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PROTO-LANGUAGE PHONEMES

in PIE, PAA

(Hieroglyphic Egyptian and Arabic),

Etruscan, and Albanian

(Nostratic Hypothesis)

by Patrick C. Ryan

currently under construction Copyright 2008 Patrick C. Ryan (Rev. 6/ 23 /2008)





The purpose of this short essay is to establish as a hypothesis that IE, Afrasian, and Etruscan are all descended from a common ancestor, which, I term the Proto-Language from the form into which it developed between 60K and 40K BPE.

This date is based on the estimates of Cavalli-Sforza for the separation of the peoples of Asia and Europe (The Great Human Diasporas, p. 123) from the "main" branch of the people speaking the Proto-Language.

During this phase of development, the Proto-Language was passing out of a ergative-type morphology into an nominative-type morphology (G. A. Klimov).

Afrasian word order is consistently VSO, in which we see a simple transposition of the verb from the earliest PL final position (SOV) to first position.

Nostratic has come to mean a language super-family from which a number of other language families are believed to be descended. This essay attempts only to substantiate the earliest and minimal Nostratic Hypothesis: that Indo-European and Afrasian (more precisely, Hieroglyphic Egyptian and Semitic) have Nostratic specifically in its Pontic phase as a common ancestor; and in addition, that Nostratic is descended from the Proto-Language. Since we also maintain that all languages are descended from the Proto-Language, this affirms the major Nostratic Hypothesis since any language is, therefore, more or less distantly related to Nostratic.

It is, unfortunately, rather easy to see why the Nostratic Hypothesis even in its minimal configuration has not been widely accepted. I am reproducing a random page from the work of Hermann Mller which vividly displays the reasons for the scholarly hesitation: 1) the comparisons, which include devices like "Infix" and irregular and unconvincing correspondences (on the page illustrated, IE k[^]-u- shows up as Semitic S, sh, Z, and D).

Sadly, the work of Linus Brunner shows the same pattern irregular correspondences and implausible mechanisms to enable comparisons.

Although he and I differ somewhat on details, I can recommend the work of Allan R. Bomhard, whose comparisons are regular and whose method is soundly consistent.

For truly interested students of Nostratic, an excellent and relatively inexpensive source of valuable current information

Bomhard, Allan R. 1984. Toward Proto-Nostratic: A New Approach to the Comparison of Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Afroasiatic. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, Volume 27. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

which can be purchased as a hardcover (for $71.00 + shipping) from SIGNUM Desktop Publishing, P. O. Box 151, Charleston, SC 29402 (803)729-8531 (FAX also), or by e-mail.

Although there has been an understandable negative reaction to linking 'race' and language notably because of the racial doctrines of the former National Socialists, responsible scholars have now begun to re-investigate the connections among genetic profiles of populations and culture and language, with the result that the basic Nostratic Hypothesis (and with it, monogenesis) is gaining substantial credibility through the results of research by physical scientists.

The kind of solid data being generated and careful analysis cannot be "quibbled away" by the liberal ideologues who still chase the butterflies of independent language invention and "borrowing frenzy".

In the Table of Correspondence found after the listing of lexical cognates below, the column entitled PROTO-LANGUAGE shows the earliest syllables before vocalic contrasts were replaced by a contrast of glides and no glide (during the Pontic stage). Similar tables of equivalence can and have been constructed for the Proto-Language, IE and Afrasian, Altaic, Basque, Beng (Southern Mand), Blackfoot (Algonquian), Dravidian (incomplete), Etruscan (present essay), Hurrian-Urartian, Japanese, Mon/Hmong, Nama, Pama-Nyungan (incomplete), (Sino-)Tibetan, Sumerian, and Uralic.

An excellent online resource for Indo-European in particular and Nostratic in general is at the TOWER OF BABEL, founded by Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin, and now part of the Evolution of Human Languages project at the Santa Fe Institute.

An important new resource for Nostratic studies is the website Nostratica, instituted by Kirill Babaev, the founder of the Cybalist language discussion group at Yahoo! Groups.

It will be seen below that the reconstructed roots of Indo-European and the attested roots of Arabic (and through Arabic, the reconstructed roots of Semitic and Afrasian) are related through a very regular system of phonemic correspondences with understandable semantic shifting.

What will surprise many readers, are the startling similarities in responses to Pontic-Nostratic phonemes displayed by Germanic (IE) and Semitic (AA), which strongly imply a common development period postdating the separation of non-Germanic-IE / Afrasian languages and their subequent dispersion (presumably through the introduction of agriculture).








ETRUSCAN ALPHABET AND VALUES


Etruscan Alphabet - first 14 characters Etruscan Alphabet - last 13 characters







TABLE
OF
PL / IE / SUMERIAN /EGYPTIAN / ETRUSCAN
(and Albanian*) CORRESPONDENCES



*I have recently re-read Zacharie Mayani's The Etruscans Begin To Speak (Simon and Shuster,
New York: 1962); and am convinced that his major proposition the relationship of Etruscan
through Illyrian to Albanian
is correct. Unfortunately, only a very few of his proposed cognates are
valid since he let his enthusiasm overshadow his perspicacity. Therefore, I am adding Albanian correspondences to the table for easy comparison when Albanian cognates are mentioned
in PL / PIE / PAA / ETRUSCAN LEXICAL COMPARISONS below.






PROTO- LANGUAGE
INDO- EUROPEAN
SUMERIAN
EGYPTIAN
ETRUSCAN
Albanian


?E

+

HE

HV(1)

+

He:(1)

i

+

*, written i

j

+

j

? (#?)

+

? (#?)

e (#?)

+

o (for ) (#?)

?A


+

HA

HV(1)


+

Ha:(1)

a


+

*, written a

j


+

j

a (#4, 7, 8, 10, 12, 21, 32, 33, 35)

+

written a (#5, 17)

a (#?)


+

a (for ) (#?)

before m, n, r ua (#?)

?O

+

HO

HV(1)

+

Ho:(1)

u

+

*, written u

h

+

h

? (#?)

+

u (for *) (#27)

a(#?)

+

e (for *) (#27)

before m, n, r ua (#?)



E





+

HHE

yV(1)





+

He:(1)

*yi (*, written i)





+

*, written i

j





+

j

written i (#1, 5, 9, 10, 12, 15, 17, 21, 25, 27, 30, 35)



+

written i (#30)

(written i) (#27)

ej becomes i (#?)

a/oj becomes e (#?)

+

o (for ) (#?)

A




+

HHA

yV(1) / Ha(:)/
V(7)



+

Ha:(1)

*y(a), written i(a)/*, written i



+

*, written a

j




+

j

ia (#30)




+

written a (#17)

(j)a (#?)

V + j, see above
under E

+

a (for ) (#?)

before m, n, r ua (#?)

O




+

HHO

yV(1)




+

Ho:(1)

*yu (** , written u)




+

*, written u

h




+

h

? (#?)




+

written u (#??)

(j)a (#?)

V + j, see above
under E

+

e (for *) (#27)

before m, n, r ua (#?)



P[?]E


+

P[H]E

b(h)/wV(1), (3)

+

pV(1)

bi


+

pi

p


+

p

? (#?)


+

? (#?)

be(8) (#?)


+

pe(8) (#?)

P[?]A


+

P[H]A

b(h)/wV(1), (3)

+

pV(1)

ba


+

pa

p


+

p

pa (#20, 21)


+

pha (#?)

be (#?)


+

pe (#?)

P[?]O


+

P[H]O

b(h)/wV(1), (3)

+

pV(1)

bu


+

pu

f


+

f

? (#?)


+

pha (for *pho) (#27)

ba(9) (#?)


+

pa(9) (#27)



P[?]FE

+

PF[H]E

bhV(1)

+

p[h]e(:)(1)

pi

+

pi

b

+

b

fe (#?)

+

p (for ph) written pe, stress-accented (#26); ph written phe, stress-unaccented (#?)

be (#?)

+

pe (#?)

P[?]FA



+

PF[H]A

bhV(1)

final bh/b(2)

+

p[h]a(:)(1)

pa



+

pa

b



+

b

fa (#35)



+

phe (for *ph) (#29)

be (#?)



+

pe (#29)

P[?]FO

+

PF[H]O

bhV(1)

+

p[h]o(:)(1)

pu

+

pu

b

+

b

fu (#17)

+

? (#?)

ba (#?)

