO (UP) OUT OF/FROM UNDER, COME, APPEAR, RISE; Egyptian j(j), come; Sumerian e-3, come (up) out (J. 684 (sun) + J. 410); Arabic Hayya/yaHayyu, live (cf. Hayya hal, make haste)


HHE, MIST, MOISTURE


HHE, OTTER, BEAVER


HHE, TICK









* * *




- HHO -

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic


Chinese initial =y; final accented =i

final unaccented=' (rising tone)


Tibetan =y


Tibeto-Burman: E=ya in bya, bee (P?FA-E)

E=yi





SNAKE

WORM

SUBMERGE

LIE DOWN

REST

ANIMAL

HHO, SNAKE, EEL, BEAR (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to below')


HHO, DIVE(R), SUBMERGE


HHO, WASH ONE'S SELF, BATHE; Sumerian u-5, wash one's self, bathe (J. 123)


VERBAL - AFFECTIVE

HHO, FALL DOWN, FINISH, REST, SLEEP, HIBERNATE, DIE; Sumerian u-3, sleep, rest (J. 805)







* * *







- K ? -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: K?=j; final K?=ng


Tibetan K?A-HHA=ga


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) K?A=ka (possibly *ga devoiced by prefix)







K?A



JAW

CHEW

CUP

SING

CLAP

HOOF

VULVA

KNEECAP

BODY

K?A, JAW (inanimate: literally, 'what is at rest at back'); Sumerian ga-14, *jaw (J. 15 reads ga-14, and means 'mouth'); Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) (s-)ka (possibly *ga devoiced by s-), jaw, chin


VERBAL

K?A, BE CHEWED; Sumerian ga-4, *chew apart (J. 970 reads ga-4, and means 'chew apart')


K?A, HAPPY


MINERAL

K?A, CUP; Egyptian *k, *cup; (Egyptian V31, 'wickerwork basket with handle`); Sumerian ga, *cup (J. 594 reads ga, and depicts a milk-bucket'); ga-5, measure of capacity (J. 103)


K?A, VULVA, WOMB


K?A, KNEECAP







* * *


K?E

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: K?=j; final K?=ng


Tibetan K?A-HHA=ga


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) K?A=ka (possibly *ga devoiced by prefix)



PENIS

OPEN

RETURN

BOW

STIFF

POKE

I

BODY

K?E, ERECT PENIS, FORMANT FOR NAMES OF MALES, TAIL (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved from the back')


K?E, SPROUT, SPLIT OPEN


PRONOMINAL

K?E, I (MASCULINE); in Egyptian -k(j), 1st p. sing. of Old Perfective


K?E, BE BOWED FORWARD, BENT OVER


K?E, BE STIFF


K?E, (STRAIGHTENED) FINGER


K?E, STICK (INTO), POKE, CALL ATTENTION TO VERBALLY





* * *


K?O

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: K?=j; final K?=ng


Tibetan K?A-HHA=ga


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) K?A=ka (possibly *ga devoiced by prefix)



NECK

SHOUT

TWIST

ROPE

HOIST

BODY

K?O, NECK (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to the back' [twisted]); Sumerian gu-2, neck (J. 171)


K?O, TWIST


K?O-E (+ -like), BE TWISTING; IE gei-, turn, bend; Sumerian ge/i-16, bind (J. 110)


K?O-FA (+ past participle), TWISTED; IE gou-, *be twisted (cf. gou-no-m, what is curled, arched; gou-ro-s, curled hair, wool), listed under ge:u- (for *gou-), bend, crimp, arch


?A (PLANT-TOP)+, ?A-K?O, TIE UP (FOR TRANSPORT); PIE ag^-, drive (really probably 'drive by swinging arms', swing, set into motion, lead, weigh, send? (cf. ak-to-s, emissary, 'one sent around'?); Egyptian jT, take (possession of), conduct, carry off, remove, arrest, move, steal; Sumerian ag-2, send; confused with ?A-K?E, PROD, PLANT







* * *







- K H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Austronesian: KH=k


Chinese: KH=g


Tibetan: KHE=khy

KHE-'E=khyi


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff): KHA=ga (possibly *ka, voiced by prefix)

KH(E)-FHA=kwɢ








KHA

GOAT

HAIRY

CHEESE

LUST

HORN

COMB

ANIMAL

KHA, (KASHMIR) GOAT, RUMINANT, MOUFLON SHEEP, (POSSIBLY FOX)(animate: literally, 'who is in movement at the back')


KHA-K?E (+ male), BILLY-GOAT; IE kag^o-, (billy-)goat


VERBAL

KHA, (STRONGLY) DESIRE, LUST, VOLITIVE; Sumerian ga, cohortative prefix (really volitive); IE ka, particle, perhaps somewhat "well", listed under ka/a:-; Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) (m-)ga (possibly *ka, voiced by prefix), want, thing, love


KHA, HORN, SPIRAL, WIND AROUND







* * *


KHE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: K?=j; final K?=ng


Tibetan K?A-HHA=ga


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) K?A=ka (possibly *ga devoiced by prefix)



SHADOW

GRAY

NEARBY

OTHER

BROTHER

ALTER

CANINE

GORE

ANIMATE NATURE

KHE, SHADOW (animate: literally, 'who moves himself from the back'); Egyptian N2-3, 'sky with a broken (?) w3s-sceptre suspended from it', RATHER 'sky with zigzag spear symbolizing lightning and droplet of rain'; Egyptian k3, soul, in early spellings, is written simply k (and as a plural: kkk for k.w); this strongly suggests that Egyptian *k, shadow, was in competition with k3 (KHE-?A-RA) as a designation for the spirit or ghost of a man; Sumerian ge-6, night, black, shadow (J. 770)


KHE, OTHER; IE k^e, *other, listed under k^o-, k^e, pronominal stem 'this', originally I-deictic, later also 'that'; Armenian k'ez, to you


KHE, BROTHER; Chinese gē, (elder) brother; in gēr, brothers, boys; Proto-Yao k≫, older brother


KHE, GORE







* * *


KHO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: K?=j; final K?=ng


Tibetan K?A-HHA=ga


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) K?A=ka (possibly *ga devoiced by prefix)




YOUNG

BROWN

COVER

ANIMAL

KHO, ANIMAL YOUNG, SMALL, FORMANT OF DIMINUTIVES; (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to the back' (around the neck?), i.e. '[self-]coverer'); Egyptian G47, 'duckling'; IE diminutive in -ko


VERBAL

KHO, COVER (WITH BLOOD FROM PROCESS OF MAMMALIAN BIRTH)


KHO, NEST; Chinese gā, *depression, in gāzhiwō, armpit, and gālr, nook, cranny







* * *







- K ? X -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: K?X=q

K?XA qi; K?XE qi; K?XO qu


Tibetan K?XA/O=g; initial K?XE=gy


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) K?XO=ku
K?XE=g; K?XE-"HHA=ga








K?XA



HAIR

FRIGHTENED

HAIRLESS

NEGRO

HANG

OVERFLOW

BEHIND

BODY

K?XA, HAIR (inanimate: literally, 'what is extended over points in back'); Sumerian ka-3, *hair, wool (J. 594 reads ka-3, and means 'hair, wool')


VERBAL

K?XA, HANG; Chinese qī, (of birds) perch, dwell, stay


PREPOSITIONAL

K?XA, BEHIND; IE *gha in g^ho:, behind, after, on account of







* * *


K?XE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: K?X=q

K?XA qi; K?XE qi; K?XO qu


Tibetan K?XA/O=g; initial K?XE=gy


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) K?XO=ku

K?XE=g; K?XE-"HHA=ga




FACE

BARE

WINTER

ANT

YEARN

SCRAPE

BODY

K?XE, FACE, FACIAL FEATURES (inanimate: literally, 'what is extended from points in back'); Egyptian *H, *face (Gardiner D2, 'face')


K?XE, BARE


K?XE, GAPE


VERBAL

K?XE, SPLIT OPEN/OFF (Egyptian M16, 'clump of papyrus')







* * *


K?XO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: K?X=q

K?XA qi; K?XE qi; K?XO qu


Tibetan K?XA/O=g; initial K?XE=gy


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) K?XO=ku

K?XE=g; K?XE-"HHA=ga




THROAT

SHADE

FALSE

PLANTS

ENTER

FALL

BODY

K?XO, THROAT, PASSAGE, TUNNEL (inanimate: literally, 'what is extended to points in back'); Sumerian ka, *throat (J. 15 reads ka, and means 'mouth' but ku-x); Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) ku(w), mouth

MINERAL

K?XO, (TUBULAR) HOLE, SHADE, BLACK, EMPTY; Sumerian ka-4, hole (J. 103); for ku-x (v. supra)







* * *







- K H X -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: KHX=k


Tibetan: KHXA=k


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) initial KHX(A)=k


initial KHX(E)=k(y)? ko






KHXA


BEE

SWEET

HIVE

SLAP

HURT

STING

BURN

HUM

ANIMAL

KHXA, BEE, (animate: literally, 'who extends himself over points in back' [hangs in a hive]); Japanese ka, mosquito


VERBAL - AFFECTIVE/EFFECTIVE

KHXA, BURNING SENSATION


VERBAL - EFECTIVE

KHXA, STING, STICK


MO, BE SLIPPED OVER, TOUCHED, FELT; Chinese mō, feel, stroke, touch







* * *







- M H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: MH=m


Tibetan MHA=m








MHA



ANT

NIBBLE

PULVERIZE

ACTIVE

RIGHT

HAND

WAVE

OCCUPY

ANIMAL

MHA, ANT, posssibly BISON (animate: literally,'who is in movement on an area' [anthill])


MHA, BITE/NIBBLE OFF


MHA, CEASELESSLY ACTIVE; Sumerian ma, cultivate (J. 639)


MHA, RIGHT HAND


MHA, HOLD


-MHA, FORMER OF TOOLS AND PROFESSIONS


MHA, BE SLAPPED, POUNDED


MHA, SIGNAL, WAVE, GESTICULATE, WARN; IE 1. ma:-, signal with the hand


MHA, OWL; Egyptian *m, *owl (Egyptian G17, 'owl'); IE in vulgar Latin amma, owl, listed under am(m)a, ami/i:, mother (from h-ma???)


MHA, OCCUPANT, DWELLER


MHA, BE PRESENT


MHA, GIVE, OFFER ON HAND







* * *



M H E

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: M=m


Tibetan ME=m


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) ME-E=mi




EEL

SOFT

OUTSTANDING

MOUSE

ANIMAL

MHE, EEL, HYRAX(?), NEW MOON(?), (TAPE-)WORM(?), ANTELOPE/GAZELLE(?) (animate: literally,'who moves himself from an area'); Sumerian me-8, *hyrax(?) (J. 688 reads me-8, and depicts a long-eared animal)


MHE, SOFT, SMOOTH, GENTLE


VERBAL

MHE, SINGLE ONE'S SELF OUT, MOVE OFF OF; Sumerian *me, hero (me is an unrecognized reading of mu, (J. 102); cf. mu-lu-2, human, Akkadian amlu); mi-6, heavy (J. 791); IE 4. me:-, great, notable


MHE, MOUSE







* * *




M H O

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: M=m



GIRAFFE

HORSE TO

WANDER

RIDE

INATTENTIVE

WHINNY

ANIMAL

MHO, GIRAFFE ('who rubs'), HORSE (perhaps from 'long necks'), perhaps, *ORYX; Chinese m, horse


MHO, perhaps RIDE


MHO, WANDER, NOMAD, SPREAD OUT OVER EVENLY (GIRAFFE BEHAVIOR)






* * *







- N -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: N=n


Tibetan NE=ny


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) NA=na







NA




NOSTRIL

SNIFF

SNIVEL

SNORT

ROCK

ARROW

THING

INSIDE

BODY

NA, NASAL PASSAGE, NOSTRIL, NOSE (inanimate: literally, 'what is at rest inside`); Egyptian *n, *nose, proposed reading of Gardiner U20, which portrays a 'nose'; and is not an O.K. form of U19; Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) (s-)na, nose; in s-na:r, nose


NA, SMALL BALL OF DRIED NASAL MUCUS, KNOT, (WATER-)DROP, DRIP


MINERAL

NA, ROCK (JAGGED); Sumerian na-4, stone, jewel (J. 453); Old Indian na, jewel, pearl, and nu, weapon (stones?) (both lexigraphic mention only)


GRAMMATICAL

NA, (DEFINITE INANIMATE SINGULAR); ONE OF TWO(?)/MANY


-NA, (PASSIVE INGRESSIVE - Stem IV)


-NA, INANIMATE FACTITIVE; 'cause to be adjective'


PREPOSITIONAL

NA, INSIDE, INTERIOR







* * *


NE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: N=n


Tibetan NE=ny


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) NA=na




MUCUS

OOZE

RID

STICKY

SLACK

BODY

NE, NASAL MUCUS (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved from inside'); EGYPTIAN SIGN:(Egyptian D41, 'forearm with palm of hand downwards')


VERBAL

NE, BE EMPTIED


VERBAL

NE, BE STUCK, CLING TO


NE, HANG DOWN SLACKLY







* * *



NO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: N=n


Tibetan NE=ny


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) NA=na



STOMACH

PASSION

VIGOR

STORE

NEGATING

COLLECTION

BASKET

BODY

NO, STOMACH (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to inside'); EGYPTIAN SIGN: (Egyptian W24, 'bowl' [or *basket]); in Sumerian nu-6-nu-6, womb (Comb. 684 = 2x J. 133); in nu-6-me-da-6, interpreter of oracles (Comb. 691 = J. 133 + J. 889 (me) + J. 219 (da-6); translated Akkadian bl tirti)(cf. *newi- in Old Irish no'id, “makes known”, under 2. neu-, “give a kick or jerk”)


NO, PASSION, COURAGE, FEE EMOTION, INNER WILL


VERBAL

NO, BE STORED, PUT AWAY/INSIDE, DISCONTINUE, LIE DOWN


GRAMMATICAL

NO, (CATEGORICAL NEGATION), IE 1. ne, ne:, nei (for *no/6, *now, *no/6i), which represent NO-E and NO-FA - English no (no:) and Latin no:n, among others, show that no: (from *now) should also be reconstructed)


