Austria
[The excellence and extent of the musical department in Austria are the natural consequences of the fondness of its inhabitants for music, and the extensive demand for musical instruments therefrom.
Vienna and Prague are the principal seat of the manufacture of stringed and wind instruments, which are celebrated for purity of tone and cheapness, and are consequently articles of considerable export. Also in other parts of Bohemia and the Archduchy of Austria, and in Lombardy, excellent musical instruments are made.
The Vienna pianoforte is considered to possess a full and beautiful tone, easy touch, elegant and light shape. The manufacturers endeavored to adapt the mechanism of of the instruments to the taste of the various countries. The few specimens in the Exhibition deserve attention, also for the tasteful cabinet-work of the cases.
Besides Vienna, at Prague, Gratz, Presburg, and other places in Austria, pianofortes of equally good quality are manufactured.
Harmonicons, both large and small, the latter of which are rather to be considered as toys, are extensively made in Vienna of good quality, and are largely exported. Musical boxes from Prague are also exported in large quantities.]

HOXA, F., Vienna-Manufacturer.
Grand pianoforte, seven octaves, with brass string-plate, and the strings attached to separate iron tongues ; the case of Hungarian poplar.

POTTJE, J., Vienna-Manufacturer.
Grand pianoforte of rosewood, with carved ornaments, seven octaves ; Vienna mechanism.

SCHNEIDER, JOSEPH, Vienna-Manufacturer.
Grand pianoforte of American maple, 7 octaves, with Viennese mechanism, ornamented with inlaid-work.

SEUFFERT, E., Vienna-Manufacturer.
Piccolo pianoforte of rosewood, with buhl-work and transposition mechanism, from designs of the architect, Bernarde de Bernardis, in Vienna. The bronze ornaments by A. Hollenbach, Vienna.

VLASKY, JOHANN, Prague-Manufacturer.
A pianoforte, 7 octaves, of walnut-tree wood.

WILHELM, ANTON, Mödling, near Vienna-Manufacturer.
Leather for covering the hammers of pianofortes.

Belgium

AERTS, F. G. Antwerp. (Agent, M. Cuylits, 55 Gracechurch Street.)
Patent grand-pianoforte, with oblique strings, rosewood case.

BERDEN, F., & CO, Brussels.
Cabinet-pianoforte in rosewood.

DEFFAUX, JEAN0BAPTISTE, Brussels.
Pianofortes in the style of Louis XV, and cabinet pianofortes.

JASTREEBSKI, FELIX, Brussels.
Upright pianofortes ; inlaid ebony ; carved rosewood and maple wood.

STERNBERG, LOUIS. Brussels.
Cabinet-pianoforte with triple string, in Amboyna wood. Another of the same.

VERHASSELT-D'OUTRELEPONT, F. Brussels.
Patent harmonium melodium for churches. The same for drawing-rooms. Patent double piano-harmonium, capable of being separated at pleasure.

VOGELSANGY, FRANÇOIS-JACQUES, Brussels.
Patent grand-pianoforte in rosewood, patent upright-pianoforte in rosewood, with regulating movement.

Canada

HERBERT, JOHN W., Montreal.
Indian dress ; a boudoir ; pianoforte. Case of type.
[...The pianoforte, of six and three-quarter octave, compass from C to G, is manufactured of woods, the growth and produce of Canada, under the superintendence of the exhibitor, an Englishman of twenty-three years' residence in the city of Montreal, by workmen who acquired the principal knowledge of their trade in the manufactory of the exhibitor, whose attention to the construction of pianofortes to stand the climate of Canada, was first caused by observing that European instruments generally were unsuited to the temperature. The instrument now exhibited, both in wood and manufacture, is found, by experience, best adapted to the climate. In forwarding it, the exhibitor's object is not so much with the view of competing with countries whose facilites for manufacturing pianofortes must be admitted to be very superior to a new country like Canada, but to show the rapid improvement of the colony, and its capabilites of manufacturing what is suited to the demands of its inhabitants ; and also to direct the attention of European manufacturers of these instruments to woods, the growth and produce of Canada, suitable for such purposes. The case is made of free grain black-walnut tree, veneered with crotch of the same wood ; the keys are of bass-wood, the top and bottom blocks of hard Canadian maple, sounding board of Canadian spruce, which the exhibitor, by experience, is enabled confidently to state is stronger grained and superior for sound to the European wood so generally in use. The ornamental carvings are emblematical of Canada.]

