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Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna
The "Schwarzgelb General," his unswerving fidelity to his Kaiser earned him the emnity of the Jugoslav government, which forbade him to return to his homeland after the war.  His popularity among his Croat and Slovene countrymen remained unchanged, though.
Knight of Soca and Schwarzgelb General—A Hero and Villain of Slavdom

Svetozar Boroevic was born in the village of Umetic near Kostajnica on 13 December 1856.  His family was Krajina Serb of the Orthodox faith.  Both sides of his family had served the Croatian Military Frontier, and so young Svetozar was imbued with the traditional frontier guardsman code of loyalty to the Kaiser, honour, duty unto death, and mercilessness in combat.  At the age of 14, he entered a military school as a cadet, and soon joined the infantry.

He participated in Austrian  occupation of Bosnia in 1878, and received a bravery award after the storming of Sarajevo. After this, he entered and completed the  Military Academy.  Boroevic was transferred to the Supreme Command of the Austro-Hungarian Army and then in 1887, he became a teacher at the  Military Academy for a few years before returning to the regiments.  From 1904, he was commander of the Hrvatsko Domobranstvo (Croatian Home Defense), regiment No. 12.  During his years of commanding, the "Domobranstvo" regiment became a real national army for the Croatians.  He remained there until 1912, when he took command of the VI. Army Corps. See
The Rising Star article below.

During military training in Agram in spring 1914, Archduke
Franz Ferdinand confided to Boroevic that Croats had to be proud because their troops performed the best of any he had ever seen.  Ironically, few days after this, the pro-Slav Franz Ferdinand was killed by the pro-Serb assassin Gavrilo Princip, and soon, Croatian units, including the Domobranstvo, went to war.

In August 1914, Boroevic led his VI. Army Corps on Galician Front.  He turned this capable force over to GdI
Artur Arz in September to pick up the collapsed 3. Army from GdK Rudolf Brudermann. As commander of the 3. Army, on 10. October 1914, his forces liberated the besieged fortress of Przemysl, driving Radko Dmitriev’s Russian 3. Army back in disarray. After a renewed Russian offsensive in early November threw a new siege around Przemysl and advanced on Krakau, Boroevic halted the Russian Army’s left near Limanowa in December 1914.  His troops held positions on Carpathian ridges through a brutal winter and prevented a Russian breakthrough to Preßburg and Budapest.

In 1915, he was commander of the new 5. Army on the Isonzo Front.  Because of his victories—or rather, because of his denying the Italians victory—he was nicknamed by his Croatian fellows "the Knight from Soca" (Soca or Isonzo is a river near the Italian frontier before WW1). Boroevic became famous because he stopped or stunted 11 Italian offensives and had defeated the Italian Army in the military by being a stubborn defender with often a 3-to-1 or 5-to-1 odds in favour of the attacker. 

Boroevic's HQ was the only one in Austro-Hungarian Army where the official language was Croatian and Boroevic was called "our Sveto" by admiring Croatian Domobrans and Slovenian soldiers on the Italian Front.  He was derided as "Bosco" by fellow officers of other armies and at Army HQ, mostly because his determined stubbornness was costing unusually high numbers of lives on the Isonzo. 

It was a successful tactic, but few commanders were more willing than Boroevic to order suicidal actions for what amounted to square metres of terrain.  When officers complained of his brutal casualties,  Boroevic confidently replied that his command of 3. Army in the Carpathians suffered far worse casualties under his command, and yet achieved its goals.  How could one argue with that?

In November 1918, he is to have said "Croatia yes, Jugoslavia no."  For that, the Knight of Soca was branded the "Schwarzgelb General," a unrepentant supporter of the Habsburg Emperors, and he was banished from Jugoslavia.

Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna died 23 May 1920 in Klagenfurt, in poverty.  He was buried in Vienna, in the Zentralfriedhof with all honours as Austrian Field-Marshal.  Many historians and military experts think that he was the best commanding General in WWI.  If his sanguinary bloodletting on the Isonzo was not considered the best, then he was definitely the most determined commander of the war.