-NO, FORMANT OF COMMON COLLECTIVE PLURAL


PLANT

NO, BASKET, BOWL, HANGING NEST, JAR







* * *







- N H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Austronesian NHAHH=la


Chinese initial NHA=n; NHE=l; NHO=l;

initial (S)NH=n; final NH=n


Tibetan NHA/O=l; NHE=ny


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) NHA=l






NHA




WAVE

ANXIOUS

HAPPY

GLITTER

MEMBER

VIBRATE

SAIL

LICK

HIDE

ANIMATE NATURE

NHA, WAVE, possibly WATER-BUFFALO or DUIKER (animate: literally, 'who is in movement inside'); EGYPTIAN SIGN: (N35, 'ripple of water'); Egyptian *n, *wave (N35, 'ripple of water'); Sumerian na-3, *water (J. 159 pictures a cultivated field with water for irrigation)


NHA, ANXIOUS (TO DO), FIDGET FROM IMPATIENCE TO COMMENCE, COMMENCE, ABOUT TO DO = INCEPTIVE


NHA, GLITTER, GIVE OFF COLOR, VIBRATE


NHA, GUST (OF WIND)


ANIMAL

NHA, INSECT LARVA


ANIMAL

NHA, MEMBER; Sumerian na-6, human (J. 611)


NHA, MEMBERSHIP


VERBAL

NHA, MOVE AROUND INSIDE, PUSH, MOVE BACK AND FORTH, VIBRATE, DUCK/DIVE INTO


ANIMAL

NHA, CATERPILLAR


PREPOSITIONAL

NHA, INSIDE


GRAMMATICAL

-NHA, (ANIMATE DEFINITE SINGULAR [ONE OF TWO{?}])


NHA, (REFLEXIVE INGRESSIVE - Stem III), CAUSE ONE'S SELF TO BECOME ADJECTVE


NHA, NOMEN AGENTIS


NHA, NOMEN INSTRUMENTI


NHA, INCEPTIVE







* * *



NHE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: N=n


Tibetan NE=ny



WORM

ENTWINE

LOOSE

SAW

DEPRECATIVE

SMALL

SLIDE

ANIMAL

NHE, WORM (animate: literally, 'who moves himself from inside'); EGYPTIAN SIGN: (Egyptian R24, 'two bows tied in a package', rather 'chastity belt'; or M22, 'rush with shoots')


VERBAL

NHE, ENTWINE


NHE, BE SLACK, LOOSE, COME APART


NHE, LITTLE, FORMANT OF DEPRECATIVES; IE -lo(:), diminutive


NHE, SLIP, SLIDE/GLIDE (THROUGH)







* * *


NHO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: N=n


Tibetan NE=ny




FOX

BURROW

STRIPE

STRIP

ADZE

ANIMAL

NHO, FOX, OSTRICH, SNAIL (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to inside'); EGYPTIAN SIGN: (Egyptian U19, 'adze')


NHO, BURROW IN, ELUDE, TRICK


NHO, AVOID, DENY


NHO, STRIPE LEFT BY TRAIL OF SNAIL







* * *







- P ? -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Austronesian P?AF=pu


Chinese: P?=zh

P?A-'A-A chāi; P?A-'A-RHE ch; P?A-'A-RHE-FA chào


Tibetan P?E=c


Tibeto-Burman P?A=ba

P?O=








P?A



BUTTOCK

PELT

SEAT

HALF

PART

PLAIT

DIMINUTIVE

BODY

P?A, ANAL CLEFT, BUTTOCK (inanimate: literally, 'what is at rest at a spot'); Sumerian ba-3, part of the intestine (J. 823)


P?A, MAT, PELT; Egyptian p(/), mat; Sumerian ba-3, mat, pelt (J. 823 reads ba-3, and means 'sunset')


P?A, SEAT; Egyptian p, base for a statue, *seat (Egyptian Q3, 'stool of reed matting'); Sumerian ba-3, *seat (J. 823 reads ba-3, and means 'sunset')


VERBAL

P?A, BE SEATED; Chinese zhā, prick, run or stick (a needle, etc.) into, plunge into, get into


P?A, BE SITTING; Sumerian ba-3, *sit (J. 823 reads ba-3, and means 'sunset')


P?A, HALF, PIECE; Sumerian ba-3, piece (J. 823); ba, piece (J. 5); Tibeto-Burman ?-ba1, patch


VERBAL

P?A, PART


GRAMMATICAL

P?A, (PARTITIVE INANIMATE SINGULAR ARTICLE), SOME


P?A, (PASSIVE DIMINUTIVE - Stem II)


P?A, INANIMATE DIMINUTIVE







* * *


P?E

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Austronesian P?AF=pu


Chinese: P?=zh

P?A-'A-A chāi; P?A-'A-RHE ch; P?A-'A-RHE-FA chào


Tibetan P?E=c


Tibeto-Burman P?A=ba

P?O=




URINE

POUR

PENIS

KIDNEY

BODY

P?E, URINE (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved from a spot'); Sumerian be, *urine (J. 112 reads be, and means 'groundwater')


VERBAL

P?E, BE POURED OUT


P?E, RANK







* * *


P?O

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Austronesian P?AF=pu


Chinese: P?=zh

P?A-'A-A chāi; P?A-'A-RHE ch; P?A-'A-RHE-FA chào


Tibetan P?E=c


Tibeto-Burman P?A=ba

P?O=





CHEEK

TUSK

SWELL

MOUTH

KISS

BEAD

BUBBLE

BUD

GROW

NEW

BODY

P?O, CHEEK (ANAL also BUCCAL) (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to a spot'); Sumerian bu-4, cheek (J. 867); IE 2. b(e)u- (for *bo[u]-), blow up, swell, *cheek


VERBAL

P?O, SWOLLEN, STRETCHED; Sumerian bu, flare up (J. 675)


P?O, BUBBLE


P?O, BLOW UP, INFLATE, GROW LARGE


P?O, BUD(DED)







* * *







- P H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Austronesian -PHA=-p; -PHAHH=-p; PHO-=p-


Chinese initial PH=b


Tibetan PHE=ph


Sino-Tibetan (Starostin) PHE=phj








PHA


FLEA

FLAT

FOLD

SPEARHEAD

OPEN

WING

DEVOUR

ANIMAL

PHA, FLEA, TURTLE, TICK (CHIGGER/CHIGOE) (animate: literally, 'who is in movement at a spot'); Sumerian ba-9, *flea (J. 112 reads ba-9, and means 'moth')


PHA, FLAT


PHA, OPEN (MAKE COVERING FLAT)


PHA, WING


PHA-HE (+ go), FLY; Egyptian *pj, fly (Egyptian G40, 'pintail duck flying); Sumerian be, *fly (J.112 reads be, and means 'moth`); IE pei- (for *pae:-), in pei-m(i)-, hasty, quick (PHA-HE-MO, QUICK)


PHA-THO (+ assemblage), WING(S); Sumerian bad/t, *wing (J. 112 reads bad/t, and one early sign from which it was developed portrays wings in flight; cf. the reading ziz, moth); IE pto(:)-, *wing (cf. pto:-to-, falling), listed under 2. pet-, plunge or plunge down upon, fly, fall


PHA, FLATTEN BY GRAZING, DEVOUR


PHA, BITE INTO


PHA, FLATTEN A PATH BY GOING FIRST, BE AT THE FRONT/FIRST


ADPOSITIONAL

PHA, (MOTIONLESS) OVER; Egyptian in pHr.t, course, pHrr, run; IE in pi, to nearby, upon, to, listed under epi-, to nearby, etc.


GRAMMATICAL

PHA, (PLUPERFECT); Sumerian ba-, verbal prefix (J. 5); IE *pa, *over (cf. Albanian pa, before), listed under 2. per-, leading out of and over


-PHA, (INDEFINITE ANIMATE SINGULAR)


-PHA, (REFLEXIVE DIMINUTIVE - Stem I)


PHA, DIMINUTIVE, LITTLE







* * *


PHE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Austronesian -PHA=-p; -PHAHH=-p; PHO-=p-


Chinese initial PH=b


Tibetan PHE=ph


Sino-Tibetan (Starostin) PHE=phj



MOUSE

ASHEN

QUIVER

REDUCE

THIN

DUST

ANIMAL

PHE, MOUSE (animate: literally, 'who moves himself from a spot' ['urinator')


VERBAL

PHE, QUIVER


PHE, NIBBLE OFF, REDUCE


PHE, THIN


PHE, FOUL ODOR


PHE, SQUEAK, PEEP


PHE, (SAW)DUST


PHE, CLEAN BY SWEEPING







* * *


PHO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Austronesian -PHA=-p; -PHAHH=-p; PHO-=p-


Chinese initial PH=b


Tibetan PHE=ph


Sino-Tibetan (Starostin) PHE=phj



VENOMOUS

PUFF

SCENT

LUNG

LEAD

AHEAD

ANIMAL

PHO, VENOMOUS SNAKE (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to a spot' ['swells'); Egyptian *f, *venomous snake (Egyptian I9, 'horned viper`); Sumerian bu, snake (J. 675); Ancient Chinese ba, snake (39 a.)


VERBAL

PHO, PUFF; Sumerian bu, blow (J. 675); Chinese ba, draw on (pull at) one's pipe, etc.


PHO, SNIFF


ANIMAL

PHO, TOAD


PHO, MOVE TO A SPOT, LEAD


ADVERBIAL

PHO, AHEAD


PRONOMINAL

PHO, HE (Egyptian ONLY); Egyptian -f in sDm.f conjugation







* * *







- P ? F -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: P?F=ch {tshh}


Tibetan: P?FA=ba


Tibeto-Burman: P?FA=bya







P?FA


CHIN

PROMINENT

WHITE

SHINY

LOUD

WHISPER

OUTSIDE

PHALLUS

WELT

BEARD

BARLEY

GRIT

BODY

P?FA, CHIN, BE PROMINENT (inanimate: literally, 'what extends at the surface'); Chinese chā, difference, dissimilarity


P?FA, BE PROMINENT, ILL-BEHAVED, LOUD


P?FA, PROJECT, STAND OUT, EDGE, BRUISE


P?FA, WELT


P?FA, BEARD


P?FA, SPROUT; Sumerian pa-4, *sprout (J. 101 reads pa-4, and means 'sprout')


P?FA, FOLIAGE; Sumerian pa, foliage, panicle, wing (J. 560)







* * *


P?FE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: P?F=ch {tshh}


Tibetan: P?FA=ba


Tibeto-Burman: P?FA=bya



DIGIT

PEG

EDGED

SPLIT

HOE

FLASH

AROUND

WAKE

PLOUGH

ANIMALS

PROBE

SPOKE

BODY

P?FE, DIGIT TOE/FINGER FOOT, ROOT (inanimate: literally, 'what extends from the surface'); Egyptian *b, *foot (Egyptian D58, 'foot'); Sumerian pi/e, *foot (one of the original signs behind J. 688 depicts a pair of feet - in the phrases pi-apin, plough, and pi-mar, shovel, pi is 'foot' - (a)pin itself is (?A-)P?FE-NA, plant-foot-thing (ploughshare)


P?FE, BARK


P?FE, BE SPLIT


P?FE, CLAM; Chinese chē, giant clam


P?FE, TRACK


-P?FE, (FORMER OF ANIMAL NAMES); IE -bh(o/a:), former of animal names


P?FE, WHEEL(-SPOKE); Chinese chē, vehicle, wheeled machine or instrument, machine,lathe, turn, lift water by waterwheel







* * *


P?FO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: P?F=ch {tshh}


Tibetan: P?FA=ba


Tibeto-Burman: P?FA=bya




LEG

BINDING

FLEE

TRUNK

BEAT

FORK

PLACE

DWELL

BODY

P?FO, LEG (inanimate: literally, 'what extends to the surface')


P?FO, TRUNK, STICK, CLUB, BEAT; Sumerian pa, wood, stick, branch, mace (J. 560); pa-9, *trunk (J. 658 reads pa-9, and depicts a date-palm)


P?FO, FORK; Chinese chā, fork, work with a fork, fork, stick in, insert, interpose, insert


P?FO, BRANCH


P?FO, PLACE; Egyptian b, place


-P?FO, FORMANT OF PLACE NAMES







* * *







- P H F -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial PHF=p {ph}


Tibetan: PHFA=ph; PHFE=ch

PHFA-E-HHA=che











* * *



PHFA



SHEEP

STINK

FUNGUS

SPONGY

FOAM

FERMENT

ALCOHOL

FISH

ANIMAL

PHFA, IBEX, SHEEP (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to points on the surface'; 'who has a beard')); Sumerian pa-8, *sheep (J. 580 reads pa-8,and means 'sheepskin, fleece')


PLANT

PHFA, SPONGE, FUNGUS (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to points on the surface') (cf. the sign accompanying Egyptian bw.t shows a strip of land with two mushrooms; cf. Dutch voos, spongelike, fungal)


PFHA, STINK


PHFA-RHE(+ come), STINK







* * *



PHFE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial PHF=p {ph}


Tibetan: PHFA=ph; PHFE=ch

PHFA-E-HHA=che





SPARK

SPARKLE

IGNITE

SPRAY

BURST

SINGE

OAK

ANIMATE NATURE

PHFE, SPARK, FLAME (animate: literally, 'who is in movement from points on the surface')


VERBAL

EFFECTIVE

PHFE, BURST, SPLIT APART BY ITSELF, DECOMPOSE


PHFE, SPRAY, SPIT


PHFE, SPOTTED HYENA (SPRAYER)







* * *



PHFO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial PHF=p {ph}


Tibetan: PHFA=ph; PHFE=ch

PHFA-E-HHA=che




OX

BIG

FAT

TRAMPLE

ANIMAL

PHFO, OX, CATTLE, possibly ELEPHANT or BUFFALO (BLACK WILDEBEEST) (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to points on the surface' ('who stamps/tramples')); Sumerian pi-6, *cattle (J. 118 reads pi-6, means 'mountain sheep, gazelle, deer, fat, damage', and portrays a horn over a foot imprint); Tibetan pa, *cattle, in pa, cow