HIGGINS, PATRICK. H.
Violin and case, clarionet, and piccolo piano.

Denmark

HORNUNG, CONRAD CHRISTIAN, Copenhagen-Inventor and Manufacturer.
Cabinet pianoforte, 6 3/4 octaves, and horizontal pianoforte, 6 3/4 octaves, in rosewood cases, both inlaid with metallic ornaments.
[In these instruments, the strings are fixed in a solid cast-iron frame, which is fastened to the case by bolts, so that the sounding-board can easily be put in or taken out of hte case, if required, without taking off the strings, on simply separating them from the bridge. The durability of this construction has been tested by an experience of ten years.]

France and Algiers

AUCHER, -, 44 Rue de Bondy, Paris-Manufacturer.
Two upright pianofortes, the one with oblique strings and fixed finger-board, the other with vertical strings and moveable finger-board. A new iron bar for upright piianofortes, not affected by the changes of the weather, and suited for exportation.

BORD, A., 35 Boulevard Bonne Nouvelle, Paris-Manufacturer.
Grand pianoforte.

COLIN,-, 30 Rue du Bac, Paris-Manufacturer. (Agent, E. COLIN, 17 Weendington Street, Prince of Wales Road, Kentish Town.)
Patent upright pianofortes. The cord-frame is made of iron to render it inflexible, and capable of resisting ethe effects of the weather ; hence the strings are preserved from the influece of the atmosphere. This renders the harmony more easy and lasting, and the tunes louder and more sonorous ; and the instruments lighter than those made of wood, without increasing the cost.

CROPET,-, Toulouse (Haute-Garonne).-Manufacturer.
Cottage pianoforte. Small mahogany model, with two pedals and eighty-two notes.

DEBAIN, A., Rue Vivienne, Paris-Manufacturer. (Agent in London, NOVELLO & CO., 44 Dean Street, Soho.)
Piano-méchanique, or antiphonel pianoforte, an instrument with success as a substitute for organs and harmoniums ; it is said to be superior to the barrels used in church organs, and less costly.
The flat surface of the upper portion of the antiphonel is covered with a metal plate, pierced across its width with a series of openings, which admit though them a corresponding number of metal points, projecting about the eighth of an inch above the plate. These points are the extremities of small levers, which communicate with the action ; thus the upper level surface of the machine forms a complete key-board ; the projections are pressed down to perform the music by a small piece of hardwood, studded with pins, which is forced over the level surface already mentioned.
This piece is held down by a bar placed over it, and the pressure regulated by springs. Having placed the piece on the antiphonel, it is passed over the key-frame by turning a handle, and as the pins on the plank come in contact with the antiphonal keys, the notes are struck, which are loud or soft, as may be required.
The pieces studded with pins may be from 4 inches to 24 inches long : 8 inches will contain as much as is usually written on a page of music pater, and any number of pieces may be used for composititions of greater length. While one piece is playing, another should be had in readiness immediately to succeed it, until the piece of music is concluded.
The mode of studding the wood with pins, to produce the various effects required, is very simple, and easily executed.
The antiphonel can be placed on the pianoforte as a cover, and by a simple contrivance, on opening the pianoforte, the antiphonel action is removed, and on touching the keys the tone of the instrument is not affected by the attachment. In closing the pianoforte the antiphonel resumes its place, and is ready for use.
When applied to the organ, &c., as pressure on the keys is only required, the antiphonel is placed over the key-frame, and appears like fingers pressng down the required notes. This instrument is played in the Exhibition building.

DETIR & CO., 162 Faubourg St. Denis, Paris-Manufacturer.
Specimens of harps. Upright pianofortes.