GWS, 12/00 [rev. 10/05]
Diligence and an eye for detail is what set Boroevic apart from other commanders in WWI. His ability to conserve strength in the face of a much larger enemy force gave him a well-deserved place in the history books.
The Rising Star

Obst Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna was appointed chief of staff for the VIII. Corps in June 1898, replacing Obst
Artur Freiherr Giesl von Gieslingen. He remained this position until February 1904, when Boroevic was succeeded by Obst Rudolf Schmidt.  It was at this time that he took charge of Regiment No. 12.  FML Boroevic replaced GdI Alfred Ritter von Ziegler as commander of the VI. Corps in April 1912.  Boroevic began the war as a GdI and his Corps command lasted until early September 1914, when Boroevic was granted command of the III. Army in place of GdK Rudolf von Brudermann.  Boroevic's successor in the VI. Corps was FML Artur Arz.  Boroevic meanwhile brought the terrible situation of the III. Army under control and fought a competant campaign in the middle Carpathians until 25 May 1915, when he was sent to the Italian frontier, and FZM Paul Puhallo von Brlog was appointed to lead the III. Army, albeit for an interrim period.  He rose to Generaloberst on 1 May 1916, along with Generals Böhm-Ermolli, Dankl, Pflanzer-Baltin, and Puhallo.  He was awarded the rank of Feldmarschall on February 1, 1918.  Boroevic rose to command several armies, among them the III. Army (from September 4, 1914 until May 25, 1915), the reorganised V. Army (from 27 May 1915, which he held until 23 August, 1917), and also the whole Southwestern Front, which was later renamed Army Group Boroevic.   Boroevic commanded his Army Group through the end of the war in November 1918.  His military career is summarized in the following timeline:
     Aug 1872 Promoted to Korporal
  Jul 1873 Promoted to Feldwebel
Nov 1874 Promoted to Kadett
  Jan 1875 Promoted to Kadettoffiziersstellvertreter
    May 1875 Promoted to Leutnant
May 1880 Promoted to Oberleutnant
May 1886 Promoted to Hauptmann 1. Kl.
May 1892 Promoted to Major
May 1895 Promoted to Oberstleutnant
Nov 1897 Promoted to Oberst
    May 1904 Promoted to Generalmajor
May 1908 Promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant
May 1913 Promoted to General der Infanterie
May 1916 Promoted to Generaloberst
Feb 1918 Promoted to Feldmarschall

GWS, 5/01
A younger Boroevic
Attention: Visit FEEFHS map room for a Map of Galicia including some of the placenames mentioned here. Be sure to open in a separate window to toggle between this page and FEEFHS.
Orders of Battle:  Galician Front, August 1914
At the ouset of the invasion of Russian Poland

IV. Armee, General der Infanterie Moritz Ritter von Auffenberg
     VI. Korps, Gen. d. Inf. Boroevic von Bojna
          XV. inf. div., Feldmarschalleutnant Wodniansky von Wildenfeld
          XVII. inf. div., Feldmlt. Gerstenberger
          XXXIX. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt.
Limanowa, December 1914:  Stop the Russians or We're Finished!

General Ivanov, in charge of the Russian Southwestern Front that opposed the Austrians, convinced Tsar Nicholas that his offensive in the direction of Krakau could break the Austrians once and for all, while giving the Russian armies the chance to invade Silesia and cripple the German war effort. 

When the Russians under Radko Dmitriev's 3. Army attacked toward Krakau, the Austrians parried with their IV. Army under
Archduke Josef Ferdinand. Brussilov spent the second week of December 1914 moving his Carpathian Corps to attack the 4. Army, but Boroevic managed to launch his 3. Army into Brussilov's left flank at Neu Sandec and Limanowa on December 8 (see Fig. 1). 

Brussilov had no choice but to pull his 8. Army north to meet the threat, and this in turn weakened Radko Dmitriev's 3. Army.  Add to this the defeats suffered by Russky's Northwestern Front, and the Russians spent late December retiring to rivers and reorganising armies to prepare for new offensives by both the Germans and the Austrians. 

The battle was one of great significance, for in retrospect, Boroevic's victory crushed the Russians' furthest advance into the Empire and also guaranteed the integrity of the K.u.K. Armies and Austria's ability to fight for another 4 years.