VERBAL

PHFO, HEAVY, BIG, POWERFUL


PHFO, STAMP, TRAMPLE, PRESS DOWN HARD ON







* * *







- Q -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial Q=g; final Q=ng


Tibetan QO=q


Sino-Tibetan (Starostin) QE=ghɢ


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) initial Q(E)=g; QE=ka

final Q=ŋ









QA




INTESTINE

LONG

BONES

LOOP

CORNER

INTERIOR

FUNNEL

TUBULAR

WAIST

BODY

QA, INTESTINE (inanimate: literally, 'what is at rest in a ball' ['bent/folded over'); IE ang-, limb, listed under 2. ank-, bend


QA, LONG


QA, (SEMI)CIRCULAR, TUBULAR


QA, BEND OVER, FOLD OVER, LOOP







* * *


QE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial Q=g; final Q=ng


Tibetan QO=q


Sino-Tibetan (Starostin) QE=ghɢ


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) initial Q(E)=g; QE=ka

final Q=ŋ



MILK

CONGEAL

SAP

LIQUIDS

FREEZE

YELLOWISH

ADHERE

BODY

QE, MILK, JUICE, SAP (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved from a ball'); Sumerian g≈e-20, butter (J. 594)


QE, TEAT (secondary)


QE, BE STUCK TOGETHER, CONGEALED, COAGULATED


QE, COAGULATE


QE, FORMANT OF THICK LIQUID NAMES contrasting with HHA, water, THIN LIQUID NAMES





* * *


QO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial Q=g; final Q=ng


Tibetan QO=q


Sino-Tibetan (Starostin) QE=ghɢ


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) initial Q(E)=g; QE=ka

final Q=ŋ


SKULL

GLOBULAR

SOFT

CLOUD

POT

SACK

SCROTA

NARROW

CATCH

LITTER

BODY

QO, SKULL, HEAD, CREATURE (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to a ball'); Sumerian g≈u-3, *skull (J. 15 reads gu-3, and depicts a head)


QO, CUMULUS CLOUD


QO, POT; Egyptian *g, pot (Egyptian W11/12/13, 'ring-stand for jars / red earthenware pot'); Sumerian g≈a, *pot (J. 458 reads ga, and means 'container'); IE *ong- in Greek ggos, pail, woven container, listed under 2. ank-, bend; Chinese gū, wine vessel, beaker, goblet


QO, SACK; Sumerian g≈a-5, *sack (J. 103 reads ga-5, and means 'dry measure'; it also reads il-2 [XE-E-NHA, LEATHER BOTTLE]); IE *ong- in Greek aggos, pail, woven container, listed under 2. ank-, bend


QO, NUT







* * *







- Q H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial QH=g; final QH=ng


Tibetan: initial QHA=k/ng; initial QHE=ky

initial QHE-E=nyi

QHO=k(i)







QHA



CAT

HUMPED

ELEVATED

ANGULAR

HAMMER

EXCELLENT

CROOK

SHRED

SHELL

HUNGER

HOLY

DUNG

ANIMAL

QHA, CAT, WEASEL, CRAB (animate: literally, 'who is in movement at a ball' ('folds himself over'))


VERBAL - AFFECTIVE

QHA, BE HUMPED UP, HILLY, ELEVATED







* * *


QHE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial QH=g; final QH=ng


Tibetan: initial QHA=k/ng; initial QHE=ky


initial QHE-E=nyi
QHO=k(i)


LIZARD

COOL

BUSTLE

FLAME

SPUR

ANIMAL

QHE, COLD-BLOODED ANIMAL, LIZARD, FROG, CROCODILE[?] (animate: literally, 'who moves himself from a ball' ('who is cool'))


QHE, COOL TO THE TOUCH


VERBAL - AFFECTIVE

QHE, BUSTLER, WRIGGLER (from the acute angles a lizard's body makes as it moves by twisting its lower body from side to side)


NATURE

QHE, FLAME; Sumerian e, flame (J. 339)


QHE, SPUR







* * *


QHO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial QH=g; final QH=ng


Tibetan: initial QHA=k/ng; initial QHE=ky


initial QHE-E=nyi
QHO=k(i)


CONSTRICTOR

ENVELOP

THROTTLE

HOOKED

PREVARICATE

ANIMAL

QHO, CONSTRICTOR SNAKE (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to a ball' ('who wraps himself around')); IE *onk- in OHG unc, snake, listed under angw(h)i-, snake, worm


VERBAL - EFFECTIVE

QHO, WRAP ONE'S SELF AROUND; Egyptian *g, *wrap around (Egyptian V33, 'bag of linen', used as a determinative for 'tie up, pack, envelop')


QHO, SNARE, HOOK INTO, BARB; IE *onk- in Latin uncus, barb, listed under 2. ank-, bend







* * *







- R -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: R=l; final R=` (falling tone)


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff): RA=ra


RA-E=ri








RA



SPINE

RIB

STRENGTH

TREE

TALL

ANTLERS

SHOULDER

FLEXIBLE

OVER

BODY

VERTEBRA(E), SPINAL COLUMN, NUGGET, KNOT (inanimate: literally, 'what is at rest above'); Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) (g-)ra, fishbone/spine


PLANT

RA, (CROWN OF THE) TREE, POST (Egyptian M1, 'tree')


VERBAL

RA, TALL, HIGH


RA, TALL, LONG; Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) m-raŋ, high, long


RA, BE FLEXIBLE/FLEXIBLY ATTACHED


RA, SHADE, DIM


ADPOSITIONAL

RA, OVER





* * *



RE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: R=l; final R=` (falling tone)


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff): RA=ra


RA-E=ri




FINGERNAIL

SCRATCH

COUNT

COMB

ROUGH

STRIPED

APPLY

ANY

BODY

RE, FINGER/TOENAIL (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved from above'); (Egyptian D51, 'finger horizontally')


VERBAL

RE, SCRATCH


RE-E, COMB; Sumerian ri-4, *comb (J. 920 reads ri-4, and means 'comb')


RE-E, SCRATCH INTO; Sumerian ri-11, *scratch into (J. 723 reads ri-11, and means 'scratch into'); IE 1. rei-, scratch, rip, cut; Chinese l, plough, work with a plough, plough


MINERAL

RE-E, GRANULE, ROUGH; IE ere:-, *sand, in Old Russian rěn', sandbank, and Old Indian re:N-, dust, listed under d. erei- under 3. er-, put one's self into motion, arouse, raise up; Chinese shā, sand, granulated, powdered, hoarse, husky (of voice)


RE-E, ORE; Sumerian ri-11, ore (J. 723)


RE-E, STRIPED; IE 2. rei-, roi-, in words for brightly striped, speckled


RE-FA (+ frequentative), SCRATCH UP; IE 2. reu-, rip up, dig, root up, rip out, snatch


RE-THO (+ assemblage), PERIOD OF TIME; Egyptian 3t, moment, instant; IE rt-, set time, listed under 1. ar-, stacking wood


RE, CLAW, STIFFLY FLEXIBLE


VERBAL

RE, LET FALL, APPLY, MAKE


A NAME="ANY">

GRAMMATICAL

RE, SMALL INDEFINITE INANIMATE PLURAL, ANY ONE (OF MANY); Sumerian ri-11 (for *re-11), it (J. 723 - usually transcribed ur-5 - means 'scratch' into)


-RE, INANIMATE TRANSFORMATIVE ('CAUSE TO BECOME')







* * *


RO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: R=l; final R=` (falling tone)


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff): RA=ra


RA-E=ri



LIP

BOW

RAISE

SCORE

ADULT

CARRY

PART

BODY

RO, LIP; Egyptian *r, lip (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to above'); (Egyptian D21, 'mouth', rather 'lips')


VERBAL

RO, BE RAISED; Sumerian la-2, raise, hang up (J. 832)


BODY

RO, ADULT; Sumerian la-6, strong (J. 597); lu-2, human (J. 611)


-RO,(INANIMATE COMPARATIVE, 'MORE'); Egyptian -r; Sumerian -l; cf. la, fullness (J. 96); IE -(e)ro, comparative suffix


MINERAL

RO, PART; Sumerian la, shard (J. 96)


RO, RAISE VOICE, CALL OUT


RO, OPEN BY RAISING


GRAMMATICAL

-RO, NOMEN INSTRUMENTI; Egyptian -r; Sumerian -l; IE -ro, nomina instrumenti


-RO, NOMEN AGENTIS (NOMEN INSTRUMENTI USED AS NOMEN AGENTIS); Egyptian -r; Sumerian -l - e.g. ud/tul-6, shepherd (J. 544), from udu, sheep (J. 894) [FO-A-'THO]; IE -ro, sign of nomina instrumenti used as nomina agentis


-RO, INANIMATE AUGMENTATIVE ('DONE TO A HIGH DEGREE')







* * *







- R H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: RH=sh

RHA=r(r1) ; RHE=l(l2); RHO=l(l2)


Sino-Tibetan (Starostin) RHE=ri








RHA



BIRD

SUSPEND

UNCONNECTED

COLOR

DAPPLED

COLORS

OVERHEAD

ANIMAL

RHA, BIRD (animate: literally, 'who is in motion above'); (Egyptian G1, 'Egyptian vulture'); Egyptian 3, vulture, bird in general; IE 1. er- (for *(e)ra:-), eagle, larger bird in general


VERBAL

RHA, BE IN MOTION (HIGH ABOVE), FLY; SUSPEND; IE r-, *be in motion, listed under 3. er- : or- : r-, put one's self into motion, arouse, raise up; Chinese shā, kill, slaughter, fight, go into battle, weaken, reduce, abate, smart, take off, counteract, in the extreme, exceedingly



VERBAL

SA, STRONG (UNBREAKABLE); Sumerian za-3 (for *sa-x), strength (J. 625)


SA, INTENSIVE PREFIX; IE *s-mobile


-SA, (PERFECTIVE); IE perfect (Latin -s perfects); s-aorists; s-mobile


SA, KNOT







* * *



SE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Austronesian -SE=-s


Chinese: S=r


Tibetan SE=z; SO=zh


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) SA=sa




EXCREMENT

SEMEN

SEPARATE

DEPLETE

SWEEP

WINNOW

LEFT

EJECT

DAMP

SEED

SOW

SINGULAR

BODY

SE, BODILY EXCRETIONS (*SEMEN, EXCREMENT, URINE, SWEAT, FLATULENCE), SAP literally, 'what is moved from lateral points'); Sumerian e-10, excrement (J. 893); IE *se:-, excrement, in Latvian sievs, urine, listed incorrectly under sa:i-, pain, etc.; Basque sats, manure, fertilizer; Tibetan zla-wa, juice, semen


SE, SEPARATE, APART


VERBAL

SE, BE EMITTED, DRAWN OUT, EJECT, EXCRETE FORCEFULLY


SE, DRIP


PLANT

SE, SEED; Sumerian e, barley, seed (J. 669); IE *se-, *seed, in Middle Welsh se, he, seed, listed incorrectly under 1. seg-, sow


GRAMMATICAL

SE, UNIQUE SINGULAR FORMANT FOR INANIMATES


-SE, INANIMATE SINGULATIVE ('DONE ONLY ONCE')


-SE, CONVERTS LEXICALLY DURATIVE VERBS TO PUNCTUAL







* * *



SO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Austronesian -SE=-s


Chinese: S=r


Tibetan SE=z; SO=zh


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) SA=sa




SKIN

BACKSIDE

CLOTH

COMPANION

BROTHER

PULL

SUCK

DRY

STRETCH

DRINK

SNIFF

FOLD

LAYER

RED

BODY

SO, SKIN, THIN SHEET (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to lateral points (stretched)')


COLOR

SO, YELLOW; Sumerian sa-7 (J. 648)


SO, REDDISH-BROWN; Sumerian sa-11, fiery red (J. 191); sa-5, red, brown (J. 214)


BODY

SO, CLOTH ( HIDE ); Egyptian *s, cloth (Egyptian S29, 'folded cloth')


VERBAL

SO, PULL BACK TO, STRETCH, FOLD; Sumerian sa-9, *pull back (J. 118 reads sa-9, and means 'loosen, open, separate')


SO, CART


SO, BE DRAWN INTO


-SO, OUTER LAYER OF ANY THREE-DIMENSIONAL OBJECT, USED AS A FORMANT OF OBJECTS CHARACTERZED BY COLOR







* * *







- S H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese SH=s


Tibetan SHE=s







SHA


SWINE

SALTY

SATED

IMMOBILE

FEMALE

LEASURED

OLD

SATISFY

SIT

CONDITION

ANIMAL

SHA, SWINE, HIPPOPOTAMUS, SALTY, PINKISH (animate: literally, 'who is in movement at lateral points (horizontally unmoving))


SHA, SATISFIED, SATED, FULL, LAZY, COME TO AN END, BE MOTIONLESS, IMMOBILE (ALSO FROM PARALYZING PAIN); Sumerian sa-5, be full (J. 214 reads sa-5, and means 'be full')


SHA, FEMALE (REFERRING TO LACK OF MOBILITY)


SHA, FORMANT OF STATES OR CONDITIONS







* * *


SHE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese SH=s


Tibetan SHE=s




JACKAL

COLD

ICE

CREEP

ALONE

SIFT

EXORCISE

SOUR

BATCHELOR

ANIMAL

SHE, FOX, HYAENA, JACKAL (CANIS AUREUS) (animate: literally, 'who is in movement from lateral points ['stinks'); Sumerian e-11, *fox, jackal (J. 657 reads e-11, and has other readings meaning 'fox' [puh], 'wild dog' [ka-5], 'lion' [lu-5], 'wild boar' [lul], 'wolf' [lib/p (for ulpi)], 'weasel/cat', [ar], 'bee?' [ka-5 for ka-6], and 'fox' [lub/p])


SHE, COLD, ALONE


SHE, CREEP, CRAWL, HUNCH UP


SHE, SEPARATE ONE'S SELF; Sumerian e-13, go (J. 410 reads e-13, and means 'go'); Chinese sā, cast, let go, let out


SHE, SOURNESS


SHE, INSECT; Basque sits, moth


SHE, MALE (UNATTACHED) OF HERD ANIMALS, SOLITARY (animate: literally, 'who is in movement from lateral points')


GRAMMATICAL

SHE, UNIQUE SINGULAR FORMANT FOR ANIMATES (ONE SINGLE); IE -s, animate nominative singular


-SHE, ANIMATE SINGULATIVE ('DO ONLY ONCE')







