Tlazoltotl
c-ETRUSCAN-13_table.htm




Youth from Malavolta

TABLE
OF
PL / IE / SUMERIAN /EGYPTIAN / ETRUSCAN
(and Albanian*) CORRESPONDENCES

by Patrick C. Ryan
1/11/2008: 12:00 AM

Copyright 2008 Patrick C. Ryan

*I have recently re-read Zacharie Mayani's The Etruscans Begin To Speak (Simon and Shuster,
New York: 1962); and am convinced that his major proposition the relationship of Etruscan
through Illyrian to Albanian
is correct. Unfortunately, only a very few of his proposed cognates are
valid since he let his enthusiasm overshadow his perspicacity. Therefore, I am adding Albanian correspondences to the table for easy comparison when Albanian cognates are mentioned
in Proto-Language Phonemes in PIE, PAA (Hieroglyphic Egyptian and Arabic),
Etruscan, and Albanian (Nostratic Hypothesis)
.








ETRUSCAN ALPHABET AND VALUES


Etruscan Alphabet - first 14 characters Etruscan Alphabet - last 13 characters




THE COMPARANDA WILL BE MISALIGNED UNLESS THE TABLE IS VIEWED FULL-SCREEN
PROTO- LANGUAGE
INDO- EUROPEAN
SUMERIAN
EGYPTIAN
ETRUSCAN
Albanian


?E

+

HE

HV(1)

+

He:(1)

i

+

*, written i

j

+

j

? (#?)

+

? (#?)

e (#?)

+

o (for ) (#?)

?A


+

HA

HV(1)


+

Ha:(1)

a


+

*, written a

j


+

j

a (#4, 7, 8, 10, 12, 21, 32, 33, 35)

+

written a (#5, 17)

a (#?)


+

a (for ) (#?)

before m, n, r ua (#?)

?O

+

HO

HV(1)

+

Ho:(1)

u

+

*, written u

h

+

h

? (#?)

+

u (for *) (#27)

a(#?)

+

e (for *) (#27)

before m, n, r ua (#?)



E





+

HHE

yV(1)





+

He:(1)

*yi (*, written i)





+

*, written i

j





+

j

written i (#1, 5, 9, 10, 12, 15, 17, 21, 25, 27, 30, 35)



+

written i (#30)

(written i) (#27)

ej becomes i (#?)

a/oj becomes e (#?)

+

o (for ) (#?)

A




+

HHA

yV(1) / Ha(:)/
V(7)



+

Ha:(1)

*y(a), written i(a)/*, written i



+

*, written a

j




+

j

ia (#30)




+

written a (#17)

(j)a (#?)

V + j, see above
under E

+

a (for ) (#?)

before m, n, r ua (#?)

O




+

HHO

yV(1)




+

Ho:(1)

*yu (** , written u)




+

*, written u

h




+

h

? (#?)




+

written u (#??)

(j)a (#?)

V + j, see above
under E

+

e (for *) (#27)

before m, n, r ua (#?)



P[?]E


+

P[H]E

b(h)/wV(1), (3)

+

pV(1)

bi


+

pi

p


+

p

? (#?)


+

? (#?)

be(8) (#?)


+

pe(8) (#?)

P[?]A


+

P[H]A

b(h)/wV(1), (3)

+

pV(1)

ba


+

pa

p


+

p

pa (#20, 21)


+

pha (#?)

be (#?)


+

pe (#?)

P[?]O


+

P[H]O

b(h)/wV(1), (3)

+

pV(1)

bu


+

pu

f


+

f

? (#?)


+

pha (for *pho) (#27)

ba(9) (#?)


+

pa(9) (#27)



P[?]FE

+

PF[H]E

bhV(1)

+

p[h]e(:)(1)

pi

+

pi

b

+

b

fe (#?)

+

p (for ph) written pe, stress-accented (#26); ph written phe, stress-unaccented (#?)

be (#?)