GWS, 12/00 [rev. 10/05]
Sketch Drawing of the Battle of Limanowa
Orders of Battle:  Poland, December 1914
Immediately following Boroevic's action at Limanowa and preceding the Battles for the Carpathians

III. Armee, Gen. d. Inf. Boroevic von Bojna
     III. Korps, Gen. d. Inf.
Colerus von Geldern
          XXVIII. inf. div., Generalmajor von Hinke
          XXII. Schützen div., Genmj. Schmidt von Fussina
          IV. kav. div., Genmj. Berndt
     VII. Korps, Gen. d. Kav.
Erzherzog Josef
          XVII. inf. div., Genmj.
von le Beau
          XX. Honved inf. div., Genmj.
          I. kav. div., Feldmlt. Peteani von Steinberg
     X. Korps, Feldmlt.
von Krautwald
          II. inf. div., Genmj. von Langer
          XXI. inf. div., Feldmlt.
Schneider von Manns-Au
          XXXIV. inf. div., Genmj. von Birkenhain
          XLIII. Schützen inf. div., Feldmlt. Schmidt von Georgenegg

Visit FEEFHS map room for a good Map of Galicia including most of the placenames mentioned here.  Be sure to open in a separate window to toggle between this page and FEEFHS.
The Carpathians, Winter 1915:  Russia has not Lost its Determination!

Boroevic's Austrian III. Army sat south and opposite of Brussilov's Russian VIII. Army.  On Boroevic's left flank lay Mackensen's XI. German Army and on his right lay General Böhm-Ermolli's II. Army.  Boroevic's front extended from Gorlice and Neu Sandec to Lupkow Pass in the Carpathians. 

Boroevic had the honour of opening 1915's first offensive by launching from the mountain crests on January 23 and carrying the Russians to a line on the Upper San River near Sanok and Lisko.  However, Brussilov counterattacked on January 26 against Boroevic's left.  The result was that Boroevic was forced to withdraw to his prior positions, all while surrendering troops to the Südarmee under Linsingen on his right to make gains beyond the recaptured Uzsok Pass. 

As it turns out, Linsingen could make no real gains and the line of the passes was reached by the Russians as of early February.  Brussilov continued his pressure against Boroevic's ever-weakening left flank until mid-March 1915.   By March 20, Radko Dmitriev's left wing was extended east, and it formed part of the Russian counteroffensive to break into Hungary. 

The two commanders were hoping to force Boroevic as far south as Miskolcz, but the Austrian III. Army held the crests for more than two weeks under the fiercest cossack assaults and in the worst climate.  Finally, the Hungarian town of Mezö Laborcz and Lupkow Pass was captured as a result.  But, they could advance no further as the timely arrival of the German Beskiden Korps rescued the III. Army.

GWS, 5/01
Enemy Portrait:General Radko Ruskov Dmitriev
Radko Dmitriev was one of the most formidable commanders in the Russian army.  A Bulgarian by blood and nationality, he was given command of the III. Army at the outset of war and drove the Austrians to the brink of disaster.  He also presided over the second siege of Przemysl, 1915, and accepted the surrender of General Kusmanek and an astonishing 130,000 prisoners.  However, this was the last of his victories.  Mackensen launched his Dunajec Offensive into Radko Dmitriev's lines, cutting them to pieces.  The Russian III. Army began a slow, systematic fighting retreat through the spring and summer of 1915.  In spite of the successful, orderly withdrawal that enabled Russia to fight on for two more years, Radko Dmitriev lost his command soon after.  Possibly, Bulgaria's declaration of war on Serbia compromised his position, as his homeland was suddenly an enemy of Russia. To be continued...
Orders of Battle:  Eastern Front, 1 May 1915
Immediately preceding the Dunajec Offensive