* * *


SHO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese SH=s


Tibetan SHE=s



HERD

CLAN

GOOD

BROTHER

SON

GATHERING

CLANSWOMAN

FOLLOW

AFTER

ANIMAL

SHO, (FEMALE) HERD(-MEMBER) (animate: literally, 'who is in movement to lateral points' ('follow together as a unit'); Egyptian feminine pronominal s-


SHO, CLAN(-MEMBER)


SHO, GOOD, WELL, FRIENDLY; SAME, ONE'S OWN; IE su/u:- (*s-), well, good; Chinese ro, rich, plentiful


SHO, FOLLOW; FOLLOW(ER) AFTER (AS A UNIT), CLAN, CLAN-MEMBER


SHO, THIS (PERTAINING TO 1ST, 2ND, OR 3RD PERSON; IE in Old Irish s-infixed pronoun of the 3rd singular feminine and 3rd plural; in Old Irish emphasizing particles se/sa (1st person); sio/so/su (2nd person); si (2nd person plural); si (3rd person feminine); sem/som/sium/sum (3rd person masculine/neuter and 3rd person plural for all genders), listed under so(s), sa: (Greek ho, h), originally only nominative singular masculine and feminine; the other cases from the root to-; feminine also si:


SHO, HE/SHE; IE so, listed under so(s),sa: (Greek) ho, h:, originally only nominative singular masculine and feminine, the other cases from the root to-; feminine also si:


SHO, CONDITIONAL FUTURE; in Egyptian (j)sk, which introduces concommitant events [SHO-KHE-E, following nearby (cf. Sanskrit saci, conjointly)]; in st, which introduces subsequent events (SHO-THO, following then [thereupon])); in sT, probably merely a variant of sk; Sumerian a-, verbal prefix characterized by Thorkild Jacobsen as meaning "contrapunctive . . . correspondingly . . . he on his part"; in i-, with similar meaning (SHO-?E-E, SHO + DECLARATIVE); IE particle so, so (OHG so:), listed mistakenly under se, separate; in swe, so (SHO) - (cf. Old Latin so:-c, so), listed mistakenly under se, separate; in Latin si:-c, so [SHO-E-KHE-E], listed mistakenly under se, separate; -s of desiderative (SHO); in -sye of future ('SHO-?E)


SHO, CAUSATIVE, FACTITIVE; Egyptian s-prefix, causative and factitive; e.g. srx.f, he (.f) causes him (s) to know (rx)


SHO, AFTER





* * *







- T ? -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: T?=z

T?A-'A=c


Tibetan T?E/A=d


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) T?A=da









T?A




THUMB

HEMP

STRAW

TORN

SEEP

EXSANGUINATE

MARK

STEM

SIDE

APPORTION

WE

FIT

TIME

PLUCK

SHRED

DISTANCE

FLAY

KNAP

ALLOT

CONSECRATE

LIBATE

BODY

T?A, THUMB HAND/FINGER (inanimate: literally, 'what is at rest at the side'); Egyptian *d, *hand (Egyptian D46, 'hand'); Sumerian da, side, *hand (J. 629 portrays the right hand and arm); da-6 (J. 219 reads da-6, and means 'hand')


T?A, TORN/STRIPPED OFF FOR, PULLED AT THE SIDE, ALLOTTED, GIVEN; Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) (?-)da2, put, place; s-ta-t, put, place; Egyptian d, give; Sumerian da, *give (J. 629 reads da, and means 'carry' (to))


T?A, DRIP (BE/HANG AT THE SIDE)


T?A, SLAP; Egyptian d, strike (with the hand)


T?A, FINGER


T?A, RAY (OF LIGHT)


T?A, STEM, (TREE-BARK)


T?A, SIDE; Sumerian da, side (J. 629)


T?A, PLUCK







* * *






T?E

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: T?=z

T?A-'A=c


Tibetan T?E/A=d


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) T?A=da





BALL

HURRY

STAMP

SPIN

ADVANCE

COIL

DIZZY

BODY

T?E, BALL OF THE FOOT (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved from the side'); Sumerian de-6 (for di-7), *ball of the foot (J. 410 reads di-7, and means 'stand up, stand, be firm, tread', and depicts a foot)


T?E, STAMP; Sumerian de-6 (for di-6), tread (J. 410)


T?E, SPIN AROUND (ON BALLS OF THE FEET)


T?E, BE SPUN AROUND, COILED AROUND, TIED AROUND; Chinese zā, tie, bind







* * *


T?O

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: T?=z

T?A-'A=c


Tibetan T?E/A=d


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) T?A=da




TORSO

PECTORAL

ORGAN

HEAP

LOAF

PLASTER

HIVE

MOUTH

TONGUE

FEMININE

MENTION

FASHION

COWER

TUFT

MIX

NUT

BODY

T?O, TORSO (CONTENTS OF THE BODY CAVITY), ORGAN, LUMP (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to the side'); Egyptian *t, *lump (Egyptian X1, 'bread'); Sumerian du-2, *lump (J. 99 reads du-2, and means 'seed-kernel with sprout)


T?O, TONGUE; Sumerian du-11, *tongue (J. 15 reads du-11, and portrays a head with the region of the mouth indicated by lines)


T?O, SCAT


T?O, BREAST MUSCLE, PECTORAL; Sumerian du-8, *breast (J.326 reads du-8, and means 'breast')


T?O, BE LUMPED TOGETHER


T?O, NUT


-T?O, (DEFINITE INANIMATE LARGE PLURAL); Egyptian -.t, collective; Sumerian -d, collective; IE -d-, collective


-T?O, (FEMININE); Egyptian -.t, feminine; IE -a/id-, feminine terminations; Arabic -t, feminine (phonological exception: normally we would expect Arabic emphatic T)


-T?O, (PASSIVE DISTRIBUTIVE - Stem XII)


-T?O, (INANIMATE ITERATIVE ('DONE REPEATEDLY TO COMPLETION')





* * *







- T H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: TH=d


Tibetan THA=t


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) THA=


final THO=t; THO-FHA=du/tu







THA



RAT

DEW

LOOSEN

BRICK

INTOXICATED

BATHE

STEAL

MELT

ABSCOND

DECAY

TWITCH

MARSH

WARBLE

CROSS

ANIMAL

THA, RAT, MOVE AT THE SIDE OF (TREMBLE), TWITCH (AS OF THE RAT'S WHISKERS); Sumerian da-7, *rat (J. 684 reads da-7, and means 'rat')


VERBAL

THA, BE/TEAR LOOSE (AT THE SIDE)


VERBAL

THA, TWITCH


VERBAL

THA, WARBLE


ANIMATE NATURE

THA, DEW, MOLD (animate: literally, 'who is in movement at the side'); IE ta:i-, dew, cf. Ossetic thayun, bedew, listed under ta:-, melt, dissolve (flow), disappear (decay, what decomposes in dampness); Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) in dāy, dew


VERBAL

THA, BE PRESENT AS DROPS OF MOISTURE


THA, MELT (COME LOOSE AT THE SIDE)


ADVERBIAL

THA, (IN MOVEMENT) AT THE SIDE







* * *


THE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: TH=d


Tibetan THA=t


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) THA=


final THO=t; THO-FHA=du/tu



STAR

ROLL

TRANSIT

ANIMATE NATURE

THE, STAR, SPINNER, ROLLER (apparently, the ancients believed that the movement of the stars across the sky was accomplished by spinning)







* * *


THO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: TH=d


Tibetan THA=t


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) THA=


final THO=t; THO-FHA=du/tu



ACCOMPANIMENT

BULL

TRIBE

COMPLETE

HEAT

GRANARY

MOUND

CONTRACT

MASSIVE

STONE

COMPACT

CONSTRICT

CHEESE

DRIED

ANIMAL

THO, ACCOMPANIER, APPROACHER TO JOIN (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to the side' ('assembles')); Sumerian da-4, husband, wife (J. 922); Chinese dā, come into contact, join, put up, build, hang over, put over, throw in more, add, lift something together, take (ship), go by


ANIMAL

THO, TRIBE, SPECIES, (LARGE) HERD (OF MIXED ANIMALS)


ANIMATE NATURE

THO, HEAT (animate: literally, 'who moves himself to the side'); Egyptian *t in t3, heat (for THO-'RE) (Egyptian U30, 'potter's kiln); Sumerian du-19, *heated (J. 635 reads du-19, and means 'smelt, smith, gleam reddishly; it pictures a kiln)


GRAMMATICAL

THO, PERSON; in Egyptian -tj, 2nd p. sing. Old Perfective (THO-E); in IE 3rd p. sing. -t


-THO, (DEFINITE ANIMATE LARGE PLURAL); Egyptian -.t, collective; Sumerian -d, collective; IE -t-, collective


-THO, (DEFINITE INANIMATE LARGE PLURAL CREATED BY HUMAN AGENCY, ASSEMBLAGE); Egyptian -.t, collective; Sumerian -d, collective; IE -t-, collective


-THO, FUTURE, PROSPECTIVE; in Egyptian particle tj (THO-E), which means 'when' before verbal sentences, and 'while' in nominal sentences; sDm.t(j).f(j) form, which is a future active participle (he who will hear) - writings simply with -t are found, and it is obvious that this -t represents the un-stress-accented -t described below in 'mor-tos while the sDm.t.f form (translated as a present or past perfect) is parallel with mr-'tos - to increase its distinction from sDm.t.f forms, -j (-E) was first added to the pronoun (sDm.t.fj), and probably also later to the -t (sDm.tj.fj) - Egyptian -tj(j) is known as a former of future participles: e.g. wp.w.tj, messenger (from wp.w.t, message) - these correspond to IE nomina agentis in -tj (-THO-E) - we find this same -t in many Egyptian infinitives which were probably stress-accented on the final syllable; Sumerian verbal suffix -d, which forms present-futures according to the views of Yoshikawa - its employment in non-finite forms parallels the infinitive: g~a-2-g~a-2-de-3 (-THO-E), in order to place - nu-kur-ru-dam (THO), which cannot ever be changed - zi-re-dam (THO), it has to be destroyed; IE as a modal adverb alone or in combinations like Sanskrit tatas, which when combined with a present, is translated as a future; in IE -tyo, future passive participles or participles of necessity; -to prospective participles: e.g. Old Irish nemed, sanctuary (what is to be revered) - Sanskrit darSatas, visible (what is to be seen) - Greek lutos, capable of being freed - IE 'mor-tos, mortal (what is to die) - cf. IE mr-'tos, dead, with -'THO, which is the large animate plural suffix; in infinitives in -tu(m) and -ti (THO-E)


-THO (stress-unaccented), (AGENTIVE); Egyptian agentive in -t; Sumerian nomen agentis in -ed; IE -to, nomen agentis, in Old Indian du:-ta-, messenger


-THO, (REFLEXIVE DISTRIBUTIVE - Stem XI)


-THO, (ANIMATE ITERATIVE, 'DO UNTIL COMPLETION')


ADVERBIAL

THO, THERE







* * *







- T ? S -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: T?S=c


Tibetan T?SE=d; initial T?SO=dz


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) T?SE=dzy (in dz(y)ɢw)






T?SA



BODY

STRETCH

LONG

FATAL

LENGTHEN

GROWING

PAUSE

TURD

INTERNALIZER

DISCOLORATION

TAMP

DEFECATE

RESTRAIN

REFLEXIVE

LEVEL

BODILY

BODY

T?SA, BODY (inanimate: literally, 'what is extended over points at the side')


T?SA, LONG, LAST, ELONGATE


T?SA-E (+ -like), BE LENGTHENING, LONG


T?SA-FA (+ frequentative), STRETCH ONE'S SELF OUT (IN SICKNESS OR DEATH), COLLAPSE; Egyptian Dw, bad, evil, sad (of heart); IE 2. dheu-, dhw-e:i-, disappear, become unconscious, die


T?SA-NHA (+ ingressive), HAVE STARTED TO BECOME LONG, GROWN; IE dha/a:l-, bloom, sprout, in Greek (Dorian) ttha:la, perfect, sprout, bloom, grow


T?SA, ROLL OF FECAL MATERIAL (TURD)

T?SA, ANYTHING ROUGHLY OVOID CONSISTING OF AN OUTER SHELL WITH DIFFERENTATED SOLID INTERIOR CONTENT: NUT, BEAD


GRAMMATICAL

T?SA, (REFLEXIVE); IE in numerous middle forms as -dh-


T?SA, (FORMANT OF BODILY PARTS)


T?SA, (FORMANT OF INTERNAL PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO EXTERNAL OBJECTIVE PHENOMENA: E.G fire [+ T?SA] heat as an experience)







* * *






T?SE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: T?S=c


Tibetan T?SE=d; initial T?SO=dz


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) T?SE=dzy (in dz(y)ɢw)




TEAT

BENDABLE

DROP

RELEASE

TAKE

SLIDING

SUCKLE

HOLIDAY

HARVEST

INHALE

SET

BLOOD

DISSOLVE

FREE

DIRECT

RELAX

HOLLOW

PURIFY

FINGER

UNFIXED

EXPIRE

BODY

T?SE, TEAT (inanimate: literally, 'what is extended from the side' ['releaser'])


BODY

T?SE, FINGER (secondary)


VERBAL

T?SE, RELEASE; Chinese cā, rub off, wipe off, spread on, put on, brush, shave, scrape (into shreds)







* * *





T?SO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: T?S=c


Tibetan T?SE=d; initial T?SO=dz


Tibeto-Burman (Matisoff) T?SE=dzy (in dz(y)ɢw)




ARM

PLAIT

TWO

GRAINPIT

LIMB

COLUMN

RUNG

SWING

CLIMB

TOOL

BEAM

SMOKE

HELD

GIVE

BODY

T?SO, ARM, LIMB (inanimate: literally, 'what is extended to the side`); Egyptian '(j), arm, hand (Egyptian D36, 'forearm); Sumerian ta-3, *arm (J. 219 reads ta-3, and means 'hand')


T?SO, BRANCH, LIMB (BOTH ANIMAL AND PLANT)


T?SO, BEAM


T?SO, BE RETAINED, KEPT, HELD (OUT FOR)


T?SO, SWING AROUND (AS OF ARMS)