+

pa (#?)



FE











+

F[H]E

wV











+

wV:

Emesal: (all positions)mi

Emegi: initial and medial positions
g[~]2i)(6)

final *, written u

unidentified dialectal initial * written i

+

Emesal: (all positions) mi

Emegi: initial and medial positions g[~]2+i(6)

unidentified dialectal initial * written u

final * written u

w











+

w

ve (#?)











+

v written u (for ) (#17)

ve (#?)

ev becomes
e (#?)

a/ov becomes a (#?)

Hv becomes y (#?)





+

ve (#?)

V + v, see above
under FE

Hv becomes y (#?)

FA






+

F[H]A

wV






+

wV:

u
final iu becomes ig[~]2(6)




+

*, written u

w






+

w

va (#7, 17, 18, 30)






+

v written va (#14, 17, 20, 22, 23)

ve (#?)

V + v, see above
under FE

Hv becomes y (#?)

+

ve (#?)

V + v, see above
under FE

Hv becomes y (#?)

FO






+

F[H]O

wV






+

wV:

*, written u






+

*, written u

w






+

w

va (for *vo) (#16)






+

*v/* (for *v) written u (#26)

va (#?)

V + v, see above
under FE

Hv becomes y (#?)

+

va (#?)

V + v, see above
under FE

Hv becomes y (#?)



T[?]E









+

T[H]E

dV









+

tV

di









+

ti

rare, tV+'wV became dotted t (*Ti [retroflex?])

d









+

d

te (#1)









+

the (#?)

de (#?)

between vowels dhe (#?)

d + z becomes x (#?)

d + zh becomes xh (#?)

+

te (#?)

t + s becomes c (#29)

t + sh becomes (#?)

T[?]A








+

T[H]A

dV








+

tV

da








+

ta

rare, tV+'wV became dotted t (*Ta [retroflex?])

d








+

d

ta (#2, 7, 30)








+

tha (#2)

de (#2)

between vowels dhe (#?)

for combinations dz, dzh, see above under T?E

+

te (#?)

for combinations ts, tsh, see above under THE

T[?]O








+

T[H]O

dV








+

tV

du








+

tu

rare, dotted t (*Tu [retroflex?])

rare, tV+'wV became dotted t (*Tu [retroflex?])

t








+

t

ta (for *to) (#15)








+

ta (for *tho) stress-accented , (21); tha (for *tho) stress-unaccented (#10, 14, 15, 26, 27, 29, 33, 35)

da (#?)

between vowels dha (#?)

for combinations dz, dzh, see above under T?E

+

ta (#27)

for combinations ts, tsh, see above under THE



T[?]SE




+

TS[H]E

dhV




+

t[h]e(:)

zi




+

zi

D (bar-d)




+

D

te (#?)




+

the (#?)

de (#?)

between vowels dhe (#?)

+

te (#?)

T[?]SA




+

TS[H]A

dhV


final dh/d(2)

+

t[h]a(:)

za




+

za

D




+

D

ta (#22)




+

tha (#?)

de (#?)

between vowels dhe (#?)

+

te (#?)

T[?]SO












+

TS[H]O

dhV/dhwV(4)

initial, rarely: dwo:(5)









+

t[h]/t[h]wo(:)(4)

Emesal: (all positions)
z(i)


Emegi: (all positions)
t(u)

Emegi rare, dotted t
(*T(u) [retroflex?])

Emegi rare, tV+'wV became dotted t (*Tu [retroflex?])

+

Emesal: (all positions)
z(i)


Emegi: (all positions) t(u)

Emegi rare, dotted t (*T(u) [retroflex?])

Emegi rare, tV+'wV became dotted t (*Tu [retroflex?])

'












+

'

ta (for *to) (#?)












+

tha (for *tho) (#13, 23)

da (#?)

between vowels dha (#?)









+

ta (#?)



SE

























+

S[H]E

sV

























+

sV:

i

























+

i

z

























+

z

sa (#32)

























+

S written s/Se (#17, 27, 29, 35)

before unstressed vowel she (#?)

before stressed vowel gje (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final se (#?)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

combination sk before e, i shq, otherwise h (#?)

combination sp becomes f (#?)

combination sv in stressed syllable d, otherwise v (#?)

+

before unstressed vowel she (#?)

before stressed vowel gje (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final se (#27)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

for combinations sk, sp, sv, see above under SE

SA


















+

S[H]A

sV


















+

sV:

sa

sV+'wV became a

rare, sV+'wV became dotted s (*Sa [retroflex?])












+

sa

sV+'wV became a

rare, sV+'wV became dotted s (*Sa [retroflex?])

z


















+

z

sa (#17, 18, 30)


















+

S written s/Sa (#5, 10)

before unstressed vowel she (#?)

before stressed vowel gje (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final se (#?)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

for combinations sk, sp, sv, see above under SE

+

before unstressed vowel she (#?)

before stressed vowel gje (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final se (#?)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

for combinations sk, sp, sv, see above under SE

SO


















+

S[H]O

sV


















+

sV:

su

rare, dotted s (*Su [retroflex?])

sV+'wV became u

rare, sV+'wV became dotted s (*Su [retroflex?])

final, 'su+ became







+

su

rare, dotted s (*Su [retroflex?])

sV+'wV became u

rare, sV+'wV became dotted s (*Su [retroflex?])

s


















+

s

so written sa (#2, 15, 30)

















+

S written s/Su (#17, 20)

before unstressed vowel sha (#2)

before stressed vowel gja (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final sa (#?)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

for combinations sk, sp, sv, see above under SE

+

before unstressed vowel sha (#?)

before stressed vowel gja (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final sa (#?)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

for combinations sk, sp, sv, see above under SE



K[?]E




+

K[H]E

g[^]V(4)




+

k[^]V(4)

gi




+

ki

kV+'wV became hi

k




+

k

k + w becomes

ce (#4)




+

ce (for che), stress-accented (#30); che, stress-unaccented (#?)

dhe (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)

+

the (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

K[?]A






+

K[H]A

gV






+

kV

ga






+

ka

kV+'wV became ha

k

k + j becomes H (dotted-h)



+

k

ka written ca (#6, 10, 30)





+

kha written cha (#?)

ze (#?)

secondarily gje (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)

+

se (#?)

secondarily qe (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

K[?]O


+

K[H]O

gV


+

kV

gu


+

ku

kV+'wV became hu

T (bar-t)


+

T

qa (for *qo; written ca) (#30)

+

qha (for *qho; written cha) (#17, 23, 24, 29, 30)

ga (#?)


+

ka (#29)



K[?]XE




+

KX[H]E

g[^]hV(4)




+

k[^][h]e(:)(4)

ki

kV+'wV became hi


+

ki

kV+'wV became hi

H(dotted-h)




+

H

ce (#?)




+

c written ce, stress-accented (#3); ch written che, stress-unaccented (#3)

dhe (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)

+

the (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

K[?]XA






+

KX[H]A

ghV

final gh/g(2)




+

k[h]a(:)

ka

kV+'wV became ha

final: h(a)


+

ka

kV+'wV became ha

final: h(a)

H






+

H

? (#?)






+

? (#?)

ze (#?)

secondarily gje (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)

+

se (#?)

secondarily qe (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

K[?]XO
















+

KX[H]O

ghV
















+

k[h]o(:)

Emesal (all positions):
p(i)

Emesal (medial) n +:
(~)pi


Emegi (initial and medial): ku

Emegi (medial) n +: (n)ku, written gu

Emegi kV+'wV became hu

Emegi (final): h(u)

+

(initial and medial): ku

kV+'wV became hu

final: h(u)

x (hook-h)
















+

x

? (#?)
















+

q (for qh), written ca, stress-accented (#?); qh written cha, stress-unaccented (#31); qh written c, stress-unaccented before l (#31)

ga (#?)
















+

ka (#?)



XE









+

X[H]E

g[^]wV

g^hw- is not a genuine PIE phoneme but rather a result of the combi-nation of g^w + H

+

k[^]wV

2i

2i+'wV became *h, written hu






+

2i











+

? (#?)