ERRARD, PIERRE, 12 & 32 Rue du Mail, Paris-Manufacturers.
Pianofortes of various patterns, Carved pianoforte. This instrument is represented in the annexed Plate, 249. Harp, from an invention patented in England.

FORTIN, BOUTELLIES, Beauvais-Manufacturer.
Specimens of fine cloth, and felted cloth for pianofortes.

FRANCHE, CHARLES, 42 Rue de l'Université, Paris-Manufacturer.
Two repeating pianofortes, with double forte pedals and improved iron bar, of different shape and mechanism.

HERZ, HENRY, 48 Rue de la Victoire, Paris-Manufacturer.
Pianoforte organ. Grand pianoforte. Semi-grand pianoforte.

JAULIN, JULIEN, 11 Rue d'Albony, Faubourg St. Martin, Paris-Manufacturer.
Newly-invented organ ; pianoforte with "panorgue," which may be placed under the key-board of the pianoforte, and may be annexed and attached without any alterations on the latter. The panorgue may be perfromed separately, or connected with the pianoforte, and may be adapted to all species of that instrument.

KLEINJASPER, J. F., 296 Rue St. Honoré, Paris-Pianoforte Maker.
A cottage pianoforte.

MERCIER, SEBASTIAN, 31 Boulevard Bonne Nouvelle, Paris-Manufacturer and Pianoforte-maker to the late King of the French, and to the Queen of England, as well as the King of Sweden.
Cottage pianofortes, or piccolos with oblique strings.

MONTAL, CLAUDE, 5 Boulevard Montmartre, Paris-Musical Instrument Maker.
Three cottage pianofortes.

PAPE, JEAN HENRY, 19 Rue des Bons Enfans, Paris-Manufacturer.
Patent square and console pianofortes ; square and hexagonal table pianofortes ; grand pianoforte, with patent action and impproved sounding board.

ROLLER & BLANCHET, 26 Rue Hauteville, Paris-Manufacturers.
Four different pianofortes of different descriptions.

SCHOLTUS, -, 1 Rue Blue, Paris-Manufacturer.
Two upright pianofortes. These instruments are adapted for use in hot or damp climates. Iron cramps clamp the whole compass of the peg-board, traverse the under board on which the chords are hooked, also of iron, and are fastened at pleasure, by means of a screw-nut and key. This prevents the boards giving way, however tightly the chords may be drawn. Besides these cramps, there are one or two iron bars, of a peculiar form, fixed before the sound-board, half over, half under the chords, without obstructing the mechanism. Above, they press on the peg-board to prevent its giving way ; below, they fix the iron-board to which the cords are attached. With such a construction, the separation of the parts is impossible.

SOUFLETE, 171 Rue Montmartes, Paris-Manufacturer.
A grand pianoforte. Two cottage pianofortes.

VAN OVERBERGH,-, 9 Rue de Choiseul, Paris-Manufacturer.
Specimens of pianofortes.

ZIEGER, AUG., Rue des Marroniers, Lyons-Inventor.
The gymnasium of the pianist, an octave pianoforte. A patent invention.

Prussia

ADAM, GERHARD, Wesel on Rhine-Manufacter. (Agents in London, Messrs. Mess & Co.)
Grand pianoforte on Erard's principle ; oblique pianoforte.

BESSALIE, H. P., Breslau-Manufacturer.
Patent rosewood grand piano, with English mechanism and arrangement, for easier tuning and tghtening the wires.

GURICKE, B., Zossen, near Berlin-Inventor and Manufacturer.
Grand piano in rosewood, with powerful repeating mechanism. The mechanism patented in 1849. The piano was wholly constructed by the exhibitor himself.

HEITEMEIER, THEODOR, Münster-Manufacturer and Inventor.
A patent table pianoforte, of peculiar construction.

Hensch, W., Berlin, pianofortes.

Hilling, Merseburg, pianofortes

Stocker, Th., Berlin, pianofortes.

WESTERMANN & CO., (Proprietor of the Firm, G. Willmanns) Berlin - Manufacturer.
Grand pianoforte (rosewood).