T?SO, HANDLE, TOOL; Sumerian ta-3, *handle (J. 219 reads ta-3, and means 'handle')


T?SO, COLUMN (OF SMOKE)







* * *







- T H S -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Caucasian: THSE=čH


Chinese: THS=t {th}


Tibetan TSHA=t; THSO=tsh







THSA


ASS

PRANCE

REAR

LIVELY

STANDING

BRAY

DRAG

UPRIGHT

ERECT

ACROSS

LIFT

YOU

KICK

SURPASS

ANIMAL

THSA, ASS (animate: literally, 'who extends himself over points at the side' ('stands, rears up'))


VERBAL

THSA, STAND/REAR UP; Sumerian ta-2, be high (J. 629)


VERBAL

THSA, REARER UP, SWELLER UP, BRAYER, BELLOWER


GRAMMATICAL

THSA, YOU (SECOND PERSON SINGULAR MASCULINE); Sumerian za, you (2nd p. sing.); IE in tu/u:, you (2nd p. sing.) from *thwa (cf. Hittite zik, you, and tuk, to you); in 2nd p. dual primary -t(h)e/os (for *-thas and *-thawas; in 2nd p. dual secondary -ta: (Baltic and Slavic), for *-tha; in 2nd p. pl. primary Sanskrit -tha; in 2nd p. sing. middle imperfect secondary Sanskrit -tha:H (not IE -the:s but *-tha:s); in 2nd p. dual middle present Sanskrit -a:the: for *-V:thai; in 2nd p. plural middle primary -dhve: and secondary -dhvam (for *-th(a)wai and *-th(a)wam with th voiced before w; in 2nd p. dual imperfect middle thematic Sanskrit -e:tha:m (for *-aitha:m)







* * *


THSE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Caucasian: THSE=čH


Chinese: THS=t {th}


Tibetan TSHA=t; THSO=tsh



HEDGEHOG

SPINE

BRISTLE

TWINKLE

SPREAD

PIERCE

BORER

ANIMAL

THSE, HEDGEHOG (possibly CIVET/FERRET/VIVERRA)(animate: literally, 'who extends himself from the side' ('jabs')


VERBAL - AFFECTIVE

THSE, BRISTLE, SPINE


VERBAL - EFFECTIVE

THSE, PIERCE


THSE, BORING INSECT







* * *


THSO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
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Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Caucasian: THSE=čH


Chinese: THS=t {th}


Tibetan TSHA=t; THSO=tsh



INSECT

DRUM

DISORDER

FLY

GOBLET

ENLARGE

CYLINDER

ALTAR

WHIRLWIND

CIRCLING

STAFF

GATE

CYCLE

STUMP

SWARM

LOOP

TWIRL

AROUND

WRENCH

RAP

DIRECTIONS

ANIMAL

THSO, CIRCLING INSECT (animate: literally, 'who extends himself to the side' ('swings around')); Sumerian tu-8, *gnat, *fly (J. 777 means 'gnat, fly, and reads tu-8)


THSO, TWIRLER, DRILLER; Egyptian *', *drill (Egyptian O29, 'wooden column' is rather clearly a ' (wobble) drill'); Sumerian *ta, (?)*drill (J. 240 portrays a drill)


THSO, WHIRLWIND


PREPOSITIONAL

THSO, AROUND


ADVERBIAL

THSO, AROUND HERE; IE to (for *tho) in Anglo-Saxon tho:, there, listed under 1. to-, ta:-, tyo-, pronominal stem 'the (masculine, feminine)'; Chinese tā, *there, in tā-r, some other time



-THSO, (FORMER OF CARDINAL DIRECTIONS); Sumerian tu-15 in tu-15-mar-tu, west (Comb. 2782); tu-15-kur-ra, east (Comb. 2797); tu-15-uru (Comb. 2745), south; tu-15-me/ir(i)-ra (Comb. 2793); IE -t(h)o in Modern English west, east, north, south, left, right







* * *







- X -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial X=x; final X=ng


Tibetan XE=gy







XA



PHARYNX

SLIT

VALUE

GULP

WOMB

WEIGHT

SWALLOW

FEMALE

HEAVY

INHALE

FETUS

MILLSTONE

DETECT

CLITORIS

APPRAISE

COMPRESS

TUNNEL

EXPRESS

VICTUALS

ENGRAVE

INTENSIVE

BODY

XA, APERTURE TO THE PHARYNX, SOFT PALATE, SLIT (inanimate: literally 'what is at rest over points in back')


    XA-?A (+ stative), GULP, SIGH


      XA-?A-E (+ -like), GULPING, SIGHING ABOUT; Sumerian e-4, sigh (J. 168); e-8, cry (J. 907); IE 1. gwei- (for gwa:i- cf. qaino:n, cry, be sad); Chinese xī, sob, *sigh (in xīxū, sob, sigh)


        XA-?A-E-XA-HA-E (+ reduplication), SIGH ABOUT COMPLETELY; Sumerian e-3, cry (J. 952); e-4, cry (J. 903)


    XA-E (+ -like), BE SWALLOWING; Chinese xī, inhale, breathe in, draw, absorb, suck up, attract, draw to one's self


    XA-HA (+ air), BE INHALING (SWALLOWING AIR); Chinese xī, inhale, breathe in, draw, absorb, suck up, attract, draw to one's self


      XA-HA-RO (+ part), NASAL PASSAGE; IE gwharo- in Tocharian B kor, nose, listed under gwhre:-, smell, scent, detect


        XA-HA-RO-THO (+ assemblage), SMELLING APPARATUS; Egyptian r.t, nose, nasal passage


      XA-HA-RHE (+ -come), SMELL; IE gwhre:- smell, scent, detect; Chinese xi, odor, smell, smell, scent, sniff


        XA-HA-RHE-THO (+ assemblage), SMELL (NOUN); IE gwhro:to- in Sanskrit ghra:ta-, smell, aroma, listed under gwhre:-, smell, scent, detect


          XA-HA-RHE-THO-E (+ -like), DETECT A SMELL; IE gwhro:ti- in Sanskrit ghra:ti-, smelling


XA, BE PRESSED TOGETHER


    XA-?A (+ stative), EXPRESSED, LEAVING; Egyptian (m), go (away), walk, set out, pass (property) (Egyptian N40, 'combination of N37, 'garden pool', and D54, 'legs walking'); IE gwa:-, go, come, come into the world, be born


    XA-E (+ -like), BE PRESSING TOGETHER, PULSATING, ALIVE; IE 3. gwei-, live

    XA-FA, EXPRESSED COMPLETELY, BORN; Sumerian hu-2, bear (J. 99 reads hu-2, and means 'bear'); IE gwa:-, go, come, come into the world, be born


    XA-MO (+ overall), BE EXPRESSED OVERALL, BE BIRTHED; Egyptian m, go (away), walk, set out, pass (property); IE gwem- (for *gwa:m-), go, come, come into the world, be born


    XE-RHE (+ come), EXPRESSION


      XE-RHE-O (+ cause) BE ORIGINATED, STARTED; Arabic araa/yarau, make a law, begin


      XE-RHE-T?SO (+ hold), PROCEED; Egyptian 3', begin, be the first, spring, originate; IE ghredh- (for *gwre:dh-), proceed, *begin (cf. Avestan aiwi-g6r6dhmahi, we begin); Arabic arada / yarudu, flee, take fright, depart from ('an)


    XA-E (+ -like), BE PRESSING TOGETHER; IE 2. gwei-, push together, close up, pen up


      XA-E-HA (+ stative), BE PRESSING TOGETHER (INTRANSITIVE); IE gwey6- (for *gweya:- cf. Sanskrit jy:na-m, pressure), overpower, violence, violently press down


    XA-T?SO (+ hold); BE PRESSED TOGETHER; Egyptian *', cut, *be bundled, *pressed together (really cut off and *bundle) (cf. '.t, battle {mle}; ', a kind of examination with the finger {*press together} the determinative, F41, is 'vertebrae conventionally depicted' but the older form of the determinative is 'stalks of flax tied together with the bolls cut off'); IE gwedh-, push, damage, destroy; Arabic adda/yauddu, strap, bind


    XA-E, PHARYNGEAL


    XA-RE (+ make), PHARYNX; IE gwer6- (for *gwar6-), swallow, pharynx, listed under 1. gwer-


      XA-RE-E (+ -like), SWALLOW; IE *gwar6i- in Avestan jaraiti, swallows, listed under 1. gwer- (for *gwar6i-), swallow, pharynx


      XA-RE-E, PHARYNGEAL, PHARYNX; Sumerian gu-2-hur (for *(GU-2)-har - cf. Akkadian hru a namme), part of the neck (Comb. 893 - J. 171, gu-2, neck {determinative} + J. 723, har, hur)


        XA-RE-E-XA-RE-E (+ reduplication), SWALLOW DOWN


          XA-RE-E-XA-RHE-E-THO (+ assemblage), PHARYNX; Egyptian 33.t, pharynx


        XA-RE-E-P?FO (+ place), DINING TABLE; Egyptian 3b, table with food


          XA-RHE-E-P?FO-FA, (+ set) VICTUALS; Egyptian 3b.w, dinner; IE*gwroibhu- in English grub, incorrectly listed under 2. ghrebh-, scratch, score, dig


        XA-RHE-E-P?FO, SWALLOW (NOUN); Arabic ariba/yarabu, drink, suck, absorb (really *swallow)


        XA-RE-E-P?FO, PHARYNX; IE *gwroibh- in OHG gruoba, throat, listed incorrectly under 2. ghrebh-, scratch, score, dig


XA, SLIT, VAGINAL APERTURE


    XA-E (+ -like), LABIA MAJORA, WOMB; Sumerian a-3, vulva (J. 689)


      XA-E-NO (+ basket), WOMB


        XA-E-NO-HA (+ female), FEMALE; IE gwe/e:na:- (for *gwaina:- cf. Avestan jaini-, woman, wife, and Armenian kin, woman, and Gothic qino, woman, wife), wife, woman


      XA-E-NHA (+ move back and forth), UNBORN CHILD


        XA-E-NHA-P?FE (+ animal name), ANIMAL YOUNG; IE gwelbh-, animal young


        XA-E-NHA-P?FO (+ place), WOMB; IE gwelbh-, womb


      XA-E-T?A (+ thumb), CLITORIS, LABIUM MAJORUM; Egyptian d, vulva


    XA-RE (+ make), TUNNEL, PASSAGE; Sumerian *har, *tunnel (J. 534 - J. 536 is *harub(u)-x, ant [XA-RE-P?A-FA] = J. 534 + J. 759, ab/p-2 + J. 750, u - because of the compounds reading har [e.g. J. 545, hara/u-2; J. 547, harub(u)], we assume a reading of *har for J. 534, and a reading of *harubu for J. 536)


    XA-RE (+ scratch), (COUNTING) MARK


      XA-RE-FA (+ set), COUNT OFF BY MARKS, VALUE; Sumerian har-ra, engrave, draw (Comb. 2834 = J. 723, har, engrave, draw + J. 609, ra); IE 4. gwer(6)-, raise the voice, especially praise, value, welcome but also scold, lament


      XA-RE-FA, WEIGHT, WORTH; Egyptian 3w, weight, worth; IE gwer-s (for *gwrau-), heavy, listed under 2. gwer-, gwer6-, gwer6u-, gweri:-, heavy; Tibetan g-shor-wa, measure, weigh


        XA-RE-FA-E (+ -like), HEAVY; IE gweri:- (for *gwrawi- - cf. Latin gravis, heavy, substantial), heavy, listed under 2. gwer-,gwer6-, gwer6u-, gweri:-, heavy


          XA-RE-FA-E-T?SO (+ hold), WEIGHT; Egyptian 3', space, volume; IE *gweridh- (cf. Greek brthos, pressure, weight, load), listed under 2. gwer-, gwer6-, gwer6u-, gweri:- , heavy


        XA-RE-FA-NA (+ stone), MILLSTONE; IE gwra:w-o:(n)- (for *gwraun-), millstone, listed under 2. gwer-, gwer6-, gwer6u-, gweri:-, heavy


        NA-XA-RE-FA (stone +), MILLSTONE; Sumerian za-2-har (for *na-4-har), millstone (J. 453, stone, also reads na-4; J. 723, har, means 'millstone')

      XA-RE-P?A (+ diminutive), HAVE RECOUNTED EXPLOITS, HONORED; IE gwerb-, *honor, in Lithuanian gebti, honor, listed under 4. gwer(6)-, raise the voice, especially praise, value, welcome but also scold, lament


    XA-T?SE (+ fimger), QUASH; Sumerian haz, *quash (J. 13 reads has/S/z, and means 'destroy'); IE gwedh- (for *gwadh-), push, damage, destroy


-XA, (INDEFINITE INANIMATE VERY LARGE PLURAL)


-XA, PASSIVE INTENSIVE - Stem X)


-XA, INANIMATE INTENSIVE ('DONE ENERGETICALLY')







* * *


XE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial X=x; final X=ng


Tibetan XE=gy



BODYHAIR

THREAD

SCALY

CORRODE

STRING

DESCALE

EXTEND

VEIN

FLAKE

PRICK

FEATHER

RADIATE

SUFFER

BARE

DISPERSE

DART

LEATHER

ENTERPRISING

FUR

QUILL

STRIGIL

BODY

XE, BODY HAIR, FUR (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved from points in back' ('extends out'); Egyptian *, *body hair (Egyptian D3, 'hair'); (Egyptian N37, 'garden pool')


    XE-NA (+ one), BODY HAIR


      XE-NA-FA (+set), BODY HAIR(S); Egyptian n.w, hair; IE *gweno-, *body hair, in Ossete ghun, hair


    XE-NA, RUST; Sumerian en-4, rust, verdigris (J. 239)


XE, EXTEND OUT


    XE-NHA (+ ingressive), START TO PRICK; Sumerian il (for *el), *prick (J. 13 reads il, and means 'aloe [from its very prickly leaves]', and 'weapon [dart]'; IE 1. gwel- (for *gweli- cf. Old Norse kvelia, torment), prick, (stinging) pain, torment, death


      XE-NHA-E (+ -like), BE IN PAIN FROM PRICKING; Egyptian n, suffer; IE 1. gwel- (for *gweli:-), prick, (stinging) pain, torment, death


      XE-NHA-E, ALOE; Sumerian il, aloe (J. 13 reads il, and means 'aloe' [from its very prickly leaves])


      XE-NHA-E, DART; Sumerian il, *dart (J. 13 reads il, and means 'aloe [from its very prickly leaves]', and 'weapon'); IE *gweli-, *dart (cf. Greek belos, dart), listed under 1. gwel-, prick, etc.


