Human muscles

Androgens and other steroid hormones primarily exert their direct activities through binding to specific receptors present in the cytosol of cells. human muscles Why do people take steroids. Upon binding to the receptor, the hormone forms a complex that then travels to the nucleus of cells where it interacts with DNA to promote the formation of specific proteins that then direct the actual biological changes. Within the central nervous system (CNS), androgen receptors are heavily located in specific places. Androgens and other steroid hormones are able to penetrate the blood brain barrier and interact with their appropriate CNS cytosolic receptors. human muscles Adrenocortical steroids. The hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland are particularly dense in androgen receptors, and here they help regulate the secretion of androgens as well as other hormones that control a wide variety of biological functions. Androgen receptors are also located in parts of the cerebral cortex, medulla, and amygdala. Here their specific functions are not as well characterized. human muscles Using steroids. The processes of androgen action that involve receptor binding and DNA translation are known as receptor mediated, or "genomic", hormone actions. However, there are also lesser known actions of steroid hormones that are non-genomic in mechanism. Non- genomic activities are particularly key in the central nervous system where they combine with genomic activities to produce specific effects. Non-genomic actions of steroid hormones differ in a very important way from genomic actions. Genomic effects are manifested over a relatively long period of time (days) because they require a complex cascade of events (binding, translation, transcription, accumulation of active enzyme products) before the actual physiology of the target organ is altered. On the other hand, genomic actions are extremely rapid (<1 minute). They are rapid because their effects involve an immediate modulation of the membranes of cells (particularly neural cells). These modulations may include changes to the permeability of the membrane, as well as effects on the opening of vital ligand gated ion channels. The end result is a quick and significant influence upon the activities of key areas of the brain, and the relevance of this to the medicinal use of androgenic hormones or prohormones should not be overlooked. PARACRINE METABOLISMSo far I have briefly covered the basic mechanics of androgen activity in the central nervous system. However, one very important aspect of this has yet to be covered, and this concerns the "activation" of androgens at the CNS targets by enzymatic metabolism. Specifically speaking, the conversion of testosterone to its two most powerful metabolites; dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol. One thing most people do not realize is that although testosterone is an active hormone, its primary function in some of the most vital areas of the body and the brain is as a prohormone. There are locations all over the CNS that are rich in 5 alpha-reductase, or aromatase, or both; in particular areas of the CNS that involve libido.

Human muscles



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