+

? (#?)

ze (#?)

secondarily gje (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)




+

se (#?)

secondarily qe (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

XA









+

X[H]A

gwV

gwh- is not a genuine PIE phoneme but rather a result of the combi-nation of gw + H

+

kwV

ha









+

Emegi: (initial) ha

Emegi: (medial and final) g[~]4a [for k3a {?}]











+

ca (#16)









+

? (#?)

ze (#?)

secondarily gje (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)




+

se (#?)

secondarily qe (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

XO










+

X[H]O

gwV and gwV

gwh- is not a genuine PIE phoneme but rather a result of the combi-nation of gw + H

+

kwV

hu










+

hu

X (bar-h)










+

X

cu (#25)










+

? (#?)

ga (#?)










+

ka (#?)



ME




+

M[H]E

mV




+

me(:)

mi




+

mi

m




+

m

me (#8, 9)




+

me (#?)

me (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)

+

me (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)

MA




+

M[H]A

mV




+

ma(:)

ma




+

ma

m




+

m

ma (#1)




+

ma (#?)

me (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)

+

me (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)

MO




+

M[H]O

mV




+

mo(:)

mu




+

mu

m




+

m

ma (for *mo) (#2)




+

ma (for *mo) (#?)

ma (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)

+

ma (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)



NE







+

N[H]E

l[^]V







+

l[^]e(:)

li







+

li

n







+

n

ne (#?)







+

l written le (#17)

le (#?)

between vowels Vlle (#?)

vocalic L becomes i/ul (#?)

+

le (#?)

between vowels Vlle (#?)

vocalic L becomes i/ul (#?)

NA







+

N[H]A

nV







+

la(:)

na

Emesal: (initial) a





+

*La, written la

n







+

n

na (#9, 22, 30, 31, 35)






+

l written la (#16, 31, 35)

nje (#?)

between vowels (Tosk) re (#?)

vocalic N becomes a (#?)

+

le (#?)

between vowels Vlle (#?)

vocalic L becomes i/ul (#?)

NO







+

N[H]O

nV







+

Lo(:)

nu

Emesal: (initial) i





+

*Lu, written lu

n







+

n

na (for *no) (#10, 17)







+

? (#?)

na (#?)

between vowels (Tosk) ra (#?)

vocalic N becomes a (#?)

+

la (#?)

between vowels Vlla (#?)

vocalic L becomes i/ul (#?)



QE


+

Q[H]E

(n/N(10))g[^]V(4)


+

(n/N(10))k[^]e(:)(4)

(n)g[~]3i


+

(n)k2i

initial n2i {i}

Emesal: (initial) i

q (dotted-k)


+

q

? (#?)


+

? (#?)

nge (#?)




+

nke (#?)

QA

+

Q[H]A

(N(10))gV

+

(n/N(10))ka(:)

(n)g[~]3a

+

Emesal: (initial) a

Emesal: (final) n2(a) {(a)}

Emegi (initial): n2a {a}

Emegi (medial and medial): (n)k2(a) (but transcribed as (n)g[~]3(a))

q

+

q

? (#?)

+

? (#?)

nge (#?)

+

nke (#?)

QO



















+

Q[H]O

(n/N)gV

initial, rarely: (n)gwo(:)(4); n(g)o(:)

initial + 's:
a(:)n'sV

initial + y:
*angwi becomes angw(h)i

initial + y + -*w:
*angwiu becomes ang^hu

+

initial, rarely: (n/N)kwo(:)(4); (n)ko(:)

(n)g[~]3u



















+

(n)k2u

initial n2u {u}

g



















+

g

? (#?)



















+

chu (#32)

nga (#?)



















+

nka (#?)



RE







+

R[H]E

rV







+

re(:)

ri







+

Li, written li

3







+

3

re (#6, 17, 26, 33, 35)







+

r written re (#?)

re (#?)

from original clusters rre (#?)

vocalic R becomes ri/u (#?)

+

re (#?)

from original clusters rre (#?)

vocalic R becomes ri/u (#?)

RA







+

R[H]A

rV







+

ra(:)

r







+

La, written la

3







+

3

ra (#13, 20, 24, 25, 30)






+

r written ra (#?)

re (#?)

from original clusters rre (#?)

vocalic R becomes ri/u (#?)

+

re (#?)

from original clusters rre (#?)

vocalic R becomes ri/u (#?)

RO







+

R[H]O

rV







+

Lo(:)

Indic, initial: r

Lu, written lu

unidentified dialectal ru





+

Lu, written lu

r







+

r

ra (for ro) (#7, 12, 23)






+

la (for *lo) (#17, 18, 22)

ra (#?)

from original clusters rra (#?)

vocalic R becomes ri/u (#?)

+

la (#?)

between vowels Vlle (#?)

vocalic L becomes i/ul (#?)





ETRUSCAN VOWELS IN COMBINATION
VOWEL
+ i
+ a
+ u
+ stress-accent
- stress-accent
a/ written a
written e
written a
written u
a/ written a
/e
a/ written a from *o/*
written e
written a
written u
a/ written a
/a
e/
written e
written e
ű written u
e/ written e
/e
i/
written i
written i
ű written u
i/ written i
i
u/
ű written u
written u
written u
u/ written u
u



Emesal Equivalents
to
Emegi Vowels


EG i ES e

EG a remains as ES a

EG u ES i

EG * (written e) ES (written a)








SUMERIAN VOWELS IN COMBINATION
VOWEL
+ i
+ a
+ u
i
[i:] written i
[e:] written e
[:] written u
a
[e:] written e
[a:] written a
U [o:] written u
u
[:] written u
[u:] written u
[u:] written u






Those interested in Etruscan may also be interested in viewing

the Etruscan Etymological Glossary

presented by Damien Erwan Perrotin.

Additional resources are the Etruscan Glossary at this website, prepared by the author;

and the Etruscan Glossary created by Rick McCallister and Silvia McCallister-Castillo.












PL / PIE / PAA / ETRUSCAN LEXICAL COMPARISONS (1-35)

with selected cognates in other languages and language families




[A = Arabic; E = Hieroglyphic Egyptian; ET = Etruscan page numbers
after entries are Albanian references in The Etruscans Begin To Speak,
Zacharie Mayani, 1962; LE = Late Egyptian;
OI = Old Indian; PA = Proto-Altaic; PAA = Proto-Afrasian page numbers
after entries are references in Ehret 1995 or Orel-Stolbova 1995;
PD = Proto-Dravidian; PIE = Proto-Indo-European entries in parentheses
are keywords in Pokorny 1959 entries marked by ** have been reconstructed
by the author; PL = ProtoLanguage; PU = Proto-Uralic; S = Sumerian]

Youth from Malavolta




WHERE I HAVE PROPOSED A NEW MEANING
FOR AN ETRUSCAN WORD, THE NEW MEANING WILL BE HIGHLIGHTED IN RED
FOR EASY REFERENCE.



ETRUSCAN WORDS TREATED: *a, '*family'; *-a, *stative; acale, 'June'; ac(e), 'start to make, offer, act'; acila, 'give (really '*gift'); acna, 'give birth to, beget'; *acnana, '*born one, *child'; acnanasa, 'having begotten, in the state of begetting children, having children'; aiS(a), 'god'; am(e), 'be'; apa, 'father'; ar(a), 'make, move, move away'; ati, 'mother'; avil, '*derived from windiness' = '*winter' = 'year'; capesar, '*shoe-maker'; car(e), 'make, build'; -c(h)a, '*produced by' and #23; -c(h)e, past tense formant; clan, 'son, *child/*yeller', and #30; cure, '*stone'; eca, 'here (is), *look here!'; eiSar, 'gods'; fleres(/*S), 'ex-voto, *promised/sworn gift'; Fufluns, 'Bacchus, *the bubbling one'; hercle, 'Hercules'; hinth(i)(a), 'below, under'; hinthial, 'shades of the departed'; -i, '-like'/feminine; -i, '-like'/locative; ic(he), 'this/here'; ik(h)nac, 'hot'; laut(u)n, 'people'; -l(e/a),derivational/pertinentive, genitive; men(a), 'offer, set up/aside for'; muluan(a), '*milling table/pan'; mut(a)na, 'tomb, sarcophagus, *storage thing/place for the dead'; neithi, '*subterranean'; papa, 'grandfather'; papals, 'grandson'; pazu, '*(cheese-)grater'; pele, 'Peleus'; puris, '*put a hard coat on'; purth(a), '*prtanis, *ritual fire-maker/tender'; putis, '*water (verb), *cause to be poured'; rach, 'prepare'; rath(u), 'sacred thing, ril, 'age'; -s for -*S, '*unique', *emphatic 'the''; -s for -*S, possessive; sat, 'place, put'; sce, '*nursing'; sech, 'daughter/*quiet one'; slia, '*salt-water'; sren, 'decoration, *svaci, '*nurse'; sval, 'live, be alive,*feast, *eat, *drink'; Spur(a), 'city, *clan headquarters'; suth, 'place, stay'; suthi, 'place, seat, tomb'; -t(h), *3rd person singular optative; tham(a), 'build, found,*cut tomb out of stone'; *thar, '(towards) there, thither'; thaura/e, 'tomb (better, '*funeral mound/*tumulus')'; thaurch, 'funerary (better, '*pertaining to the funeral mound/tumulus)'; *tem(i), 'build'; *ten(a), 'act as, perform as, carry out the duties of', *hold office of'; *tes(-in), '**(castrated[?]) ram(-meat = mutton)'; tev, 'show, make'; tmia, 'place, (sacred) building'; tur(a), 'give'; t(h)(u)ra, 'incense, *infant'; tuthi, 'community'; tva, 'being made'; turan, 'Etruscan goddess, equivalent to Aphrodite/Venus'; Uni, 'Juno'; *us(i), '*twilight'; usil, 'sun'; utur, 'Iuturna, goddess of water'; va, plural for uncountables; vac(a)l(*a), 'libation(-vessel)'