Prussia, Brunswick

ZEITTER, F., & WINKELMANN, T. CH., Brunswick-Manufacturers.
A pianoforte, and a grand pianoforte.

Prussia, Hesse

SCHEEL, C., Cassel - Manufacturer.
A cabinet pianoforte of seven octaves, on Erard's principle

Prussia, Saxon Duchies, Thuringia, Brunswick, &c.

GEBAUHR, C. J., Königsberg-Manufacturer.
Two rosewood pianofortes.

Electoral Hesse

KLEMS, JOHANN BERNHARD, Dusseldorf-Manufacturer. (Agent in London, Mr. Fr. Klein, 38 Finsbury Square.)
A grand piano, after Erard's Paris model ; this adaptation of that principle is stated to require less strength in performance, an additional iron spreading bar being placed above the strings in the lower bass, to give a greater counter pressure.

Grand Duchy of Hesse

KUEHNST, GOTTLIEB, Darmstadt-Manufacturer.
Mahogany grand piano-forte of 6 1/2 octaves, with peculiar action.

SCHOTTS, B., & SONS, Metz-Manufacturers.
Semigrand pianoforte in zebra wood, 6 3/4 octaves.

Hamburgh

BAUMBARDTEN & HEINZ-Producers.
Horizontal pianoforte.

RUMMS, H. -Producer.
Upright pianoforte (piccolo).

SCHRODER, C.H.-Producer.
Horizontal pianoforte.

Saxony

BREITKOPF & HAERTEL, Leipzig-Manufacturers.
Concert grand piano in a rosewood-case.

WEICKERT, J. D., Leipzig (Agent, Charles Holland, 41 Finsbury Circus)-Manufacturer.
Cloths for pianos. Hammer cloths ; damper cloths ; red and green under-cloth.

Wurtemburg

DIEUDONNE & BLAEDEL, Stuttgart-Manufacturers.
Grand pianoforte with double action ; cottage pianoforte.

DOERNER, F., Stuttgart-Manufacturer.
Grand pianoforte in rosewood ; square pianoforte.

LIPP, RICHARD, Stuttgart-Manufacturer.
Square pianofortes. The hammers are fitted up with a new and more durable kind of felt, intended to assist in producing a greater clearness of sound.

SCHIEDMAYER, J. L., & SONS, Stuttgart-Inventors and Manufacturers.
Grand pianoforte, in rosewood, with newly--invented patent double action. Square pianoforte, in mahogany. Cottage pianoforte, in nutwood, decorated and ornamented with original wood carvings.

Russia

LIHTENTAL,-, St. Petersburg-Manufacturer.
Imperial pianoforte ; cottage pianoforte.

Switzerland

Frey, J. G. A., Geneva.
A pianoforte with oblique strings of pallisander, with three strings, seven octaves, with metallic summers. A pianoforte, with three strings, with metallic summers, of pallisander, seven octaves.

HUENI & HUBERT, Zurich-Inventors and Manufacturers.
Patent harpsichord pianoforte, of peculiar mechanism, based upon a calculation of spring tension : the number of parts to a key are reduced to 26, by which means the touch is said to become more elastic, and the sound fuller.
[Harpsichords are provided with quills in place of hammers to sound the strings. The pianoforte was first invented by Christopher Golltieb Schröter, 1684. The dampers were introduced by Leuker, 1765. The first square pianoforte was made by Wagner, 1774.-H. E. D.]

KUETZING, CHARLES, Berne-Manufacturer.
A grand pianoforte ; the wrest and hitch-pin blocks are of iron, which increases the sound, and renders the tuning more permanent.

Lecoultre, Brothers, Vaud.
A music-box, playing four overtures, with two key-boards (clavier) ; ditto, pianoforte ; plated box, with inlaid work and glass.

SPRECHER & BAER, Zurich-Manufacturers.
Pianoforte, in the finest and most durable woods of Switzerland ; exterior, nut-wood, ornamented in the style of the middle ages. The peculiarity of the mechanism is in a continual escapement, producing precision of touch, and power of tone.

The Netherlands

CUIJPERS, JOHANNES FRANCISCAS, The Hague-Manufacturer.
Small pianoforte, of puple wood.