+

pe (#?)

P[?]FA



+

PF[H]A

bhV(1)

final bh/b(2)

+

p[h]a(:)(1)

pa



+

pa

b



+

b

fa (#35)



+

phe (for *ph) (#29)

be (#?)



+

pe (#29)

P[?]FO

+

PF[H]O

bhV(1)

+

p[h]o(:)(1)

pu

+

pu

b

+

b

fu (#17)

+

? (#?)

ba (#?)

+

pa (#?)



FE











+

F[H]E

wV











+

wV:

Emesal: (all positions)mi

Emegi: initial and medial positions
g[~]2i)(6)

final *, written u

unidentified dialectal initial * written i

+

Emesal: (all positions) mi

Emegi: initial and medial positions g[~]2+i(6)

unidentified dialectal initial * written u

final * written u

w











+

w

ve (#?)











+

v written u (for ) (#17)

ve (#?)

ev becomes
e (#?)

a/ov becomes a (#?)

Hv becomes y (#?)





+

ve (#?)

V + v, see above
under FE

Hv becomes y (#?)

FA






+

F[H]A

wV






+

wV:

u
final iu becomes ig[~]2(6)




+

*, written u

w






+

w

va (#7, 17, 18, 30)






+

v written va (#14, 17, 20, 22, 23)

ve (#?)

V + v, see above
under FE

Hv becomes y (#?)

+

ve (#?)

V + v, see above
under FE

Hv becomes y (#?)

FO






+

F[H]O

wV






+

wV:

*, written u






+

*, written u

w






+

w

va (for *vo) (#16)






+

*v/* (for *v) written u (#26)

va (#?)

V + v, see above
under FE

Hv becomes y (#?)

+

va (#?)

V + v, see above
under FE

Hv becomes y (#?)



T[?]E









+

T[H]E

dV









+

tV

di









+

ti

rare, tV+'wV became dotted t (*Ti [retroflex?])

d









+

d

te (#1)









+

the (#?)

de (#?)

between vowels dhe (#?)

d + z becomes x (#?)

d + zh becomes xh (#?)

+

te (#?)

t + s becomes c (#29)

t + sh becomes (#?)

T[?]A








+

T[H]A

dV








+

tV

da








+

ta

rare, tV+'wV became dotted t (*Ta [retroflex?])

d








+

d

ta (#2, 7, 30)








+

tha (#2)

de (#2)

between vowels dhe (#?)

for combinations dz, dzh, see above under T?E

+

te (#?)

for combinations ts, tsh, see above under THE

T[?]O








+

T[H]O

dV








+

tV

du








+

tu

rare, dotted t (*Tu [retroflex?])

rare, tV+'wV became dotted t (*Tu [retroflex?])

t








+

t

ta (for *to) (#15)








+

ta (for *tho) stress-accented , (21); tha (for *tho) stress-unaccented (#10, 14, 15, 26, 27, 29, 33, 35)

da (#?)

between vowels dha (#?)

for combinations dz, dzh, see above under T?E

+

ta (#27)

for combinations ts, tsh, see above under THE



T[?]SE




+

TS[H]E

dhV




+

t[h]e(:)

zi




+

zi

D (bar-d)




+

D

te (#?)




+

the (#?)

de (#?)

between vowels dhe (#?)

+

te (#?)

T[?]SA




+

TS[H]A

dhV


final dh/d(2)

+

t[h]a(:)

za




+

za

D




+

D

ta (#22)




+

tha (#?)

de (#?)

between vowels dhe (#?)

+

te (#?)

T[?]SO












+

TS[H]O

dhV/dhwV(4)

initial, rarely: dwo:(5)









+

t[h]/t[h]wo(:)(4)

Emesal: (all positions)
z(i)


Emegi: (all positions)
t(u)

Emegi rare, dotted t
(*T(u) [retroflex?])

Emegi rare, tV+'wV became dotted t (*Tu [retroflex?])