(1)

PL T?E-MA-Eab, ('wind (around)-stay-like'); S: dim2, 'build, make'; (Jaritz #785); PAA: *dim-, 'dwelling' (OS:162); E: dm.j, 'be joined, cleave to'; A: first element in tamma, be completed'; (PIE: *dem(6)- (for *demy-), 'construct, fit together'); PU: *Dyim, 'glue ('that with which things are made to stay together')'; ET: *tem(i), 'build', theoretical root for tmia, 'place, (sacred) building'; the final -a is PL ?A, stative; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'cause items to stay together by wrapping material around them'.

NOTE: We would normally expect PL E to be reflected in Etruscan e. For this reconstruction wth Etruscan e, see page 14 of Comparative Grammar of Latin 35, by Michael Weiss of Cornell University.

(2)

PL THA-MO, ('damp(en)-smooth'); S: dam (for *tam2), 'part of a plow, *plowshare' (Jaritz #922); E: dm, 'be sharp, sharpen, pierce'; (PIE: *tem-, 'cut, sharpen'); ET: tham(a), 'build, found, *cut tomb out of stone'; (cf. Albanian tam, 'point where a river forks/splits'); (142: press here to see a drawing of the illustration accompanied by the caption tesinth tami thurasesumably 'on the mutton[?])[cf. Albanian dash {sandhi de-aspiration?}, '(castrated[?]) ram'; possibly PIE *des-, 'lacking'[?]; PL T?A-SO, 'hand-pull' = 'pluck'; Egyptian ds, 'flint, *knap'; -th(i), Etruscan locative], cutting out [t(h)am + Etruscan progressive in i; PL E; PIE durative {present} -*ei/y] for (the sake of) tender (portions) [PL THO-RO, 'compacted-very' = 'bud, tender, young'; PIE *ter-, 'tender, young, sprout'; Egyptian tr, 'weak, *sprout'; Sumerian tul(*u)4, is a reading of Jaritz #273, which includes the meanings weak, small, young'; + Etruscan dative -s [for -*S](I), see below); RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'sharpen by whetting' and, from that: 'use a sharpened blade formed by whetting'.

(3)

PL KXHE. ('go [away] fast/work'); (PIE: *-k^(h)e-, perfect/aorist formant; as Greek and Latin -*k, perfect tense formant; in Armenian -c. [letter name: c.o, /ts/], aorist tense formant {Armenian c., replaces PIE *k^(h)s in *swek^s, 'six', Armenian vec.; and replaces the PIE present tense formant *-sk^(h)e, as in harc.anem, 'I ask'; it seems obvious that the Armenian aorist contains both PIE *k^(h) and *s in either order.}); ET: -c(h)e (for *-c(h)), past tense formant; stress-accented, -*'c as in mene'ce, 'sets up'; stress-unaccented, -*ch as in me'nache, 'was set up'; RATIONALE: the basal verbal meaning of KXHE is 'go (away) fast', which developed into ('leave when') 'complete' in this context.

(4)

PL ?A-K?E, ('plant-top-poke' = 'goad, impel to motion, initiate'); S: ag, 'do, make, act, perform' (Jaritz #159); E: jk.w, 'quarry'; jk.y, 'quarryman'; the determinative for these words, Gardiner #A19, 'stooped man holding a (prying) bar': determinative for jk, 'quarry' (#A19), shows that the ground meaning is 'poking with a stick'; (PIE: *ag^-, 'drive, set in motion, lead, swing, *goad by poking with a stick'); ET: ac(e), '(start to) make, offer, act'; acila (for *acel, 'give (really 'gift'); + -NHA, nomen instrumenti: 'that with which something is initiated'); RATIONALE: the basal idea behind this word seems to be 'initiation of movement or action, start to do'.

(5)

PL HA-E-SHA, ('air-like-state' = 'well supplied with air' = 'charged with energy' = 'strength'); S: Jaritz #597 means 'strong, powerful, respect(ed)', and reads esi, though not presently associated with that meaning; NA4esi, 'dolerite', suggests that the meaning 'strong' is also to be attached to esi, which I analyze as HA-E-SHA-E, 'air-like' = 'breath' = state-'like' = 'well-provided with breath' = 'strong' and also 'respected', properly *s; that HA, 'air', is associated with physical strength is shown clearly by a2, 'strength, power, energy', written with Jaritz #628; A: possibly first element in haiyi, quick! (if 'energetically'[?])'; (PIE: *eis- [for **a{:}is-], 'powerful'; the first element is seen again in *ayu- [for **a{:}y-u-]), 'life', which is simply FA, 'collection' of 'breath', HA-E; this is the same word as *ais-, 'venerate', which is properly *ais-y-, 'power-like' = 'the attitude towards powerful entities, respect or awe'; ET: aiS(a) (for *iS[a]), 'god'; the plural formant, -r (PL RE, 'number of discrete entities'), moves the stress-accent to the ultimate; and the original final vowel reappears: eiSr while now stress-de-accented initial a becomes e; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'air in the lungs is the source of strength and energy; and strength is the occasion for respect'.

(6)

PL K?A-RE, ('cup-cause to become', 'to collect (by positioning hands and arms [cupping] to bring something together'); S: gar, 'heap up, enclose'; (Jaritz #970); E: in k3.t, 'work'; (PIE: *ger-, 'put together, collect'); ET: car(e), 'make, build'; RATIONALE: The basal idea is 'cupping the hands or arms to gather things together'.

(7)

PL T?A-?A-FA-RO, ('hand-stative-'do repeatedly'-part'); S: first element in du3 (for *d3), 'hand over'; (Jaritz #454); E: first element in dw (for *djw), 'give'; (PIE: *dou-ro-s, 'gift', from **da:u-, 'give'; interestingly, this uncommon formation is present in Armenian tur, 'gift'); PU: possibly first element in toGe, 'bring, fetch, give'; ET: tur(a) (for *tr(a)), 'give'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'handing over a part/portion repeatedly', implying 'permanent transferral'.

(8)

PL ?A-ME, ('location-middle'); S: -am6,3, enclitic copula; (Jaritz #785); E: (j)m, 'there', copula; (PIE: *-em, 'it/there is . . . (who)' in *eg^(h)-m, (it is) 'I'; *tuw-m, '(it is) you'; and *ey-m, '(it is) he'; emphatic independent pronouns); PU: *am3, 'sit, set, be'; ET: am(e), 'be'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'being located there between the speaker and the listener', hence 'demonstrably present'.