    XE-?A ( stative), COME INTO FUR, FEATHERS; Sumerian e-18, hatch young (J. 128 reads e-18, and means 'hatch young')


      XE-?A-E, THREAD, VEIN; IE gwhi:-, vein, fibre, ligament, listed under gwhei6-


        XE-?A-E-FA, COLLECTION OF THREADS, TRACERY; IE gwhei6- (for *gwhayau- - cf. Welsh gi-au, nerves, fibres), vein, fibre, ligament


        XE-?A-E-SA (+ cord), STRING; Egyptian z, rope (Egyptian V6, 'cord')


          XE-?A-E-SA-NHE (+ little), STRING; IE gwhi:-slo, vein, fibre, ligament, listed under gwhei6-


        XE-?A-E-SO (+ skin), VEINED


        XE-?A-E-SO, MARBLE; Egyptian s, alabaster


    XE-E (+ -like), BODY HAIRLIKE, FURRY


    XE-E, PELT; IE gwi:-, with derivatives meaning 'skin, pelt', listed under gwe:i-



    NOTE


    HA-FHA, AIRY, DRY, HOLLOW, EMPTY; IE au-, empty, etc., listed under 3. au-, down, away from; Egyptian w (for *jw), dry, empty, hollow (written with Gardiner H6, 'feather'); when written with the ideograph stroke, it reads j (with -.t, feathers, plumage), or gwe:in (when glossed with Gardiner D3, 'hair' (jn.w), a mater lectionis for the additional n, and then reads jn. Both words are based on XE-E, bristle, (IE gwe:i-, 'skin, pelt, *feather'), which with +NA yields IE gwe:i-no, hair (Ossete τun, hair). Since NHA-FHA-MHA meant 'feather', XE-E was prefixed to it to yield XE-E-NHA-FHA-MHA, 'quill', for PIE. The doubled -ll- of the PIE forms is due to an assimilation of -um to -l-, yielding PIE *gwe:ill-, 'quill'. In Egyptian, the large plural, -THO, was added to jn to distinguish a 'feather` from a 'hair' which latter formed the normal collective in -FA: XE-E-THO, 'plumage'; XE-E-NA(-FA), 'hair(s)'; XE-E-NA-THO, 'feather'; in PIE XE-E-NHA-FHA-MHA, 'quill`; Sumerian u-4-a, be, become dry (Comb. 2582 - J. 684 + J. 949 = *wa:); IE *au- in Greek aos, dry; Chinese āo, concave, hollow



      XE-E-NA (+ one), PELT; Egyptian *n, *pelt (Egyptian F26, 'skin of a goat', rather 'pelt'); Sumerian e/in, *pelt (J. 9 reads e/in, and means '(copper) water-kettle', derived from an earlier leather ghirba); IE *gwi:n-, *pelt, in Middle Irish ban, skin, pelt, and Sanskrit ji:-na, leather sack, listed under gwe:i-


        NO-XE-E-NA (negative +), HAIRLESS, SCALY; IE nogw-no- (for *nog^wi-no- - cf. Old Icelandic nakinn), naked, listed under nogw-


      XE-E-NA, TENT; Egyptian Hn (for *(j)n), tent


      XE-E-NHE (+ little), LEATHER BOTTLE; Sumerian il-2, *leather bottle (J. 103 reads il-2, and means 'dry measure'; it also reads g≈a-5, *sack); IE gwi:li-, *leather bottle, in Sanskrit ji:la-H, leather bottle, listed under gwe:i-, skin, pelt


        XE-E-NHE-E (+ like), GILL (MEASURE); Sumerian il-2, dry measure (J. 103); IE *gwi:li- in Old French gille, gill (and Late Latin gillo?, water-pot)


          XE-E-NHE-E-NA (+ one), QUILL; IE *gweiln- in Middle English quille, quill, listed incorrectly under 1. gwel-, stick, stinging pain, torture, death


          XE-E-NHE-E-THO, PELT; Egyptian Hn.t (for *n.t), hide, skin


      XE-E-RO (+ high degree), SHAGGY; Arabic urun (for *run [?]), hairy, shaggy


    NO-XE, SCALE; Egyptian n, scale (Egyptian K6, 'fish-scale')


      NO-XE-E (negative +), SCALY NAKED; IE nogw- (for *nog^wi- cf. Old Norse nkkuiðr), naked


      NO-XE-MO (+ surface), SCALY SURFACE


        NO-XE-MO-FA (+ set), SCALES


          NO-XE-MO-FA-THO (+ assemblage), SCALY BODY; Egyptian nm.w.t, fish-scales

    NO-E-XE (negative +), SCALY ANIMAL; IE neigw- (for *noig^w-), *crocodile (cf. OHG nihhus, river-monster, water-spirit), listed incorrectly under neigw-, wash


      NO-E-XE-E (negative +), SCALE (VERB), SCRAPE CLEAN; Egyptian n(j), expel, drive apart, put away (Egyptian K5, 'fish', and 'fish with head removed, tail up, with one scaled and one unscaled side'); IE neigw- (for *noig^wi- - cf. Greek nizo:, wash), wash


      NO-E-XE-E, STRIGIL; Egyptian n(j)j, copper implement


      NO-E-XE-E, (SNOW-)FLAKE


        SHE-NO-E-XE-E (cold +), SNOWFLAKE; IE sneigwh- (for *snoig^wy-), snow


      NO-E-XE-FA (+ frequentative), SCALE OFF, SCRAPE OFF; Sumerian nah (for *nh), *wash, clean (J. 596 reads nah, and means 'wash, clean')


      NO-E-XE-NA, SNOW; Egyptian n(j)n(j), storm, foul weather


XE, BE PARTED


    XE-E, BRISTLE; Chinese xī, rhinoceros, pig, hog


    XE-HA (+ stative), BE BRISTLING



      XE-HA-E, RADIATION; IE gwhe:i-, bright, illuminating; Egyptian w (for *j.w, radiations), sun, sunlight


        XE-HA-E-RHE (+ come), HEAT, LIGHT; Sumerian ir, burning lamp, light (J. 115); ir-2, illuminate (J. 675); ir-3, *light up (J. 281 reads ir-3, and means 'light up'); IE gwher- (for *g^wher-), hot, warm; IE g^wer-, illuminate, be hot


          XE-HA-E-RHE-MO (+ overall), OVERALL HEATED, HOT, OVERALL LIGHTED, LIGHT (ADJECTIVE); Egyptian 3m, hot; Sumerian sirum (for *irim), *light (J. 115 reads ir, and means 'light'); sirru (for *irru *irmu), *light (J. 561, mu-9 + J. 115, ir, which reads 'light'); IE gwhermo- (for *g^wyermo-), listed under gwher-(for *g^wher- from *g^wyer-), hot, warm


        XE-HA-E-XE-HA-E (+ reduplication), BE SPARKLING; Egyptian (jj), refine? (gold) {rather 'cause to sparkle'); IE g^hwoigw- (for *gwigwi- cf. Greek aphikts, impure (*g^hwigw-)), illuminate, shine; Chinese xīng, star, heavenly body, bit, particle


        XE-HA-E-RHE, SUMMER; Chinese xià, summer


XE, PARTED


    XE-E (+ -like), BE PARTING


      XE-E-NA (+ ingressive), SPLIT UP, FIGHT (INDIVIDUAL BATTLES); Egyptian n, battle; Sumerian e/in, battle (J. 9); IE *gweya:n- in Sanskrit jya:na-m, pressure), listed under gwey6-, overpower, violence, violently press down


        XE-E-NA-XE-E-NA (+ reduplication), SPLIT UP COMPLETELY, MELEE; Sumerian e/in-e/in, battle (2x J. 9)


    XE-E (+ -like), BE PARTING, DEPARTING, DISPERSING, LIVING TOGETHER; Sumerian i, go, life (J. 798); IE 3. gwei-, live


      XE-E-XE-E (+ reduplication), LIVELINESS, ENTERPRISE, COURAGE; IE gwi:/igo-s (for *gweigwyo-s- cf. MHG keck, bold, daring), listed under 3. gwei-, live


    XE-E, SLIT, TRENCH; Egyptian /, lake, pool, garden, basin


      XE-E-T?SA (+ body), DITCH; Sumerian ita-3, ditch (J. 129); IE gwa/a:dh-, submerge, be submerged, *gully (cf. Greek b:ssa, gully)


        XE-E-T?SA-E (+ -like), MUD; IE gweid(h)- (for *gwaidhi-), mud, semi-liquid dirt; Arabic dun, coating of plaster, gypsum


          XE-E-T?SA-E-E (+ -like), DAMP DITCH; Egyptian djj (for Djj - cf. Old Kingdom D.t, dough, for later d.t), ditch


          XE-E-T?SA-E-THO (+ assemblage), MUD; Egyptian Old Kingdom Dj.t, dough (for later d.t)


      XE-E-T?SO (+ hold), BE CUT OPEN; Egyptian ', cut off, cut up, cut down, hew; Sumerian e/id/t/t*-3, separate, split (J. 104); IE gwheth;ei(6)- (for *gwhdho- - cf. Greek phthe:, destruction), disappear, be destroyed, annihilate


        XE-E-T?SO-E (+ -like), CUT OPEN; Egyptian ', cut off, cut up, cut down, hew; Sumerian e/id/t/t*-3, separate, split (J. 104);IE gwhðei(6)- (for *gwhdhoi- cf. gwhðoy-o-, destruction), disappear, be destroyed, annihilate


          MHA-XE-E-T?SO-E (tool +), SWORD; Egyptian m(')w, sword


          MHA-XE-E-T?SO-E, SWORDSMAN, SOLDIER


      XE-E-RE (+ scratch), NOTCH, COUNTING MARK (TWENTY); Sumerian ar-2, totality, 3600 (J. 715); ar-4, twenty (J. 822 reads ar-4, and means 'twenty')


        XE-E-RE-E (+ -like), MAKE A NOTCH, COUNT; Egyptian 3, ordain, order, predestine, settle, decide


          SA-XE-E-RE-E (strong +), NOTCH COMPLETELY; IE skeri/i:- (for *sk^warei-), cut, separate, listed 4. (s)ker-, cut


          SA-XE-E-RE-E, NOTCH, COUNTING MARK (TWENTY); IE *sk^warei- in Old Norse skor, notch, twenty, listed under 4. (s)ker-, cut


        XE-E-RE-E, NOTCHLIKE, COUNTING MARK; Egyptian 3j, quantity of flax


          XE-E-RE-E-T?O (+ lump), PROVIDE WITH A GROOVE; Egyptian 3d, dig, dig out; Arabic araTa/yari/uTu, make incisions


            SA-XE-E-RE-E-T?O, PROVIDE WITH A GROOVE COMPLETELY; IE (s)kreid- (for *(s)k^wreid-), cut, listed under 4. (s)ker-, cut


        XE-E-RE-FA, NOTCH OUT


          SA-XE-E-RE-FA, NOTCH OUT COMPLETELY; IE (s)kreu- (for *sk^wreu-), *cut out (cf. OHG scro:tan, cut out clothes), listed under 4. (s)ker-, cut


      XE-E-RE, GARDEN; Egyptian 3, field, meadow (Egyptian M8, 'pool with lotus flowerS, rather 'furrow with growing plants'); Sumerian ar, garden (J. 315 = 2x J. 669, plant + J. 949, water)


      XE-E-RO (+ raise), BE NEWLY BORN


        XE-E-RO-E (+ -like), NEWLY BORN; Egyptian r, lad; Sumerian ir-6, *young (J. 273 reads ir-6, and means 'young`); IE gweru- (for *gwair6i-), *newborn, in Greek mbruon, newborn), listed incorrectly under gweru-, rod, pike


    XE-RE (+ scratch), GROOVE, FURROW, IRRIGATION CANAL


      XE-RE-E (+ -like), BE GROOVING


        SA-XE-RE-E (strong +), GROOVE COMPLETELY; IE skre/e:i- (for *skwarei-), cut, separate, listed under 4. (s)ker-, cut


      XE-RE-MO (+ overall), GROOVED OVERALL, SPLIT, RENT; IE E. (s)kre:-m-, *split (cf. Old Icelandic skra:ma, wound, scratch, axe), listed under 4. (s)ker-, (s)ker6-, (s)kre:-, cut; Arabic arama / yarumu, split; armun, split, rent







* * *




XO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: initial X=x; final X=ng


Tibetan XE=gy



ANUS

BLISTER

ROW

EXCRETE

GUSH

MALODOROUS

WAIST

BODY

XO, ANUS, secondarily INTESTINE (inanimate: literally, 'what is moved to points in back'); Egyptian *X, *anus (Egyptian X32, 'animal's belly showing teats and tail', rather 'animal's anal sphincter below tail'); Sumerian *hu-x, anus (J. 694, anus, is composed of J. 689, intestine + J. 750, hole, which reads hu-3)


    XO-E (+ -like), ANAL


      XO-E-E (+ -like), INTESTINAL


      XO-E-E, GUT-STRING; in IE gwiya: (for *gwhoi-), string, especially bowstring


        XO-E-E-THO (+ assemblage), BELLY; Egyptian X.t, belly, womb; IE *gwhoit- (cf. Gothic qithus, belly, womb), swelling, bulge, *belly, listed under gwet-

      XO-E-SE (+ excrete), BE EXCRETED, SQUEEZED OUT; IE *gweis- in Jutish kwi:-s, press, press out, and Modern Icelandic kveisa, the gripes, listed under gwey6-, overpower, power, powerfully put down; Arabic azza/yaizzu, be barren (?)