United Kingdom

Aggio, Henry, Conchester, musical instrument maker,
A very elegant pianoforte of his own design and construction. The upper part, divided into three compartments, is filled with needle work, both carved and plain, is of gilt, relieved by silvered plate-glass below and at the end, and ivory pedals. The key-board, formed of the best ivory and ebony, has a range of 6 1/2 octaves.

Binsmead, J., a pianoforte

Braund, John, model of her Majesty's pianoforte.

Cadby, C., pianofortes.

COCKER & SONS, Hathersage, Derbyshire-Manufacturers.
Wire of various kinds : - 32, pinion and click wire, for clocks and watches ; 33, music wire, for pianofortes ; 34, watch and chronometer spring wire ; 35, cast steel, hammered flat, half flat, and square.

Collard, pianofortes.

CRACE, JOHN GREGORY, 14 Wigmore Street-Manufacturer.
Furniture and decoration in the mediaeval style. A carved pianoforte, and a carved gilt pianoforte, made by Lambert and Co., 1 Werrington Street, St. Pancras.

D'Almaine and Co., pianofortes.

Dimoline, Bristol., Papier-maché piano.

Harrison, pianoforte and model of action.

Harwar, Joseph, a pianoforte.

HENN & BRADLEY, Cheapside, Birmingham-Manufacturers.
Taper wood screws in iroon, brass, and copper; iron thread screws for machinery of every description, and for stoves, grates, &c. Taper hand-rail screws, adapted for pianoforte-makers, and fine cabinet work.
[Screw-making:-Operation 1. From a coil of wire placed on a wheel and introduced into the screw-making machine, a piece, sufficient to form a screw is cut off, caught up, and headed ; that is to say, the portion which forms the head is compressed into shape, and the now-called "blank" is dropt into a receptacle below. Operation 2, consists in flattening the head and smoothing the countersink, which is performed by the "blank," being held in both clams, and having a small cutter revolving in front and another behind. 3. Slitting the head ; the "blank" is placed in a pair of nippers, which is moveable on centres by means of a lever action, the head is pressed against a small revolving circular saw, and the slit made. 4. Threading is effected by the "blank" being introduced into a pair of clams which is attached to a spindle, the back part of which is cut with a worm or thread corresponding to that of the screw to be cut, and which propels forward the clams and the "blank" against small-toothed cutters, which groove out the thread ; three runnings is sufficient to complete the manufacture of an ordinary sized screw. The difference in the finest threads arises from the shape of the cutters. -W. C. A.]

Holderness, Charles, a pianoforte.

Hopkins, J., pianofortes.

HORSFALL, JAMES, Oxford Street, Birmingham-Manufacturer and Proprietor.
Highly finished steel wire, for pianofortes and other musical instruments.
Annealed wire, used as an under covering of the "new patent brass strings," for pianofortes. Plated, japanned, and self-coloured hitch, bridge, and other pins. Single, double, and treble spun bass strings, for pianofortes. Hand and mill-drawn steel wire, for the manufacture of needles, fish-hooks, &c.
[The term self-coloured indicates the colour assumed by steel when brought to certain heat, either a straw of blue colour. Hitch pins are what the strings are hitched or hung upon ; bridge pins are those placed on the wooden bridge, from which the strings commence vibrating ; globe, ball, and cone key pins are pins with variously-shaped heads, going through the centre and front of the key, to keep them in their places. Wrest pins are the pins on which the strings are wound in tuning. -H. E. D.]

Jenkins, W., folding pianoforte.

JENNENS AND BETTRIDGE, 6 Holkin Street West, Belgrave Square, and Birmingham-Manufacturers and Designers.
Registered pianoforte, in papier maché (seven-octave semi-cottage), the mechanism by Dimoline, of Bristol; the form and decoration in the Italian style. Papier maché music)-stool and Canterbury, en suite.

Kirkman and Sons, pianofortes.

Luff, George, harmonium and pianoforte.

Matthews, W. Nottingham., A pianoforte on a new principle.

Moore and Co., a pianoforte.

