The Proto-Language was spoken by human beings at a time (100K BPE) before humanity dispersed from some central point over the earth (presumably Eastern Africa); and ethnic diversification began. However, this dating has been called into question by recent work done by Professor Vincent M. Sarich of the University of California at Berkeley, who maintains that modern humanity was in a relatively homogenous ("panmictic") state as recently as 15K BPE (Race and Language in Prehistory), and that most ethnic differentiation which we see today has developed since this time. If Professor Sarich's theory is correct, this might mean that all non-African languages share a common ancestor as recently as 15K BPE while African languages that are non-Afro-Asiatic only share a common ancestor with non-African languages at a considerably earlier date.
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The underlying premise of these
essays is that
ALL human languages
derive from a single ancient source:

the Proto-Language.

Several files, which constitute short essays relating specific languages and language families to the Proto-Language and Indo-European are available for viewing or download as regular .HTM(L) files.

For readers who might like to gain a quick overview of Proto-Indo-European roots, two online dictionaries, prepared by Christopher Gwinn, will be of interest: Proto-Indo-European to English Dictionary and English to Proto-Indo-European Dictionary.

Indo-European cognates are cited to demonstrate that even though intermediate proto-languages may not yet have been reconstructed (and taxonomies elaborated), (proto-)languages that are currently considered to be unrelated can be shown to ultimately be related when both are viewed in the context of the Proto-Language.

Indo-European roots therefore are intended as a control to demonstrate that the reconstructed Proto-Language roots have not been "designed" to correspond only with the vocabulary of the language(-family) under investigation.

Indo-European citations are not intended to suggest a closer genetic relationship of the language(-family) under discussion with Indo-European than with any other language(-family)!

This is a controversial theory that is not accepted by most experts — at least, at the present time.

The major objection is:

that a "proto-language" cannot be reconstructed.

Any critique, positive or negative, will be welcomed and addressed.

To validate this theory will take the collaboration of experts from many linguistic backgrounds to reconstruct the taxonomy and intermediate proto-languages, which will ratify the conclusions reached from language-to-language comparison.

File suites on Afrasian (Hieroglyphic Egyptian and Arabic), Altaic, Basque, Beng (Southern Mandé), Blackfoot (Algonquian), Japanese, Mon/Hmong [preliminary study only], Nama ([Khoi]san) [essay currently under construction but correspondence table is complete], Pama-Nyungan [brief outline based on limited data], (Sino-)Tibetan, Sumerian [essay currently under construction but correspondence table is complete], and Uralic are accessible below.

I have completed similar essays on Hurrian, and Nama ([Khoi]San), which shall be added as they are converted to .HTM(L) format. Studies that have been begun preliminarily include Hunzib (Tsezic-Daghestan-East Caucasian), Mayan, and Uto-Aztecan.

I am hoping that others will want to collaborate in this effort with essays on (proto-)languages in their individual fields of study.

Patrick C. Ryan

PROTO-LANGUAGE@email.msn. com