+

Emesal: (all positions)
z(i)


Emegi: (all positions) t(u)

Emegi rare, dotted t (*T(u) [retroflex?])

Emegi rare, tV+'wV became dotted t (*Tu [retroflex?])

'












+

'

ta (for *to) (#?)












+

tha (for *tho) (#13, 23)

da (#?)

between vowels dha (#?)









+

ta (#?)



SE

























+

S[H]E

sV

























+

sV:

i

























+

i

z

























+

z

sa (#32)

























+

S written s/Se (#17, 27, 29, 35)

before unstressed vowel she (#?)

before stressed vowel gje (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final se (#?)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

combination sk before e, i shq, otherwise h (#?)

combination sp becomes f (#?)

combination sv in stressed syllable d, otherwise v (#?)

+

before unstressed vowel she (#?)

before stressed vowel gje (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final se (#27)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

for combinations sk, sp, sv, see above under SE

SA


















+

S[H]A

sV


















+

sV:

sa

sV+'wV became a

rare, sV+'wV became dotted s (*Sa [retroflex?])












+

sa

sV+'wV became a

rare, sV+'wV became dotted s (*Sa [retroflex?])

z


















+

z

sa (#17, 18, 30)


















+

S written s/Sa (#5, 10)

before unstressed vowel she (#?)

before stressed vowel gje (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final se (#?)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

for combinations sk, sp, sv, see above under SE

+

before unstressed vowel she (#?)

before stressed vowel gje (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final se (#?)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

for combinations sk, sp, sv, see above under SE

SO


















+

S[H]O

sV


















+

sV:

su

rare, dotted s (*Su [retroflex?])

sV+'wV became u

rare, sV+'wV became dotted s (*Su [retroflex?])

final, 'su+ became







+

su

rare, dotted s (*Su [retroflex?])

sV+'wV became u

rare, sV+'wV became dotted s (*Su [retroflex?])

s


















+

s

so written sa (#2, 15, 30)

















+

S written s/Su (#17, 20)

before unstressed vowel sha (#2)

before stressed vowel gja (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final sa (#?)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

for combinations sk, sp, sv, see above under SE

+

before unstressed vowel sha (#?)

before stressed vowel gja (#?)

in clusters and occasionally word final sa (#?)

before resonants, in proclitic words, and usually word final (#?)

for combinations sk, sp, sv, see above under SE



K[?]E




+

K[H]E

g[^]V(4)




+

k[^]V(4)

gi




+

ki

kV+'wV became hi

k




+

k

k + w becomes

ce (#4)




+

ce (for che), stress-accented (#30); che, stress-unaccented (#?)

dhe (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)

+

the (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

K[?]A






+

K[H]A

gV






+

kV

ga






+

ka

kV+'wV became ha

k

k + j becomes H (dotted-h)



+

k

ka written ca (#6, 10, 30)





+

kha written cha (#?)

ze (#?)

secondarily gje (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)

+

se (#?)

secondarily qe (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

K[?]O


+

K[H]O

gV


+

kV

gu


+

ku

kV+'wV became hu

T (bar-t)


+

T

qa (for *qo; written ca) (#30)

+

qha (for *qho; written cha) (#17, 23, 24, 29, 30)

ga (#?)


+

ka (#29)



K[?]XE




+

KX[H]E

g[^]hV(4)




+

k[^][h]e(:)(4)

ki

kV+'wV became hi


+

ki

kV+'wV became hi

H(dotted-h)




+

H

ce (#?)




+

c written ce, stress-accented (#3); ch written che, stress-unaccented (#3)

dhe (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)

+

the (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

K[?]XA






+

KX[H]A

ghV

final gh/g(2)




+

k[h]a(:)

ka

kV+'wV became ha

final: h(a)


+

ka

kV+'wV became ha

final: h(a)

H






+

H

? (#?)