(9)

PL ME-E-NA, ('tongue-like-thing' = 'stake/pale'); S: men3 (for *mn3), '*set up, *set firmly, *establish'; *mn3 currently has no assigned meaning but the sign with which it is written, (Jaritz #410, depicting a 'side-view of a foot (and leg)', has these meanings presently associated with the reading gin, representing PL K?E-NA, 'poke-thing' = '(fastening) peg/pin/fix firmly'; E: mn (for *mjn), 'set up, establish'; (PIE: *mei-n-, 'fortify, establish, build'); ET: men(a) (for *mn(a)) , 'offer, set up/aside for'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is to 'demarcate an area by surrounding it with pales, set aside for some specifically intended use'.

(10)

PL K?A-(E-)NO-?A, ('cup-like-store-stative'); S: gan (for *gn), 'bear (young)'; (written phonetically with Jaritz #271); E: Hn(w).t, 'mistress, *progenitrix'; PD: *kanu, 'bear or bring forth, beget'; (PIE: *g^en(6)- (for **gyen(6)-), 'bear (young)'); PU: possibly the first element ('cup-like') in *kaj3, 'spoon, shovel'; ET: acna (for *acn), 'give birth to, beget'; the initial a may, perhaps, be explained by *cainu'a*cy'nwa*acn; that this word meant primarily to 'bear young', the function of the female, is strongly suggested by the form acnanasa, 'having begotten, in the state of begetting children, having children', male function, which supposes an intermediate *acn'na, '*born one, *child'; -sa (for *s), which forms the "imperfect participle", is PL SHA, 'state or condition'; this contrasts with the "perfect participle" is formed with tha, PL THO, 'do repeatedly', to which -sa (for *S) is added; and is the equivalent of PIE -*to, which is associated with completion of a verbal activity as a perfect participle; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'store in the womb'.

(11)

PL T?E-?A-NA, ('wind (around)-stative-cause to be'); S: ten (for *dn, 'extinguish, calm one's self, *restrain, *retain, *hold (back)'; (Jaritz #680); E: dn.j (for *djn.j), 'dam, hold back, restrain'; (PIE: *de:-n-, 'garb, *binding, sinew'); ET: *ten(a) (for tn(a)), 'act as, perform as, carry out the duties of', *hold office of'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'cause items to stay together by wrapping material around them'.

(12)

PL ?A-RO(-E), ('top-raise(-like)'; S: al, '*complete'; (Jaritz #564); E: jr.j, 'make, construct, act, apply, succeed'; (PIE: *ar(6)- (for *ary-), 'put together, fit together, put on top of'); ET: ar(a), 'make, move, move away'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'putting on top', also with the result of 'being put together'.

(13)

PL TSHO-RA, ('around-tall' = 'surrounding enclosure'); S: tur3, 'enclosure for cattle'; (Jaritz #135); E: '3, 'there, here(about), yonder'; (PIE: *tor (for **t(h)or), 'there'; *twer-, 'enclose, [circular] enclosure'); PU: first element in *to, 'that (over there)', corresponding to PIE *to (for **tho), 'this (better 'that'), there'; ET: *thar, '(towards) there, thither'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'swinging around to designate a surrounding area outside of the speech area'.

(14)

PL THO-FHA(-THO), ('move together-do repeatedly'[-large animate plural] = 'congregate [congregation]'); S: tu10, 'heap up, beat down, *compact'; (Jaritz #146); tu11, 'heap up, beat down, *compact'; (Jaritz #141); E: tw.t, 'full, entire, complete'; (PIE: *teu- (for **to:u-), 'swell'; also in *stew6- (for **(s)to:w6-), 'be(come) compact, gather [intransitive]'); PU: possibly *twDe, 'full, total, all'; ET: tuthi (for *thth; apparently, Etruscan did not permit two sequential aspirated stops in the same position), 'community'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'coming together like a tribe or herd'.

(15)

PL SO-T?O(-THO)(-E), ('skin-lump' = 'cushion'); E: st, 'seat, throne'; (PIE: *sed-, 'set one's self, sit'; *sed-t-, 'seated'); ET: suth (for *so:th from *sotth; the root without THO is seen in Etruscan sat (for *sath[?]), 'place, put'), 'place, stay'; suthi, 'place, seat, tomb'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'place one's self on a cushion'.

(16)

PL FO-XA(-NHA), ('foreskin-slit' = 'urinate' + nomen instrumenti); S: uh, 'spittle, slaver, sputum'; (Jaritz #717); E: w(z), 'urinate'; (PIE: *wegw-, 'damp, sprinkle'; -*la:, suffix forming nomen instrumenti); ET: vac(a)l(*a), 'libation(-vessel)'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'sprinkling or pouring analogous to urination'.

NOTE: The suffix -l(*), representing PL NHA, forming nomen instrumenti, is used in Etruscan also in: acila (for *acel), 'give (really 'gift', 'that by which something is initiated, incentive for reciprocal counter-performance, pledge').

(17)

PL HA-FHA-(E-)NHE, ('air-wind-like'-derivation = 'deriving from windiness/winter'); S: possibly ul6 (for *l6), '*wind'; u4 (for *4) means 'weather, storm'; and ul6 is another reading of the same sign: (Jaritz #684); in addition, ulu3 (for ulix[?]), Jaritz #84, means 'south wind': ulu3, 'south wind' (#84), which depicts an 'bag' (Jaritz #62) within which 'water' (Jaritz #949) is written, suggesting, to me, 'rain-cloud, squall'; (PIE: *awe:(i)- (for *a:wa:(i)-), 'blow (wind)'; cf. Welsh awel, 'wind'); -*lo/a: (for -**le:), suffix forming adjectives and derived nouns, pertinentive); ET: avil (for *vl()), 'derived from windiness' = '*winter' = 'year'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'winter marks the passage of the yearly cycle since surviving the winter was problematical in ancient societies in temperate regions'.

NOTE: The suffix -l(*), representing PL NHE, forming derivationals, is used in Etruscan aisvale (for *iSval), 'concerning divinity'; this is analyzed *iS(a), 'god' + va, plural for uncountables {-chva (PL KHO- FA; after th and s: -cva; after i, e, and S: va} + -*l = 'derived from the gods as a class'. It is also seen in acale, 'June', possibly to be analyzed as ac(e), 'initiate' + *, ?A, stative + -*l = 'derived from initiation (of the year with the summer solstice; or shortly thereafter by the heliacal rising of Sirius; common new year's day in Hellenic calendars and in Egypt)' . We also have papals, 'grandson', 'the one' (-s for *S; PL SHE, 'unique', emphatic 'the'; found with some divine names like Fufluns, which is PL (P?FO-)P?FO-RHO-NO-SHE, 'leg/column-rise'-collective plural-'unique' = 'the bubbling one'; Egyptian brbr, 'boil' {Late Egyptian}; Sumerian pul3, '*boil' (bal, '*spade, dig through' (#10) Jaritz #10, which depicts a 'spade digging into the earth', and properly reads bal for P?A-NHA, 'split-cause to become' = 'split'; PAA in p.Vla?, 'split; PIE *b(h)el-, 'board ('what is split'); *(s)p(h)el-, 'split'); PIE *wel-, 'rise up (of boiling water)'; PD pūr.. 'boil'; 'deriving from grandfather' (papa), this terminology due to the folk-belief that the grandfather was reborn in the grandson. Again in ril, 'age', 'derived from *ri (for **r, '*number'; PL RE-E, 'scratch-like' = 'digit mark'; PIE *re(:)i-, 'number'; S: ri, '(temporally) distant (better 'great number'; Jaritz #132)'; and usil, 'sun', 'derived from the twilight (*us(i); PL ( HHA-) FHE- SA(-E), '(bright-)spider-cord/web-like' = 'striations at twilight' one common early avatar of the sun was a spider; in Egyptian Wz-jrj, '(morning) twilight-maker', 'Osiris', god of morning Venus; in Sumerian us(-)an (for *s-an), (evening) 'twilight-sky', 'evening'; PIE *(a[:])wes-, 'dawn, *morning twilight')'; and last, but not least, hinthial, 'shades of the departed', 'derived from below (hinth(i)(a), 'below, under'). Finally, we have derivational -l in the Etruscan 'genitive', which expresses a close relationship but one short of actual possession, which is alternatively expressed by -s (for *-S; cf. clenaraSi [where S is properly retained], 'what is associated with what belongs to the children', formed from the possessive/dative (PL SHO, 'own, same') + -* (E)).