        XO-E-SE-E (+ -like), EXCRETORY, SEMI-LIQUID; Egyptian Xzj(j), weak, feeble, humble, mean (of conduct), vile (of enemies) IE *gweis- in Greek desa, filth, ooze, listed incorrectly under gweid(h)-, ooze, semi-liquid dirtiness?; *gweisi- in Modern English queasy


    XO-HA (+ air), SMELL BAD, MALODOROUS


      XO-HA-FA (+ set), FECES; IE gwo:u-, manure, excrement, feces, something disgusting; cf. Arabic auwa, ugly, deformed, stupid


      XO-HA-P?FO (+ place), QUAGMIRE; Sumerian hab/p, *quagmire (J. 834 reads hab/p, and means 'ooze`);IE gwo:bh-, *quagmire (cf. Modern English quab, morass, listed under 2. gwe:b(h)-, slimey, flabby, tadpole, toad


      XO-HA-PHA (+ diminutive), SMELL SOMEWHAT BAD; Sumerian hab/p, smell badly, stink (J. 834)


    XO-NHA (+ ingressive), START TO GUSH, SQUIRT; Sumerian hal(a), defecate, flow quickly (J. 2); hal-2, well up, flow (J. 920); IE 2. gwel-, drip down, run over, well up, throw; Arabic all, shed (tears); in alala, fall in drops, drip


      XO-NHA-FHA (+ frequentative), GUSHES OUT, SPRING-FED BROOK; Egyptian Xn.w, brook; IE *gwola:u- in Greek blo:, well up, listed under 2. gwel- (for *gwola:-), drip down, run over, well up, throw


      XO-NHA-MO (+ overall), GUSHING MOST STRONGLY, KHNUM (EGYPTIAN RAM-GOD OF JUPITER); Egyptian Xnm, basin (?) for irrigation; IE *gwola:mo- in OHG quella (lm ln ll rather than ln ll - cf. Middle Low German qualm, thick or dense steam, smoke, fumes, listed under 2. gwel-, drip down, run over, well up, throw


        XO-NHA-MO-THO (+ assemblage), WELL; Egyptian Xnm.t, well, cistern


      XO-NHA-RO (+ high degree), GUSHING MORE STRONGLY


    XO-E (+ -like), BELOW, UNDER


      XO-E-RO (+ high degree), BELOW, UNDER; Egyptian Xr, under (Egyptian T28, 'butcher's block')


XO, BLISTER


    XO-?A (+ stative), BLISTERED


      XO-?A-NO (+ be stored), BLISTER; Egyptian Xn, be blistered; IE 1. gwhen- (for *gwhon6- - cf. gwhono-s, luxurious, abundant), swell, be puffed up, abundance


        XO-?A-NO-E (+ -like), BE MAKING BLISTERS, BE BEATING UP; IE 2. gwhen-(6)- (for *gwhonoi- - cf. gwhnos, beating, and Greek theno: [*gwhen-yo:], I kill), beat


          XO-?A-NO-E-XO-?A-NO-E (+ reduplication), BE BRAWLING; Egyptian Xnn, disturb, interfere with, confound, be in flamed, irritated, *brawl; Arabic anna, attack; cf. also ?aanna, to be worn out (water-skin), *blistered


        XO-?A-NO-E, BE ROWING (MAKING RIPPLES ON THE WATER); Egyptian Xn, row; Sumerian *hunu, row (Comb. 2857 - (GIS`) + J. 750, hu-3 + J. 119, nu, oar); Arabic anna, mix (wine) with water, *stir up


XO, ACROSS THE BACK OF


    XO-RA (+ back), FOOTHILLS; IE gwor- (for *gwori- cf. Sanskrit giri-H, mountain), listed under 3. gwer-


      XO-RA-E,(+ -like) STONE; Sumerian hur, stone (J. 723) ('tunnel-part')


      XO-RA-SA (+ cord), CHAIN OF FOOTHILLS, FOREST; IE gwores (for *gworis), *chain of foothills, listed under 3. gwer-, mountain


        XO-RA-SA-QHA (+ high), HIGH FOOTHILLS, FOREST; Sumerian hursag≈, mountain, *forest [cf. Comb. 2831: hursaggiia, mountain forest (mixed trees of the foothills)] (Comb. 2831 = Comb. 2829 - J. 721, hur, stony + J. 194, sag≈/k/q, upper + J. 561, g≈iS, wood + J. 715, hi/e, assortment + J. 949, a, water)


    XO-RO (+ high degree), ACROSS


      SA-XO-RO (strong +), ACROSS; *(s)ker- in Modern High German quer, across


        SA-XO-RO-FA (+ set), PAIR OF TESTICLES


          SA-XO-RO-FA-THO (+ assemblage), SCROTUM; IE (s)kreut-, listed incorrectly under 4. (s)ker-, cut


        SA-XO-RO-THO (+ assemblage), TESTICLES; IE (s)ker-t-, testicles, listed incorrectly under 4. (s)ker-, cut


      XO-RO-FA-E (+ Egyptian dual), PAIR OF TESTICLES; Egyptian Xr.wj, testicles


    XO-FA (+ set), INTESTINES, WAIST, FLANKS, (TUNNEL-)SHAFT; Sumerian hu-3, *shaft (J. 750 reads hu-3, and means 'shaft, cave')


    XO-FA (+ frequentative), BE BENT AT WAIST, BOWED


      XO-FA-XO-FA (+ reduplication), BE BENT AT WAIST HABITUALLY; BE BOWED; IE guga:-, globule, hump


    XO-FHA (+ frequentative), BEND AT WAIST, BOW; Sumerian, perhaps hu-3, present, offer (J. 99); IE ge:u-, g6u-, gu:- (dissimilated from *gweu-), bend, crumple, arch


      XO-FHA-XO-FHA (+ reduplication), BOW REPEATEDLY; Tibetan gug-pa, bend in reverence or salutation


    XO-P?A (+ piece), CHEEK


      XO-P?A-E (+ -like), FLABBY; Sumerian hab/p, fat (J. 834); IE *gwobi- (cf. Anglo-Saxon quappia, eelpout), slimey, flabby, tadpole, toad, listed under 2. gwe:b(h)-


        XO-P?A-E-NHA (+ ingressive), START TO SHOW FLABBINESS, QUIVER; Egyptian Xpn, fat, fattened; Xpn, *quivering (as a comment on small pearls which have been raised up; IE *gwobyal- (cf. Low German quabbeln, quiver with fatness)


      XO-P?A-P?A (+ reduplication), TADPOLE; IE *gwobi- (cf. MHG quappe, tadpole), slimey, flabby, tadpole, toad, listed under 2. gwe:b(h)-


    XO-T?O (+ organ), INTESTINE; IE gud- (for *gwod-), intestine (cf. Low German kt, intestine), listed incorrectly under ge:u-, bend, etc.


      XO-T?O-MO (+ place), INTESTINE; IE gudo-m (for *gwodomo), intestine, listed incorrectly under ge:u-, bend, etc.


      MA-XO-T?O (place +), INTESTINE; Egyptian mX.t, intestine


    XO-RO (+ high degree) EXCREMENT; Sumerian hal(a), excrement (J. 2)


      XO-RO-XO-RO (+ reduplication), FILTH; IE gwor-gw(or)o-, filth, manure







* * *







- X H -



TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: XH=h


Tibetan XHE=sh (ç)




XHA


FISH

ASSESS

SCHOOL

CONCAVE

CROWD

SHALLOW

BASKET

EXHALE

PALPITATE

SPOUT

DETERMINE

WHALE

PLURAL

WHAT?

ANIMAL

XHA, FISH (animate: literally, 'who extends himself to the back' ('swallows'); Sumerian ha, fish (J. 961)


ANIMAL

XHA, PACK (SCHOOL OF FISH), QUANTITY; Sumerian ha-4, quantity (J. 715)


    XHA-E (+ -like), PACK, QUANTITY; Chinese hi, a great number of people or things coming together; extra large; of great capacity


    VERBAL - EFFECTIVE

    XHA-E (+ -like), BE PACKING TOGETHER; IE 2. kwei- (for *kwoi-; cf. Greek poio:, make), stack up, heap up, collect, lay down on or next to in order, build up, weakened 'make'


    XHA-HA (+ stative), BE PACKED TOGETHER (INTRANSITIVE)


      XHA-HA-E (+ -like), QUANTITY; Sumerian he/i, quantity (J. 715); Chinese hi, a great number of people of things coming together


    FO-XHA (ear +), SPEAK LOUDLY; IE wekw-, speak


      FO-XHA-RE (+ make), PRAISE; Egyptian w3, utter (plaudits), recite (praises)


    XHA-RE (+ make), SQUEEZE (AN OMEN LIVER), DETERMINE, CONJURE; Egyptian 3, ordain, order, predestine, settle, decide; Sumerian har, *decide (J. 723 reads har, and means 'liver, ring', and 'perceive by hepatoscopy'); IE 1. kwer- (for *kwar-), make, form, *finish (cf. Sanskrit karti, makes, completes, *conjure (cf. Old Bulgarian čari, magic); Tibetan shar-pa, collected, gathered, risen


    XHA-RE, WHAT IS DETERMINED (FATE); Egyptian 3(.w), fate; Sumerian har, perceive by hepatoscopy (J. 723); IE *kwar- in Greek tras, sign, portent, listed under 1. kwer-, make, form


    XHA-RE, LIVER (AS OMEN); Egyptian 3, something used medicinally - in phrases like 3 n Tzm and 3.w nw jw3.w (- of the dog, -(s) of the cattle); Sumerian har, liver (J. 723)


      XHA-RE-THO (+ assemblage), LIVER; Egyptian 3.t, an inner bodily organ


        E-XHA-RE-THO (abdomen +), LIVER (OMEN OF THE FUTURE); IE ye/e:kw-r-t, liver


    XHA-RE, TAX(-ASSESMENT); Sumerian har, *tax (J. 723 reads har, and means 'tax')


      XHA-RE-E (+ -like), ASSESS TAX


        XHA-RE-E-E (+ -like), PERTAINING TO TAXES


          XHA-RE-E-E-THO (+ assemblage), TAXES; Egyptian 3jj.t, dues, taxes


VERBAL - AFFECTIVE

XHA, CONCAVE


    XHA-RA (+ back), CONCAVE


    XHA-RA, DISH; Egyptian 3, dish, low bowl, designation for wine (dish of ...); Sumerian hara- 2, beer-vessel (J. 545 = J. 536, stud-bull, container, ant, *har + J. 431, beer - J. 563 means 'bull', and reads har-2); *har-x, container (J. 536 means 'container', and is in many compounds containing har = J. 534, net + J. 759, ab/p-2 + J. 750, u); IE *kware:i- in Old Irish co(i)re, kettle (rather *pan), listed under 2. kwer- (for *kware:(i)-, in words that mean something dishlike or bowllike


      XHA-RA-T?SO (+ hold), PAN


        SA-XHA-RA-T?SO (strong +), PAN; Egyptian cf. 3', container for corn; IE skordho-, -ā- (for *skware:dho cf. Old Bulgarian skvrada, tile, pan, fireplace), pan


    XHA-RHE (+ come), GO FLAT, SHALLOW


      XHA-RHE-FA, FLATTEN OUT, CHEW TO BITS, GRIND; Sumerian har, *grind (into flour) (J. 723 reads har, and means 'grind (into flour)'); IE kweru- (for *kware:u-), chew, crush, grind (flour and what is prepared from it)


      XHA-RHE-FA, FLAT BOWL; Sumerian haru, beer-vessel (J. 545 = J. 536, stud-bull, container, ant, *har + J. 431, beer - J. 563 means 'bull', and reads har-2); *har-x, container (J. 536 means 'container', and is in many compounds containing har = J. 534, net + J. 759, ab/p-2 + J. 750, u);IE *kware:u- in Old Indian car-, kettle, jar, listed under 2. kwer- (for *kware:(u)-, in words that mean something dishlike or bowllike


        XHA-RHE-FA-P?FE (+ animal name), ANT; Sumerian *harub, ant (J. 536 means 'ant', and is in many compounds containing har and harub = J. 534, net + J. 759, ab/p-2 + J. 750, u); harub(u), ant (J. 547 = J. 536, *harub (see above, *harub, J. 536) + J. 593, grass + J. 11, pincers)


          XHA-RHE-FA-P?FE-E, ANTLIKE


            SA-XHA-RHE-FA-P?FE-E (strong +), SCORPION; IE *skware:upi- in Greek skorpos, scorpion


        XHA-RHE-FA-THO (+ assemblage), FLOUR; Egyptian r.t, *flour (not an unspecified kind of grain)


      XHA-RHE-P?FO (+ place), BASKET, BIRD'S NEST; Egyptian 3b, *nest (Egyptian G49, 'ducks' heads protruding from a pool', rather 'young ducks in nest'); IE *kwore:bh-, *basket, in Latin corbis, basket, listed incorrectly under (s)kerbh-, turn, bend, and especially bend together, shrivel (also from heat, dryness), wrinkle

      XHA-RHE-XHA-RHE (+ reduplication), ALL CHEWED TO BITS, MADE SMALL; Egyptian rr, little


VERBAL

XHA, EXHALER; Chinese hā, breathe out (with the mouth open); laugh


    XHA-NHA (+ ingressive), START TO EXHALE, SPOUT


    XHA-NHA, WHALE; IE (s)kwalo-s or more frequently kwalo-s, a larger kind of fish


GRAMMATICAL

-XHA, (INDEFINITE ANIMATE VERY LARGE PLURAL); Sumerian ha-4, *multitude (J. 715 reads ha-4, and means 'multitude')


XHA, WHAT?; Egyptian in jst (j (?A, interrogative) + (XHA, large quantity) + z (SE, separate).t) = ?quantity (is) it; cf. French quest ce (que); IE in kwei-, *what, listed under kwo-, kwe-, fem. kwā; kwei- (probably once only in nominative-accusative singular; kwu- (only in adverbs); the accented forms are interrogatives, the unaccented indefinite pronouns; in isolated languages, become, in part, a relative pronoun; Chinese h, interrogative particle; Tibetan dzhi/tshi ( *shid), indefinite marker


-XHA, (REFLEXIVE INTENSIVE - Stem XI)


-XHA, (ANIMATER INTENSIVE - 'DO ENERGETICALLY')







* * *


XHE

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: XH=h


Tibetan XHE=sh (ç)




PORCUPINE

CELL

CLAW

SIP

CONCERN

CIRCULATE

CURL

DESIROUS

EXCHANGE

SHARP

HOUSEHOLD

IMPALE

JAIL

INDICATE

ANIMAL

XHE, PORCUPINE (animate: literally, 'who extends himself from the back' (bristles'))


    XHE-E (+ -like), SPINEY; Chinese hi, bones of the body; skeleton


ANIMAL

XHE, BEAR


VERBAL - EFFECTIVE

XHE, CURL (AROUND ITSELF)


    XHE-NA (+ one), CURL; Egyptian *n, *curl (Egyptian V1, 'coil of rope')


    XHE-NHA (+ ingessive), START TO CURL AROUND; Egyptian n, encircle, enclose, surround, cover (diseased eye); IE 1. kwel-, turn, turn one's self, move one's self around, be around someone caringly, dwell


      XHE-NHA-E (+ -like), BE CURLING AROUND, BE CONCERNED; Egyptian n, ring (circle), encircle, inquire into a matter (be concerned); IE kwel6- (for *kwelyā-), turn, turn one's self, move one's self around, be around someone caringly, dwell, listed under 1. kwel-


        XHE-NHA-E-T?O (+ lump), HOUSEHOLD; Egyptian njj.t, entourage; IE *kwelya:d-, *household, in Old Bulgarian čelyad', domestic servants, listed under 3. kwel-, swarm, group, kin?