Mott, Isaac, pianofortes.

MUMMERY, FREDERICK H., 5 Railway Place, Holloway Road-Manufacturer.
Pianoforte bedstead. Press bedstead in a pianoforte.

Newcombe, Thomas, improved strings for pianofortes.

RANDALL & DICKS, 21 Greek Street, Soho-Manufacturers.
Skins for oil leather, in raw state and in various stages of manufacture. Buck, doe, calf, sheep, and lamb skins, finished ; with specimens in breeeches , gloves, braces, and pianoforte hammers.

Rolfe and Sons, W., pianofortes.

Southwell, W., a pianoforte.

Steedman, piano-fortes.

Stoddart and Sons,pianofortes.

Towns and Packer, pianofortes.

Turnbull, W., pianoforte keys

Wilson, T., Brentwood. A piano

Wornum, Robert, Store-street, London.
A piccolo pianoforte, being an improvement on the original instrument, invented and patented by R. Wornum in 1829. An Albion bichord grand, upon the overstruck principle, invented and patented by R. Wornum in 1842.

United States

Meyer, Conrad, Philadelphia, Pa. pianos.

PIRSSON, JAMES, New York-Maker.
Patent double grand pianoforte.
Patent square pianoforte.
This is a patent double grand piano, upon which [] performers at a time can execute compositions arr[] for eight hands and two pianos. Every other compo[]either for one or two pianofortes, may be executed upon the double grand piano with greater effect than upon two of the finest grand pianos. There are several improvements in this construction which may be adapted to any kind of piano, namely, the patent wheel tuning pin, by which a lady may adjust a chord to the utmost nicety, by the use of a small tuning-key and the thumb and finger, or can tune her own piano ; also the iron rest-plate and other iron fastenings, which sustain the pressure of the strings entirely independent of the wood-work, and thereby rendering the slightest yielding impossible, thus protecting the sounding-board, by which means the tone of the instrument is preserved, and the chief cause of getting out of tune prevented.
This instrument was selected by Benedict for the use of Jenny Lind's concerts in New York, and was performed upon by himself, the celebrated Timm, Richard Hoffmann and Scharfenberg, in the largest concert-room in the world.

NUNNS & CLARK, New York - Designers and Manufacturers.
Two pianos : -
A 7-octave rosewood pianoforte, carved. This piano is in shape a square - pianos of which description, thought not at the present time much used on this side of the Atlantic, being greatly preferred in America. By a novel arrangement of the scale, and great improvements in the taction, this piano will be found to possess much promptness and energy of action, and an equality of tone throughout the entire scale.
Pianoforte, having a Coleman's aeolian attachment, with patent tunable reeds. In this instrument the process of tuning, but seldom necessary, is rendered more easy than in the piano itself, and so simple, that any can perform it.
The aeolian attachment, forms a winnd instrument of the softest and most delicate tone, and is so united to the pianoforte, that the same key-board controls both instruments, and either one of the two may be used, or both together blended in delightful and undistinguishable harmony. The fulness of tone, capacity of the swell and diminish, and the prolongation of sound so desirable in an accompaniment of the voice, which give to the organ its chief excellence, are attempted to be combined in this invention. It is not liable to get out of tune by transitions of atmosphere, and will remain in tune and in order in any climate

GILBERT & CO, Boston.
A variety of pianofortes.

HEWS, G. Boston , Massachusetts.
Pianofortes.

CHICKERING, J. Boston, Massachusetts. - Maker.
Pianofortes.

CHICKERING, J. Boston, Massachusetts.
Plaster cast of Daniel Webster.

PRATT, J., & CO., Meriden, Connecticut - Inventor.
Specimen of ivory veneer, cut by machinery.
[The machine by which these veneers were sawn is a recent invention of the exhibitors. One piece of this veneering is 12 inches wide and 40 deet long, sawn from a single tusk. -S.]


Gebhardt, F. A., Eisenstein, sound improvers for pianos.

Knacke, Borken, pianofortes.

Metzler and Sons, a pianoforte.

Oetzman and Plump, pianofortes.


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