(18)

PL SO-FA-RHO, ('pull-do repeatedly' = 'suck' + '(cause to) rise'; this suggests drinking from a lifted leathern bag); S: first element in sub (for *sb), 'suck, kiss ('venerate')': sub, 'suck, kiss' (#36), which depicts a 'head and neck in profile with hair around the mouth' (Jaritz #15) to the right of which 'left hand' (Jaritz #651) is written, suggesting, 'veneration by a kiss [little suck] on the left (unclean) hand';E: swr, 'drink'; A: first element in zmu-n, sap, juice'; (PIE: *swel-, 'bolt food, eat, drink'; first element is *seu-, 'juice, suck'; first element in *seu-mo-, 'soma, juice'; *seu-b/p-, 'soup, drink'); PU: *sewe- (for **sowe- [?]), 'eat'; ET: sval, 'live, be alive, feast, eat, drink' an optimistic attitude towards the course of one's life; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'lifting something from which one sucks/drinks'.

(19)

PL MO-FA-T?O-(NO), ('blood-set-done repeatedly[-store]'); S: mud2 (for *md2), '*dead'; (Jaritz #112); PAA: *mawut, 'die' (OS:380); E: m(w)t, 'die'; A: mta, die'; D: *maD- (for **mD[?]), 'die'; (PIE: *meu-d-, 'make dirty, *bleed out'; *ne(u)-, '*store' [for a discussion of this assignment of meaning, please press here]); ET: mut(a)na (for *mt(a)na), 'tomb, sarcophagus, *storage thing/place for the dead'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'bleeding to death'.

(20)

PL SHO-(FHA-)P?A-RA , ('clansman(-set)-seat-tree' = 'clan-seat totem' = ' clan headquarters'); S: possibly subar, 'hero, *clan-chief'; (subar, 'hero, *clan-chief' (#94), Jaritz #94, which depicts a 'boar's head'); E: sp3.t, 'district, nome'; the determinative, Gardiner #N24, sp3, '*clan seat' (#N24), shows not 'irrigation' as per Gardiner but rather the pattern of dwellings utilizing common walls familiar from ancient settlements, suggesting clan relationship and settlement; A: first element probably in sibTu-n, tribe'; (PIE: *s(w)e-bh- (for **s(w)eb- [cf. OHG sippe]), 'clan'; Slavic shows *sebr6-, 'free ('inhabitant of the clan-seat')'; this is probably related to sept, 'division of a tribe or clan'); ET: Spur(a), 'city, *clan headquarters'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is a 'settlement of individuals belonging to the same clan (around a clan symbol)'.

(21)

PL ?A , ('forehead' = 'here' = 'nuclear family'); S: a, '*family', in a-e2, 'house, family, *family seat'; (Jaritz #949 a (for *), 'water' (#949) + Jaritz #599 e2 (for *2), 'house' (#599)); (GI)a2-na, 'memorial tablet for an ancestor' (Jaritz #628 a2 (for *), '*air' (#628) + Jaritz #114 na, 'stone' (#114)); PL ?A-NA, 'family-one'; ab, '*family-seat, (*paternal) house, father', (Jaritz #222 ab, '(family) house' (#222)), and aba3, 'father', (Jaritz #274 ad, 'father' (#274)); PL ?A-P?A, 'family-seat' = 'father's house' = 'father'; ad (for *at[u]), 'parent': 'mother' or 'father', (Jaritz #274; see above); PL ?A-THO, 'family-accompanier' = 'consort'; PAA: *?ab-, 'father' (OS:1); E: j in jt(f), 'father'; A: ?a, '*family', in ?abu-n, 'father'; PL ?A-P?A, 'family-seat' = 'father's house', but possibly ?A-P?O, '((family-)swollen' = 'phallus'; in Egyptian j(t)f, 'father'; (PIE: **a, '*family', in *an- (for **a:n-), 'term for male or female ancestors'; PL ?A-NA); in *awo-s (for *a:bo-s), 'maternal grandfather'; PL ?A-P?A, but possibly ?A-P?O; in *a(:)to-s, 'mother/father'; PL ?A-THO; PU: *an'a, 'wife of an older relative'; appe, 'step-father'; ap3, 'older female relative'; ET: *a, '*family' in a pa, 'father' (PL ?A-P?A, 'family-seat' = 'paternal house' = 'father'); in papa (for *ppa from *apa-apa), 'grandfather'; in at i (for *a't), 'mother'; ?A-THO-E, 'family-consort-like/feminine'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'members of the nuclear family are most likely to be located in one's immediate presence'.

(22)

PL RHO-FHA-T?SA, ('rise-do repeatedly-body' = 'growth'); PAA: *dim-, 'dwelling' (OS:162); E: rwD, 'prosper'; (PIE: leudh-(o-), 'grow up, people, Lydians[?]'); ET: laut(u)n, 'people' (RHO-FHA-T?SA-NA, 'growth-thing'); RATIONALE: the basal idea is a 'dynamically growing population'.

(23)

PL TSHO(-FHA)-RO(-KHO), ('circle around-[do repeatedly-]done to a high degree[-produced {by}]'); S: du6 (for tul/Tul2, other readings of the same sign), 'mound'; (Jaritz #809, du6 (for tul), mound' (#809), which depicts dark areas in a hill' or better cuts in a hill); E: 'r, 'ascend ('*negotiate a mound')'; 'r.t, 'hind-parts' or 'hindquarters' suggests a meaning of 'rounded protrusion' for 'r; 'r, 'stairway', is determined with Gardiner #O41, a double stairway', which suggests a 'mound' as well as a 'stairway': 'r, ascend' (#O41); for a different interpretation of #O41, see here; (PIE: *two-r-, 'mass', in Old Icelandic ori, 'mass'); ET: thaure/a, 'tomb (better, 'funeral mound/tumulus')'; thaurch, 'funerary (better, 'pertaining to the funeral mound/tumulus)'; the final -ch represents PL KHO, which is PIE -*ko, a suffix forming adjectives from substantives, meaning 'related to'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'tall, round prominences are incrementally ascended by circumambulation'.

(24)

PL RA-KHO , ('back-cover' = 'remove lid' = 'open up' = 'by opening, release/obtain'); S: rak, '*spread wide'; Jaritz #919 reads rak, and means 'spread wide' although this meaning is currently associated with the reading sal (Jaritz #919); E: possibly in 3Tp, 'coffer' (RA-KHO-P?A, 'open up-piece' = 'lid(ded container)'[?]); A: possibly rakhkhu-n, 'lax, flaccid'; (PIE: *rek-, 'arrange, produce'); PU: *rakk3, 'prepare'; ET: rach, 'prepare'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'removing the lid from a covered container to release or obtain something needed for imminent activity or use'.

(25)

PL XO-RA(-E), ('waist-tall' = 'center middle/center protrusion'); S: hur, '*mountain' in hur-sag (Jaritz #194, 'head, point', which depicts a 'head'), 'mountain(-peak); (Jaritz #723, which depicts a 'millstone' [har] but possibly also an 'overhead view of a mountain' [hur]); PA: *k'ori, 'hill'; PAA: possibly as first element *go-, 'stone, mountain' (OS:211); E: X3.t, 'mound of corpses'; PD: kr(-d), 'name of mountain tribe'; (PIE: *gWer(y)-, ' mountain, stone'); PU: *kurV(-ka), 'hill'; ET: cure [for *cur from *curai{?}; cf. Albanian gur, 'stone' from PIE *gWri-], '(mountain-)stone' (228-29); RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'what is like (E) a mountain' = 'stony'.

(26)

PL PFHE-FHO-RE(-THO), ('spark-disperse-cause to become[-do repeatedly to completion]'); S: bur2 (for prx), 'light, glow, shine, *shoot sparks, *bonfire'; (Jaritz #12, which depicts 'weaving shuttle' [Jaritz #3] over a 'pile of excrement (or, possibly, 'logs')' [Jaritz #2]); bu7 (for b7), 'light, glow, shine, *shoot sparks, *bonfire'; (Jaritz #893d, which depicts 'flat stone grinding board', and is purely phonetic; A: fauwara, 'cause water to boil, *heat'; fawratu-n, 'vehemence of heat, anger'; PD: first element in *p, 'spark(s)'; (PIE: *pewo:r- (for **p(h)e[:]wo[:]r-, '(bon)fire'); PU: *p(j)w, 'fire')'; ET: purth(a) (for *prth(a)), 'prtanis, a Greek religious official in charge of the Prytaneion wherein the fire of Hestia (the civic hearth) burned perpetually, ruler' (102); RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'fire-maker as a religious and civil official'.