3. Armee, GdI v. Boroevic
    Chief of Staff, GM v. Boog
   III. Korps, Feldmlt.
Ritt. v. Krautwald
   Chief of Staff, Obst Edl. v. Trauttweiler
       28. inf. div., GM Edl. v. Hinke
              55. inf. brig., GM v. Haunstein
              56. inf. brig., GM
              28. field art. brig., GM Elmar
        26. Schützen div.,  FML Lischka
                   44. Schützen brig.,  GM Zahradniczek
                   51. Schützen brig.,  Obst Spielvogel
                   52. Schützen brig.,  Obst Edl. v. Lober
                   26. field art. brig., Obst v. Heimerich
         22. Schützen div., FML Schmidt Edl. v. Fussina
                   43. Schützen brig.,  Obst Vucinic
                   22. field art. brig., Obst Gärtner
   VII. Korps, GdK 
Erzherzog Josef
   Chief of Staff, Obst Eisner-Bubna
        1. kav. div., GM Frh. v. Leonhardi
                   6. kav. brig., Obst v. Mouillard
                   7. kav. brig., GM Chev. de Ruiz
         17. inf. div., GM
v. le Beau
                   33. inf. brig., Obst v. Pacor
                   34. inf. brig., Obst Frh. v. Henneberg
                   17. field art. brig., Obst Zagar
         20. Honvéd inf. div., GM
v. Nagy
                    39. Honvéd inf. brig., Oberst Stadler
                    81. Honvéd inf. brig., Genmj. Perneczky
                    20. field art. brig., Oberst Pohl
   X. Korps, FML
Hugo Martiny
   Chief of Staff, Obst v. Kralowetz
       2. inf. div., FML Liposcak
            3. inf. brig., Obst Barwik
            4. inf. brig., Obst Phleps
            2. field art. brig., Obst Polak
       21. Schützen div.,   GM Podhajsky
                   41. Schützen brig.,  GM Keki
                   42. Schützen brig.,  Obst Hansmann
                   21. field art. brig., Obst Vollgruber
       24. inf. div., GML
Schneider Edl. v. Manns-Au
                47. inf. brig., GM v. Unschuld
                48. inf. brig., Obst Korzer
                24. field art. brig., Obst Grandowsky
       45. Schützen div., GM Nemeczek
                   89. Schützen brig.,  Obst Gasienski
                   90. Schützen brig.,  Obst Tuma
                   45. field art. brig., Obst v. Rosenzweig
   XVII. Korps, GdI
Karl Kritek
   Chief of Staff, Obst Theodor Edl. v. Lerch
       11. inf. div., FML Edl. v. Bellmond
                    21. inf. brig., GM Grubic
                    22. inf. brig., GM Ritt. v. Wasserthal
                    11. field art. brig., Obst Steinhardt
        4. kav. div., GM Berndt
                    18. kav. brig., GM Kopecek
                    Gruppe Obst Weiß v. Schleusenburg
                    k.k. 1. Landsturm inf. brig., Obst Brauner
                    Gruppe GM Graf Marenzi
        k.u. 1. Landsturm hussars brig., Obst
v. Berzeviczy
The Dunajec, Spring 1915:  They Fought Hard, but We Survived!

Following a difficult winter of seemingly endless battles, the spring thaw ended the Russian effort to break onto the Hungarian Plain.  This left the 3. Army commanding a front extending in an arc from the Dunajec River over the crest of the Beskid Carpathians, southeast below the town of Mezö Laborcz and Dukla Pass and then east toward the Uzsok Pass. 

Behind Boroevic's left flank and
Archduke Josef Ferdinand's right was the German 11. Army, commanded by Mackensen.  During the final Battles for the Carpathians, the Russians had reduced the strength of their forces along the Dunajec in order to reinforce the Bukowina battle line; thus, Radko Dmitriev's 3. Army had only two Corps along a dangerous 60-mile front.  It was here that Mackensen prepared to launch his offensive:  between Gorlice and Tarnow. 

Boroevic's forces attacked the left wing of Radko Dmitriev's army.  With the collapse of the right wing, the Russian 3. Army began a withdrawal from the slopes of the Carpathians.  The retreating Russians attempted a counterstroke at the Dukla Pass on 8 May 1915.  However, the breaking of Radko Dmitriev caused Brussilov to also find new ground to stand upon, and after the Dukla Pass was seized by Boroevic, the Russian XXIV. Corps fled to the Wistok River.  This was no good place to stand, as the 2. Army passed over the crest of the Carpathians and threatened Brussilov's right flank. 