+

? (#?)

ze (#?)

secondarily gje (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)

+

se (#?)

secondarily qe (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

K[?]XO
















+

KX[H]O

ghV
















+

k[h]o(:)

Emesal (all positions):
p(i)

Emesal (medial) n +:
(~)pi


Emegi (initial and medial): ku

Emegi (medial) n +: (n)ku, written gu

Emegi kV+'wV became hu

Emegi (final): h(u)

+

(initial and medial): ku

kV+'wV became hu

final: h(u)

x (hook-h)
















+

x

? (#?)
















+

q (for qh), written ca, stress-accented (#?); qh written cha, stress-unaccented (#31); qh written c, stress-unaccented before l (#31)

ga (#?)
















+

ka (#?)



XE









+

X[H]E

g[^]wV

g^hw- is not a genuine PIE phoneme but rather a result of the combi-nation of g^w + H

+

k[^]wV

2i

2i+'wV became *h, written hu






+

2i











+

? (#?)









+

? (#?)

ze (#?)

secondarily gje (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)




+

se (#?)

secondarily qe (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

XA









+

X[H]A

gwV

gwh- is not a genuine PIE phoneme but rather a result of the combi-nation of gw + H

+

kwV

ha









+

Emegi: (initial) ha

Emegi: (medial and final) g[~]4a [for k3a {?}]











+

ca (#16)









+

? (#?)

ze (#?)

secondarily gje (#?)

before resonant g(e) (#?)




+

se (#?)

secondarily qe (#?)

before resonant k(e) (#?)

XO










+

X[H]O

gwV and gwV

gwh- is not a genuine PIE phoneme but rather a result of the combi-nation of gw + H

+

kwV

hu










+

hu

X (bar-h)










+

X

cu (#25)










+

? (#?)

ga (#?)










+

ka (#?)



ME




+

M[H]E

mV




+

me(:)

mi




+

mi

m




+

m

me (#8, 9)




+

me (#?)

me (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)

+

me (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)

MA




+

M[H]A

mV




+

ma(:)

ma




+

ma

m




+

m

ma (#1)




+

ma (#?)

me (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)

+

me (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)

MO




+

M[H]O

mV




+

mo(:)

mu




+

mu

m




+

m

ma (for *mo) (#2)




+

ma (for *mo) (#?)

ma (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)

+

ma (#?)

vocalic M becomes a (#?)



NE







+

N[H]E

l[^]V







+

l[^]e(:)

li







+

li

n







+

n

ne (#?)







+

l written le (#17)

le (#?)

between vowels Vlle (#?)

vocalic L becomes i/ul (#?)

+

le (#?)

between vowels Vlle (#?)

vocalic L becomes i/ul (#?)

NA







+

N[H]A

nV







+

la(:)

na

Emesal: (initial) a





+

*La, written la

n







+

n

na (#9, 22, 30, 31, 35)






+

l written la (#16, 31, 35)

nje (#?)

between vowels (Tosk) re (#?)

vocalic N becomes a (#?)

+

le (#?)

between vowels Vlle (#?)

vocalic L becomes i/ul (#?)

NO







+

N[H]O

nV







+

Lo(:)

nu

Emesal: (initial) i





+

*Lu, written lu

n







+

n

na (for *no) (#10, 17)







+

? (#?)

na (#?)

between vowels (Tosk) ra (#?)

vocalic N becomes a (#?)

+

la (#?)

between vowels Vlla (#?)

vocalic L becomes i/ul (#?)



QE


+

Q[H]E

(n/N(10))g[^]V(4)


+

(n/N(10))k[^]e(:)(4)

(n)g[~]3i


+

(n)k2i

initial n2i {i}

Emesal: (initial) i

q (dotted-k)


+

q

? (#?)


+

? (#?)

nge (#?)




+

nke (#?)