(27)

PL PHO-HO(-E)(-THO)(-E)(-SHE), ('stretch one's self-move down[-like]' = 'be poured' [+ 'collection' = 'drink {noun}{quantity}'][+'like', forms verbs from nouns][+ 'single (act)']); PD: *poj-, 'spill, flow'; (PIE: *po:(i)- (for *poH(y)-), 'drink' + -*s, aorist/punctual in Greek pi:sa, 'I gave to drink'); PU: probably in *pučV, 'pour out'; ET: putis (for *pts[?]; PL PHO-HO-THO-E-SHE), '*water (verb), *cause to be poured'; cf. Albanian pi, 'I drink'; potis, 'I water'; (117; Mayani quotes from an inscription on a slinger's missile: putist ic, which I believe is analyzable as putis, 'water [verb], pour' + -t(h), 3rd person singular optative (of Albanian: -t), and ic(he) (PL ?A-E-KHE), 'this/here' = 'may he pour out [blood] here!' ); RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'pouring out liquid ('down a throat' = 'drinking')'.

(28)

PL P?FA-SE-THO-FHA, ('prominence-separate-collection-do repeatedly'); PAA: possibly *ba -, 'tear off, skin' (OS:64); E: possibly bs, 'god Bes, the rubber/rubbed one[?]'; (PIE: *bhetsu- (metathesis from **bhes-tu-[?]; -*tu is an acknowledged suffix of nomina actionis = 'rubbing'), 'rubbing off/ apart');ET: pazu, '*(cheese-)grater (cf. Albanian baxho, 'cheese-maker/*grater, shed where milk is processed')'; (140; press here to see a drawing of the illustration accompanied by the caption pazu muluane, presumably 'grater/ing at (Etruscan locative in i: -a + -i -e [for *-]; PL E; PIE locative -*(o)i) the milling table/pan'; note Old Indian gr:-v-an-, 'stone for grinding soma'; this suggests an -*en derivative of a verb with final -*w, as *mlu/u:-, 'pound' [**mlwen-, 'pounding apparatus{?}]'; PL MO-NHA-FHA-NA, 'slap-move back and forth-do repeatedly' = 'pound apart-stone/thing']); RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'removing prominences by rubbing'.

(29)

PL KHO-PFHA-(THO-)SHE, ('cover-fleece-collection'='pair of fleece foot-coverings' + 'single' = 'shoe'); PAA: *kab- (for **kop-; this entry epitomizes the incompetence of OS; there are several cognates correctly identified which point unambiguously to *o and *p for this root), 'shoe, sandal' (OS:307); E: first element in Tb(.w), '(pair of) sandal(s)'; A: first element in khuffu-n, 'slippers'; PD: first element probably in *kap-, 'cover'; (PIE: *(s)kep- (for *kep(h)-), 'cover'); ET: capes-ar (see #12 above) (for *c(h)ap(h)ezar[?]), 'shoe(-maker) (cf. Albanian kapucar, 'shoemaker')' (178); RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'covering the soles of the feet with sheep's fleece'.

(30)

PL SO-FA-K?A-E, ('pull-do repeatedly-be chewed-like' = 'suck by chewing' = 'nurse'); S: first element in sub (for *sb), 'suck, kiss ('venerate')'; see above; PAA: *sawVh., 'egg' (OS:466); E: in swH.t, 'egg ('what is sucked')'; H for *kj; A: first element in zmu-n, sap, juice'; (PIE: *seu-g- [for **seu-g^/gy-], 'suck'); ET: sce (for *sc from *suci [*svci + Etruscan progressive in -i; PL E; PIE durative {present} -*ei/y-]), 'nursing, sucking' (204; press here to see a drawing of the illustration of the myth of Hercules' suckling (see Graves 1959: II, 145.i; this is a part of the ceremony of adoption) accompanied by this caption on a sign above the scene:


eca (PL A-KHE, 'eye-nearby' = 'look there!'; PIE *(j)ek^- in Old Bulgarian (j)ese, 'look there!)'

sren (PL SA-RA-NA, 'figure, *what is lined up' = '*composition/scene'; PIE *ser-, 'line up one after another, fasten')

tva ( PL T?A-FA, '*make'; from tev(a), 'show, *make', with shift of stress-accent to indicate durative status; PIE *deu-, 'make')

ikhnac (for *iknac[?]; or does PIE *g appear as Etruscan kh in this phonetic environment?); (PL HHE-K?O, 'smoke-neck' = 'flue, column of rising hot air/gas' + NA, 'thing' = 'chimney' + KHO, 'produced by' (see above) = 'hot'; this root is seen in its earliest meaning in Czech vheň, 'chimney', from PIE *e[:]gn-i-s, 'fire' (+ E, '-like' + SHA, 'state or condition' = 'heat/fire'; Hercules is a solar hero/god, whose twelve labors mirror troubles occurring while the sun makes its passage through the months of the year; characterizing him as 'hot' is quite in keeping with his core mythological significance, and correlates nicely with his 'heated' disposition, his death on a symbolic funeral pyre, and the epithet of Hera as his mother: Alkm:ne:, 'strong of anger', the sun-goddess as punisher of injustice)

hercle ET Hercle, 'Hercules'

unial ET Uni, 'Juno' + -al, derivational

clan (see #31 below)

thra (from thura, '*infant', with shift of stress-accent to indicate attributive status[?] = 'infantile'; see above)

sce (see above);


presumably, this means: 'look here! (a) composition (is) being made (to show) hot Hercules, son of Juno, infantilely nursing'.

RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'sucking and simultaneously working the jaws = nursing'.

(31)

PL KXHO-NHA-NA, ('shell-vibrate-thing' = 'castanets[?]' = 'noise-maker'); PAA: *kol-, 'cry, shout', in East Chadic **kol- for OS k.al-; their *k.awal- in Proto-Semitic *qawal- is a different root meaning properly 'raise the voice, speak loudly' (OS:335); E: xn, 'call out'; xn.w, 'child' (the determinative, Gardiner #A17, 'child sitting (on lap) with hand to mouth, thumb extended', suggests a thumb-sucking infant'); A: very possibly ghl (gh-l-y), exaggerate'; ghal (gh-l-y), boil(ing sound, gurgle[?])'; PD: *kil-, 'cry (out), sound'; (PIE: *kel- (for **k(h)el-), 'call, cry, be noisy'; **k(h)(e)len-, 'commotion'; this may very well be the root underlying English 'child'); ET: clan, 'son ('*yeller'), (probably better) *young male'; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'little boys make lots of noise'.

(32)

PL SE-?A-QHO, ('emit-stative-catch'); S: eg5 (for *(n)k25), 'be silent', written with Jaritz #63, which depicts a 'plant rising from a [*seed in a, *x{?}] hole' (Jaritz #99a) inside a 'trap' or 'sack/bag' (Jaritz #62)": eq5 (for (n)k2-5), 'be silent' (#63); and sig9 (for *(n)k2x), 'be silent' (Jaritz #188, which depicts a 'curled horn'; there is a phonetic resemblance only); note Akkadian aqummatu, 'hush', which indicates a dorsal nasal in second position in this root; (PIE: *se:k- (for **se:nk-), 'quiet'); ET: sech (for *sch), 'daughter, (probably better) *young female' ; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'quiet little females, contrasting with noisy little males'.

(33)

PL RE-?A-THO, ('scratch'-stative-'collection' = 'number(s), calculation'); S: first element in *ri2 (for *r2), '*sum (#834 currently read kel for this meaning)'; ( Jaritz #834, which depicts a 'wheel rim' or 'area circumscribed by a circle'; *rit (for *rt), '*count, calculate (#580b currently read id for this meaning)'; ( Jaritz #580b, which depicts a 'clay writing tablet on a holder'); E: 3.t (for *3j.t), 'moment, *number'; (PIE: *re:-to-, 'number(s), calculation', listed incorrectly under *ar-; cf. Latin ri:tus, 'rite'); ET: rath(u), 'sacred thing, *(out)line(s)'; (222-224; press here to see a drawing of the illustration accompanied by the caption over the two adult heads: teva rath, presumably, 'making the line(s)/calculations two men laying out the sacred precincts of a temple or altar; RATIONALE: the basal idea is a 'collection or series of linear scratches make a(n) (out)line or make a calculation'.