By the beginning of June, Boroevic sat to the south of Przemysl.  Mackensen used part of this force to break the Russians there.   Shortly after the fall of Przemysl, the Russian high command ordered a general fighting retreat on the whole front from the Baltic Sea to the Roumanian frontier.  Boroevic was called to defend the Isonzo valley from invasion by the Italians, however, and could take no further part in Mackensen's Offensive.  He took with him part of the 3. Army and the rest was organised as part of Army Group Mackensen.

GWS, 12/00 [rev. 10/05]
Orders of Battle:  Italian Front, late May 1915
Immediately following Italy's declaration of war against the Empire
Southwestern Front, Generaloberst
Erzherzog Eugen
5.  Army, GdI v. Boroevic
   Chief of Staff, GM
Aurel v. le Beau
       93. inf. div., GM v. Boog
                   58. mtn. brig., Oberst Staufer
                   185. inf. brig., Oberst Vidale
       94. inf. div., FML Kuczera
                   187 inf. brig., Kontreadmiral Frh. v. Koudelka
                    60. mtn. brig., Oberst Mitlacher
       57. inf. div., Feldmlt. Heinrich Goiginger
                   2. mtn. brig., GM
Geza v, Lukachich
                   6. mtn. brig., Oberst v. Hellebronth
                   57. field art. brig., GM Adolf Aust
        Küsten detachment, Oberst Voglhuber
        Küsten detachment, GM v. Maric
   XV. Korps, GdI
Vincenz Fox
    Chief of Staff, Oberst v. Falkenhausen
       1. inf. div., FML Bogat
                 7. mtn. brig., GM Ströher
                 8. mtn. brig., GM Andrian
                 1. field art. brig., Oberst Dworak
        50. inf. div., FML Edl. v. Kalser
                3. mtn. brig., GM Gerabek
                15. mtn. brig., GM Edl. v. Wieden
   XVI. Korps, FZM
Wenzel v. Wurm
   Chief of Staff, Oberst v. Loefen
       58. inf. div., GM
Erwin Zeidler
                   4. mtn. brig., GM Konopicky
                   5. mtn. brig., GM Nöhring
                   58. field art. brig., Obstlt. Nadherny
       18. inf. div., GM  Eduard Böltz
                   1. mtn. brig., GM
Guido Novak v. Arienti
                   13. mtn. brig., GM Anton Gf. v. Berchtold
                   18. field art. brig., Oberst Secullic
        48. inf. div., FML Gabriel
                   11. mtn. brig., GM Lawrowski
                   12. mtn. brig., Oberst
Felix Prinz zu Schwarzenberg
   Fortified Harbour of Pola, Vice-admiral Ritt. v. Chmelarz
    Chief of Staff, Oberst Funk
                    k.k. 112. Landsturm inf. brig., GM Szentgyörgyi
                    4. fort. art. brig., GM Hlavacek
                    14. mtn. brig., Oberst Großmann

The Chief of Staff for the Italian Army, General Luigi Cadorna, had an initial preponderance of 20 to 1 when Boroevic and his newly organised 5. Army assembled on the river Isonzo in late May 1915.  The Italians made an early thrust, capturing much of the territory on the right bank, except for the high ground.  Cadorna waited, however, for his army to fully assemble with total equipment and artillery complements before advancing in a general offensive.  In all, this took about three weeks between the planned declaration of war and the start of the First Isonzo Offensive. 

Time was  unexpectedly given to Boroevic and he wasted absolutely none of it.  His engineers went to work from the third week of May, heavily defending the new frontier positions, as the open Italian mobilisation in the valleys below showed the Austrians precisely where Cadorna intended to strike.  Thus, when the offensive began in earnest, Italian infantry, confident of their overwhelming numerical superiority and preponderance in artillery and support, advanced cavallierly into sweeping artillery and blazing machine  guns.  The firs tweek of the First Isonzo was a monstrous loss of life for the Italians, but in the process, Boroevic showed his determination to hold onto every metre of terrain by ordering counterattacks that resulted in bloody casualties for the Austrians.