QA

+

Q[H]A

(N(10))gV

+

(n/N(10))ka(:)

(n)g[~]3a

+

Emesal: (initial) a

Emesal: (final) n2(a) {(a)}

Emegi (initial): n2a {a}

Emegi (medial and medial): (n)k2(a) (but transcribed as (n)g[~]3(a))

q

+

q

? (#?)

+

? (#?)

nge (#?)

+

nke (#?)

QO



















+

Q[H]O

(n/N)gV

initial, rarely: (n)gwo(:)(4); n(g)o(:)

initial + 's:
a(:)n'sV

initial + y:
*angwi becomes angw(h)i

initial + y + -*w:
*angwiu becomes ang^hu

+

initial, rarely: (n/N)kwo(:)(4); (n)ko(:)

(n)g[~]3u



















+

(n)k2u

initial n2u {u}

g



















+

g

? (#?)



















+

chu (#32)

nga (#?)



















+

nka (#?)



RE







+

R[H]E

rV







+

re(:)

ri







+

Li, written li

3







+

3

re (#6, 17, 26, 33, 35)







+

r written re (#?)

re (#?)

from original clusters rre (#?)

vocalic R becomes ri/u (#?)

+

re (#?)

from original clusters rre (#?)

vocalic R becomes ri/u (#?)

RA







+

R[H]A

rV







+

ra(:)

r







+

La, written la

3







+

3

ra (#13, 20, 24, 25, 30)






+

r written ra (#?)

re (#?)

from original clusters rre (#?)

vocalic R becomes ri/u (#?)

+

re (#?)

from original clusters rre (#?)

vocalic R becomes ri/u (#?)

RO







+

R[H]O

rV







+

Lo(:)

Indic, initial: r

Lu, written lu

unidentified dialectal ru





+

Lu, written lu

r







+

r

ra (for ro) (#7, 12, 23)






+

la (for *lo) (#17, 18, 22)

ra (#?)

from original clusters rra (#?)

vocalic R becomes ri/u (#?)

+

la (#?)

between vowels Vlle (#?)

vocalic L becomes i/ul (#?)





ETRUSCAN VOWELS IN COMBINATION
VOWEL
+ i
+ a
+ u
+ stress-accent
- stress-accent
a/ written a
written e
written a
written u
a/ written a
/e
a/ written a from *o/*
written e
written a
written u
a/ written a
/a
e/
written e
written e
ű written u
e/ written e
/e
i/
written i
written i
ű written u
i/ written i
i
u/
ű written u
written u
written u
u/ written u
u



Emesal Equivalents
to
Emegi Vowels


EG i ES e

EG a remains as ES a

EG u ES i

EG * (written e) ES (written a)








SUMERIAN VOWELS IN COMBINATION
VOWEL
+ i
+ a
+ u
i
[i:] written i
[e:] written e
[:] written u
a
[e:] written e
[a:] written a
U [o:] written u
u
[:] written u
[u:] written u
[u:] written u






Those interested in Etruscan may also be interested in viewing

the Etruscan Dictionary

presented by Damien Erwan Perrotin.

Additional resources are the Etruscan Glossary at this website, which was prepared by Patrick C. Ryan;

and the Etruscan Glossary created by Rick McCallister and Silvia McCallister-Castillo.





What will surprise many readers, are the conspicuous

similarities in correspondences to Proto-Language

phonemes displayed by Basque and Sumerian.





Those interested in Sumerian may also be interested in viewing

the Sumerian Lexicon (Version 3.0)

on John A. Halloran's interesting website, arranged according to syllable shape.

Additional resources are the Sumerian Glossary at this website, which is arranged alphabetically;

and the Sumerian Dictionary at the University of Pennsylvania, with cuneiform, and
offering flexible search methods.







NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS



For an explanation of the Proto-Language and Indo-European notational conventions used in these essays, press here.