      XHE-NHA-E, ENCIRCLING, JAILING; Egyptian n(w)/(jj), circuit, circumference; Sumerian il-3, *encirclement (J. 750 reads il-3, and means 'surroundings'); IE *kweli- in Modern English jail


        XHE-NHA-E-KHO (+ little), CELL


        XHE-NHA-E-KHO, JAILER; Egyptian nT, sheriff; Sumerian ilig, authority (J. 75 = J. 62, enclosure + J. 798, i, knot)


          SA-XHE-NHA-E-KHO (strong +), WARDEN; IE *skelk- (for *skwelik-) in Gothic skalks, servant, listed incorrectly under (s)k^el-, jump


        XHE-NHA-E-T?SO (+ hold), HOLD IN JAIL; Egyptian n', detain


        XHE-NHA-E-T?SO, JAILER; Egyptian n', constable


    XHE-RE (+ fingernail), CLAW; IE 4. (s)ker-, cut, claw, mole; cf. Russian dialect črvb, sickle; Egyptian 3 (Gardiner H7 pictures a bird 'claw', and reads 3)


XHE, CIRCLE


    XHE-HA (+ stative), BE DRAWN FROM AROUND, BE INHALED


      XHE-HA-MO (+ overall), BE DRAWN FROM AROUND, BE QUAFFED, BE SMELLED; IE kwem- (for *k^we:m- - cf. Old Indian c:mati, sips), sips, swallows


    XHE-MO (+ overall), BE DRAWING FROM AROUND, BE QUAFFING, BE SMELLING; Arabic amma/yaummu, smell


    XHE-RHE, ( + come), GO IN A CIRCLE; Egyptian 3(s), travel; IE *k^were:- in Sanskrit crati, moves one's self, wanders, pastures, drives, listed incorrectly under 1. kwel-, kwel6-, turn, turn one's self, move one's self around, etc.


      XHE-RHE-E (+ -like), BE MOVING IN A CIRCLE (TRANSITIVE), EXCHANGING; Egyptian 3, assign; IE kwrei- (for *k^wrei-), buy (exchange goods); Arabic ar/yar, buy


        XHE-RHE-E-SHO (+ follow), GO IN A CIRCLE; Egyptian 3s, go through, go, wander; IE (s)krei-s- (for *k^wreis- - cf. Modern High German kreisen, circle), listed under 3. (s)ker-, turn, bend


      XHE-RHE-SHO (+ follow), GO AROUND; IE k^wers- in Sanskrit kRSti, plow, turn, go around, listed incorrectly under 1. kwel-, kwel6-, turn, turn one's self, move one's self around, etc.


    XHE-?A (+ top), SPINE, SPINEY


      XHE-?A-E (+ -like), BE POINTING AT, BE PAYING ATTENTION TO, BE CONCERNED; IE *kwe:i- in Old Indian c:yati, perceives, observes, is awed, is anxious, listed under 1. kwei(t-), pay attention to, from which, on the one hand, observe respectfully, be in awe, honor; on the other hand, turn the mind to, punish, revenge, requite, sin, fine, and its value, price, evaluation, from which appreciation can likewise be derived; Arabic Ha /yaHu, to do anything carefully; Chinese h, expose someone's misdeeds or crimes


        XHE-?A-E-NA (+ one), DISGRACE; IE *kwe:in-, *disgrace, in Greek poin:, atonement, punishment, revenge, listed under 1. kwei-(t-), pay attention to, etc.; Arabic in na / yanu, disgrace {?}


      XHE-?A-E, DESIROUS; IE kwoi-, kwi:- (*for kwe:i- - cf. Old Indian ke:ta, will, desire, intention, challenge, invitation), desire, invite; Arabic ?a/ya?u, will, wish, desire


      XHE-HA-FA, HAVE DESIRED, CRAVED; Arabic ah/yah, crave for


        XHE-HA-FA-PHA (+ diminutive), BE LOOKING AT OUT OF DESIRE; IE (kewep-:)kwe:p- (for *(s)kwe:up-), kw6p-, ku/u:p-, smoke, roil, boil, also mentally in turmoil, in violent motion, *desire (cf. Latin cupio:, desire, and Greek skopo:, look at); Arabic fa/yafu, see, *desire (cf. awfun, strong desire)


    XHE-E (+ -like), CURLING UP (TRANSITIVE), DRAWING FROM AROUND, INHALING; IE 2. k^wei-, in onamatopoeic words for hiss, wheeze (cf. Old High German winiso:, moan)


    VERBAL - EFFECTIVE

    XHE-HA (+ stative), BE SHARPLY POINTED; IE k^u:- (for *kwe:-), pointed, spear


      XHE-HA-E (+ -like), SPINEY


        SA-XHE-HA-E (strong +), SPINEY; IE sk(h)woy- (for *skwe:i-), sk(h)wi(y)-, needle or thorn of plants


      XHE-HA-RE (+ make), STICK


        XHE-HA-RE-P?A (+ diminutive), PRICK (NOUN), PUNCTURE


          SA-XHE-HA-RE-P?A (strong +), PERFORATION; IE skwerb(h)- (for *skwe:rb-), stick, as with thorns? only Celtic and Baltic


      XHE-HA-T?A (+ give), BE PRICKED; Egyptian d, take away, remove, cut out, dig, rescue, salvage, stave off, pull, exact dues, ransack, apportion, nourish strife; IE kwe/e:d-, kwo/o:d- (older kewed-?), approximately prick (prickle, point), bore, whet, sharpen, drive on, antagonize


      XHE-HA-RO (+ high degree), POINTING STRONGLY, OBSERVING SHARPLY, CONSPICUOUS; IE kwe:(i)-ro-, observant, protective, listed under 1. kwei(t-), pay attention to, from which, on the one hand, observe respectfully, be in awe, honor; on the other hand, turn the mind to, punish, revenge, requit, sin, fine, and its value, price, evaluation, from which appreciation can likewise be derived; Chinese h, conspicuous, grand


    XHE-E (+ -like), BE POINTING AT, SPECIFYING


      XHE-E-SHA (+ immobile), PAY ATTENTION TO; IE kweis-, pay attention to, listed under 1. kwei-(t-); Tibetan shes-pa, be cognizant of







* * *


XHO

TABLES OF EQUIVALENCES
ALL TABLES INCLUDE EQUIVALENCES FOR THE PROTO-LANGUAGE AND PIE
Afrasian: Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Arabic
*Albanian, Etruscan
Altaic
Basque
Beng
Blackfoot
Dravidian
*Etruscan, Albanian
Hurrian-Urartian
Japanese
Mon-Hmong
Nama
Nostratic: Proto-Afrasian, Altaic, Dravidian, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Sumerian, Uralic
Pama-Nyungan
Sino-Tibetan
Sumerian
Uralic

Chinese: XH=h


Tibetan XHE=sh (ç)




FROG

CROAK

SQUAT

REST

ANIMAL

XHO, FROG, TOAD (animate: literally, 'who extends himself over points in back' ('squats, rests on the anus')


    XHO-FHA (+ wind), CROAK (NOUN)


      XHO-FHA-E (+ -like), SQUEAK


        XHO-FHA-E-XHO-FHA-E (+ reduplication), BE SQUEAKING LOUDLY


          SA-XHO-FHA-E-XHO-FHA-E (strong +), BE SQUEAKING VERY LOUDLY; IE *skwaikwi- in Modern English squeak


      XHO-FHA-XHO-FHA (+ reduplication), CROAK LOUDLY; IE kwak- (for *kwakw-), imitations in single languages of the sound of the frog and honk of the duck


        SA-XHO-FHA-XHO-FHA (strong +), CROAK VERY LOUDLY; IE *skwakw- in Old Norse skvakka, croak


VERBAL - EFFECTIVE

XHO, SQUAT(TER)


    XHO-E (+ -like), BE SQUATTING ON


    XHO-E, REST


      XHO-E-HA (+ stative), BE RESTING; IE kwiye:- (for *kwi(y)ā-), rest comfortably, listed under kwey6-


    XHO-NHA (+ ingressivee), START TO SQUAT


      XHO-NHA-PHA (+ diminutive), START TO SQUAT SLIGHTLY; IE 1. kwelp- (for *kwa:lp- - cf. kwLp/b- and Greek klpē , trot), kwelb- : kwLp/b- : klup/b-, flex at the knees, stumble


    XHO-HA (+ stative), BE SQUATTING, STALKING


      XHO-HA-THO (+ assemblage), SQUAT (NOUN)


        XHO-HA-THO-E (+ -like), BE TAKING A SQUAT


          SA-XHO-HA-THO-E (strong +), BE TAKING A COMPLETE SQUAT; IE *skwāti- in Middle English squatten, crush, flatten, squat


    XHO-HA, FROG; Chinese h, *frog, in h-ma, frog, toad


    XHO-HA, SQUATTER; Chinese h, toady, sycophant


    XHO-THO (+ assemblage), WAD; Egyptian X.t, group of stars; IE kw6t- in Modern English wad







* * *










the latest revision of this document can be found at
HTTP://WWW.GEOCITIES.COM/proto-language/ProtoLanguage-English.htm

Patrick C. Ryan * 9115 West 34th Street - Little Rock, AR 72204-4441 * (501)227-9947
PROTO-LANGUAGE@msn.com





PRIMARY STEM FORMANTS

STEMS are the following:


STRESS-ACCENTED

Stem I, -PHA (reflexive diminutive);

Stem II, -P?A (passive diminutive);

Stem III, -NHA (reflexive inchoative);

Stem IV, -NA (passive inchoative);

Stem V, -HHA (reflexive imperfective);

Stem VI, - A (passive imperfective);

Stem VII, -FHA (reflexive perfective);

Stem VIII, -FA (passive perfective);

Stem IX, -XHA (reflexive intensive);

Stem X, -XO (passive intensive);

Stem XI, -THO (reflexive distributive, 'multiple subjects react`);

Stem XII, -T?O (passive distributive, 'multiple subjects react`);

Stem XIII, -SHE (singulative; reflexive aorist {punctual}); (reflexive reciprocal);

Stem XIV, -SE (singulative; passive aorist {punctual}; (passive reciprocal);

Stem XV, -RHE (reflexive indefinite {developmental}); "become"

Stem XVI, -RE (passive indefinite {transformative}); "make into"

Stem XVII, -HA (reflexive [animate] stative); "remain"

Stem XVIII, -?A (passive [inanimate] stative); "remain"

Stem XIX, '(S)-(S) accented reduplication (habitual, 'always`);

Stem XX, (S)-'(S) reduplication (frequentative, 'often, repeatedly`);


STRESS-UNACCENTED

Stem Ia, -'PHA (animate partitive singular);

Stem IIa, -'P?A (inanimate partitive singular);

Stem IIIa, -'NHA (animate definite singular);

Stem IVa, -'NA (inanimate definite singular);

Stem Va, -'HHA (animate indefinite plural);

Stem VIa, -' A (inanimate indefinite plural);

Stem VIIa, -'FHA (animate definite plural);

Stem VIIIa, -'FA (inanimate definite plural);

Stem IXa, -'XHA (animate indefinite large plural);

Stem Xa, -'XO, inanimate indefinite large plural);

Stem XIa, -'THO (animate definite large plural);

Stem XIIa, -'T?O (inanimate definite large plural);

Stem XIIIa, -'SHE, animate unique singular;

Stem XIVa, -'SE, inanimate unique singular;

Stem XVa, -'RHE (animate indefinite singular {anyone ---});

Stem XVIa, -'RE (inanimate indefinite singular {anything ---});

Stem XVIIa, -HA (animate locative?);

Stem XVIIIa, -?A (inanimate locative?);

Stem (S)-XIXAa, '(S)-(S) (totality - all ---);

Stem (S)-XXa, (S)-'(S) (total individuals - every ---).






PONTIC-STAGE SYLLABLES


A indicates the Ablautvokal: e/o//; H is /h/
CLICK ON INITIAL OR SYLLABLE ? || ?yA | ?A | ?wA | Y || yA | yA | yA
P? || byA | bA | bwA | T? || dyA | dA | dwA | K? || gyA | gA | gwA
P?F || bhyA | bhA | bhwA | T?S || dhyA | dhA | dhwA | K?X || gyhA | ghA | ghwA
F || wA | wA | wA | S || syA | sA | swA | X || g^wA | gwA | gwA
M || myA | mA | mwA | N || lyA | nA | nwA | Q || ngyA | ngA | ngwA
R || ryA | rA | rwA | H || Hye: | Ha: | Hwo: | HH || Hye: | Ha: | Hwo:
PH || pyA | pA | pwA | TH || tyA | tA | twA | KH || kyA | kA | kwA
PHF || pye: | pa: | pwo: | THS || tye: | ta: | two: |
KHX || kye: | ka: | kwo:
FH || we: | wa: | wo: | SH || sye: | sa: | swo: | XH || k^we: | kwa: | kwo:
MH || mye: | ma: | mwo: | NH || lye: | la: | lwo: | QH || nkye: | nka: | nkwo:
RH || rye: | ra: | lwo:


1. begun November 1991

1