(34)

PL P?FO-RA-E-SHE, ('(tree-)trunk-color' = 'brown' = 'bark' = 'put on a hard outer layer-unique'); S: dim2, 'build, make'; (Jaritz #785); PAA: possibly *bur-, 'earth, sand (if 'brown'[?])' (OS:82); (PIE: *bher-, 'brown'; *bher(ei)-, 'roast, bake' + -*s, aorist/punctual ); PD: *por-, 'roast'; PU: *porV, 'burn, roast'; ET: *puris, 'hardened the exterior with a protective skin'; (206-208; press here to see a drawing of the illustration accompanied by the caption: slia (PL SHA-NHA, 'satisfy-lick' = 'salt(-lick)' + '-like' (PL -E, PIE -*i) = PIE *sal-i-, 'salt' + (PL-HHA, PIE -**a[:], '*water')) hercle puris pele, presumably, 'Peleus hardens Hercules(' skin) (with) salt-water' notice the gesture of Peleus, his right index and middle fingers being parted, a sign of blessing or protection[?]; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'protect by creating a hard outer layer, as by baking or roasting, analogous to bark'.

(35)

PL NA-E-THO, ('inside-like-collection' = 'underground'); (PIE: *nei-, 'down (inside under the ground)' + -*to + -*i); PU: in *EnV, 'place, *under, cf. Hungarian enyett, 'under''; ET: *neithi, '*subterranean'; (226-227; on a statue of a goddess, we find the caption: larce lecni turce fleres (the ex-voto was given in accordance with a vow; the PL word for 'vow' is based on P?FA-NHA, prominent-vibrate' = 'speak loudly and impassionedly'; to be a 'vow', it must have been an abnormally pitched statement of intention; it is seen in PIE *bhel-, 'shout, orate'; and *(s)pel- (for **(s)p(h)el-), 'speak loudly, expressively; (boastful) promise (in Greek apeil:)'; Sumerian bal, 'be outraged', a reading of Jaritz #10, see above; + RE-?A, ' number (see above)' + SHE, 'unique', see above); for *flerS) uthurla (pertinentive (feminine): -la) neithi, presumably, 'Larce Lecni gave (this) ex-voto for subterranean Iūturna'; Jūturna is a goddess of fountains also water in general; her son is Fon(tu)s; her name is probably Turan (for *Tran[?], Aphrodite/Venus) preceded by Iū- for *dye:u-, 'divinely shining'; this is quite possibly T?A-?A-FA-RO-NA, 'the gifter, generous one'; cf. Greek D:ris, 'Doris, a sea-nymph, the 'bountiful one''; RATIONALE: the basal idea is 'what is inside is under the ground'.






The correspondence of 35+ roots and many formants suffices for a preliminary study to establish the presumption of a genetic relationship.











NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS





For an explanation of the Proto-Language and Indo-European notational conventions
used in these essays, press here.





Afrasian



















PL MORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS IN ETRUSCAN

(not included under lexical headings)
in preparation

press here to see








Combinatory Modifications

for modifications of the vowels and consonants in combination in Etruscan, see the

Table of Modifications










Summary of Phonological Changes

from Proto-Language to Etruscan








PROTO-LANGUAGE MONOSYLLABLES

In order for readers to judge the semantic plausibility of the analysis of Proto-Language (PL) compounds suggested here, I am including access to a table of Proto-Language monosyllables and the meanings I have provisionally assigned.

Most assignments can be exhaustively supported by data from actually attested forms but a few animates are very doubtful; and this list does not represent the "final" solution of these questions, which will only be approached when other scholars assist in refining it.

Patrick C. Ryan

Summer 1998






ETRUSCAN BIBLIOGRAPHY



ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY









the latest revision of this document can be found at

http://www.oocities.com/proto-language/c-ETRUSCAN-13.htm

Patrick C. Ryan * 9115 West 34th Street - Little Rock, AR 72204-4441 * (501)227-9947

PROTO-LANGUAGE@msn.com






































NOTES

a. I am aware that some readers, who may entertain the possibility of a Pontic-Nostratic connection between Indo-European and Afrasian, will not be able to accept the possibility of a reconstruction of a language as early as the Proto-Language. To those readers, may I suggest that the Proto-Language reconstruction be merely regarded as an expression of an arbitrary system of notation that allows for the regular relationships of correspondence between Indo-European and Afrasian as exemplified by Arabic.

I have utilized Arabic to exemplify these correspondences because in that language, I believe, the relationships are
regularly expressed, in contrast to those of the West and North Semitic languages, the reflexes in which to the Pontic-Nostratic phonemes have been substantially complicated by substrates and intensive non-Semitic linguistic contacts.

It must be admitted that Egyptian has undergone substantial changes for the same reasons as West and North Semitic but, I feel, it is indispensable to the comparison because of its extremely early attestation and the relative stability of its written reflexes after the initial phonemic modifications were accomplished.




b. These semantic proposals are based on the meanings of Proto-Language monosyllables deduced from many languages but primarily Egyptian and Sumerian, which, I believe, have conservatively preserved the meanings of these early monosyllables through their writing systems. Whether the meanings are plausible to the reader or not has no bearing on whether the forms are phonologically related.



1. The Pontic-Nostratic stage of the Proto-Language, from which PIE and PAA developed, had only one short V(owel): a (/a/, 'central low'; possibly with a schwa {/6/} allophone), which became e/o, or in PIE according to the Ablautsstufe required by the grammatical form. Nostratic short vowels (e, a, o), modified by the influence of adjacent laryngal-pharyngal consonants (H), were retained through Pontic-Nostratic; and later in PIE developed into long vowels: e:, a:, o:. Pontic-Nostratic a (/a/, 'central low'; possibly with a schwa {/6/} allophone) became i, a, or u in PAA, dependent on vowel patterning but possibly, at least in root nouns, based on the influence of former glides.

2. Final Early PIE voiced aspirated stops + a can become unaspirated: -*bha becomes -*b(a); -*gha becomes -*g(a); -*dha becomes -*d(a).

3. It is well-known that *b is rare in IE as an initial and even questioned by some scholars as a root final. I have found that Early PIE *b (from PL P[?]) appears in the stage of IE normally reconstructed as *w or *bh as a root initial though usually as *b as a root final. It is uncertain at this time if the presence of a nearby laryngal-pharyngal (H) was the conditioning factor in P[?] becoming IE initial *bh as opposed to *w since the expected lengthening and retention of Nostratic vowel quality does not seem to occur.

4. There are few traces of the Pontic-Nostratic stage through which PIE passed but the regular palatalization from Pontic-Nostratic dorsal stops and affricates and the dorsal nasal + yV is one; the sporadic retention of Pontic-Nostratic wV as PIE *w after coronal affricates and the voiced and unvoiced dorsal nasal is another. In the voiced dorsal nasal, the lengthened vowel compensates for the elided nasalization.

5. Only a few instances recorded: PIE *dwo:(u)- (for **dho(u)-), 'two', for PL T?SO(-FA), 'arm-number' = 'two'; cf. Egyptian ', 'pair'. The lengthened vowel compensates for the elided aspiration; and in *do(:)us- (for **dhos-), (upper) arm', for PL T?SO-SA; arm-sinew' = upper arm'; probably, the development was /dhwo'sa/ -> /dhwos/ -> /dwo(:)s/, and with metathesis: /do(:)us/.

6. The change of bilabial fricative to g[~]2 before i is similar to and probably connected in some way with the Armenian change of PIE *wei- to gi, as in PIE *woinyom- becomes Armenian gini, wine'. The sequence of finaliu from E + FA also becomes ig[~]2.

7. The *y of this syllable has been modified initially to *H in, at least, some PIE words such as *okw-, eye, and *e:n- (for **a:n), look!.

8. The e of this syllable normally became je/ie except before n/nj, or after l, or after clusters containing r (e.g. kr) .This ie was modified to ia when the following syllable contained an i. This je reverted to e after the palatalized consonants , nj, gy, and q. Any stress-unaccented e appears as .

9. Albanian a and i became e when the following syllable conained e or i.

10. Initially, *N is vocalic *n which can be realized as *a or or *an.

1