Summary of Phonological Changes

from Proto-Language to Etruscan (in composition)

currently not available






Combinatory Modifications


for modifications of the vowels and consonants in combination, see the


Table of Modifications (in composition)

currently not available








PROTO-LANGUAGE MONOSYLLABLES



In order for readers to judge the semantic plausibility of the analysis of Proto-Language (PL) compounds suggested here, I am including access to a table of Proto-Language monosyllables and the meanings I have provisionally assigned.

Most assignments can be exhaustively supported by data from actually attested forms but a few animates are very doubtful; and this list does not represent the "final" solution of these questions, which will only be approached when other scholars assist in refining it.

Patrick C. Ryan

Summer 1998






ETRUSCAN BIBLIOGRAPHY (in composition)

currently not available




ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY







the latest revision of this document can be found at
http://www.oocities.com/proto-language/c-ETRUSCAN-13_table.htm

Patrick C. Ryan * 9115 West 34th Street - Little Rock, AR 72204-4441 * (501)227-9947
PROTO
-LANGUAGE@msn.com











NOTES


1. The Pontic-Nostratic stage of the Proto-Language, from which PIE and PAA developed, had only one short V(owel): a (/a/, 'central low'; possibly with a schwa {/6/} allophone), which became e/o, or in PIE according to the Ablautsstufe required by the grammatical form. Nostratic short vowels (e, a, o), modified by the influence of adjacent laryngal-pharyngal consonants (H), were retained through Pontic-Nostratic; and later in PIE developed into long vowels: e:, a:, o:. Pontic-Nostratic a (/a/, 'central low'; possibly with a schwa {/6/} allophone) became i, a, or u in PAA, dependent on vowel patterning but possibly, at least in root nouns, based on the influence of former glides.

2. Final Early PIE voiced aspirated stops + a can become unaspirated: -*bha becomes -*b(a); -*gha becomes -*g(a); -*dha becomes -*d(a).

3. It is well-known that *b is rare in IE as an initial and even questioned by some scholars as a root final. I have found that Early PIE *b (from PL P[?]) appears in the stage of IE normally reconstructed as *w or *bh as a root initial though usually as *b as a root final. It is uncertain at this time if the presence of a nearby laryngal-pharyngal (H) was the conditioning factor in P[?] becoming IE initial *bh as opposed to *w since the expected lengthening and retention of Nostratic vowel quality does not seem to occur.

4. There are few traces of the Pontic-Nostratic stage through which PIE passed but the regular palatalization from Pontic-Nostratic dorsal stops and affricates and the dorsal nasal + yV is one; the sporadic retention of Pontic-Nostratic wV as PIE *w after coronal affricates and the voiced and unvoiced dorsal nasal is another. In the voiced dorsal nasal, the lengthened vowel compensates for the elided nasalization.

5. Only a few instances recorded: PIE *dwo:(u)- (for **dho(u)-), 'two', for PL T?SO(-FA), 'arm-number' = 'two'; cf. Egyptian ', 'pair'. The lengthened vowel compensates for the elided aspiration; and in *do(:)us- (for **dhos-), (upper) arm', for PL T?SO-SA; arm-sinew' = upper arm'; probably, the development was /dhwo'sa/ -> /dhwos/ -> /dwo(:)s/, and with metathesis: /do(:)us/.

6. The change of bilabial fricative to g[~]2 before i is similar to and probably connected in some way with the Armenian change of PIE *wei- to gi, as in PIE *woinyom- becomes Armenian gini, wine'. The sequence of finaliu from E + FA also becomes ig[~]2.

7. The *y of this syllable has been modified initially to *H in, at least, some PIE words such as *okw-, eye, and *e:n- (for **a:n), look!.

8. The e of this syllable normally became je/ie except before n/nj, or after l, or after clusters containing r (e.g. kr) .This ie was modified to ia when the following syllable contained an i. This je reverted to e after the palatalized consonants , nj, gy, and q. Any stress-unaccented e appears as .

9. Albanian a and i became e when the following syllable conained e or i.

10. Initially, *N is vocalic *n which can be realized as *a or or *an.

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