GWS, 10/05 [rev. 11/05]
Orders of Battle:  Isonzo Front, October 1915
Following the Quadruple Alliance's offensive against Serbia

V. Armee, Gen. d. Inf. Boroevic von Bojna (in Küstenland)
     XV. Korps, Feldmlt.
Stöger-Steiner von Steinstätten
          L. inf. div., Genmj. Tunk
          I. inf. div., Feldmarschal Schmidt von Fussina
     XVI. Korps, Feldz.
von Wurm
          XVIII. div., Genmj.
Novak von Arienti
          LVIII. inf. div., Genmj.
     Support:  LXI. inf. div., Feldmlt. Winkler
     VII. Korps, Gen. d. Kav.
Erzherzog Josef
          XX. Honved inf. div., Genmj.
von Lukachich
          XVII. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Gelb
          CVI. Landsturm div., Feldmlt. Kletter
     III. Korps, Feldmlt.
von Krautwald
          XXVIII. inf. div., Feldmlt.
Schneider von Manns-Au
          XXII. Schützen div., Genmj. Schön
     Triest Group, Genmj. von Wasserthal
     Fiume Group, Genmj. von Istvanovic
Orders of Battle:  Isonzo Front, March 1916
Immediately preceding the Tirol Offensive

V. Armee, Gen. d. Inf. Boroevic von Bojna
     I. det., XVI. Korps, Feldz.
von Wurm
          LXII. inf. div., Genmj.
Novak von Arienti
          LVIII. inf. div., Genmj.
     II. det., VII. Korps, Gen. d. Kav.
Erzherzog Josef
          XX. Honved inf. div., Genmj.
von Lukachich
          XVII. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Gelb
          CVI. Landsturm div., Feldmlt. Kletter
     III. det., Feldmlt. Winckler
          LXI. inf. div., Feldmlt. Winckler
          IX. inf. div., Genmj. Krasel
     IV. det. (Küstenland), Konteradmiral von Koudelka
     V. det. (Fiume), Genmj. von Istvanovic
     Support:  III. Korps, Feldmlt.
von Krautwald
          VI. inf. div., Feldmlt.
          XXII. Schützen div., Genmj. Schön
          XXVIII. inf. div., Feldmlt.
Schneider von Manns-Au
          XVIII. inf. div., Genmj. Stracker
Orders of Battle:  Isonzo Front, August 1916
Immediately following Roumania's declaration of war against the Empire

V. Armee, Generaloberst Boroevic von Bojna
     XV. Korps, Gen. d. Inf.
Stöger-Steiner von Steinstätten
          L. inf. div., Genmj. Gerabek
          I. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Fussina
     XVI. Korps, Feldz.
von Wurm
          LXII. inf. div., Feldmlt.
von Arienti
          LVIII. inf. div., Genmj.
     VIII. Korps, Gen. d. Kav.
Erzherzog Josef
          XX. Honved inf. div., Genmj.
von Lukachich
          XVII. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Gelb
          IX. inf. div., Feldmlt.
     Reinforcement, XXVIII. inf div., Feldmlt.
Schneider von Manns-Au
          XLIV. Schützen div., Feldmlt. Nemeczek
          XVI. inf. div., Feldmlt.
von Schariczer
     Triest Rayon, Conteradmiral von Koudelka
     Fiume Rayon, Genmj. von Istvanovic
The Knight of Soca makes a distinctive pose for posterity...
Orders of Battle:  Isonzo Front, November 1917
Immediately preceding the Caporetto Offensive

Boroevic Armee Group, Generaloberst von Boroevic
II. Isonzo Armee, Gen. d. Inf.
von Henriquez
     Group Kosak, Feldmlt.
          LX. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Goiginger
          XXXV. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Podhoranszky
          LVII. inf. div., Genmj. von Hrozny
     XXIV. Korps, Gen. d. Inf. Lukas
          XXIV. inf. div., Feldmlt. Urbarz
          LIII. inf. div., Genmj. von Stöhr
     IV. Korps, Gen. d. Kav.,
Fürst Schönburg-Hartenstein
          XLIII. Schützen div., Feldmlt.
          XX. Honved inf. div., Genmj.
von Lukachich
     Reserve:  XXVIII. inf. div., Feldmlt.
Schneider von Manns-Au
          XXIX. inf. div., Genmj. Steiger
          IX. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Greiner
I. Isonzo Armee, Generaloberst
von Wurm
          CVI. Landsturm inf. div., Genmj.
          LVIII. inf. div., Feldmlt.
von Zeidler
          LXIII. inf. div., Genmj. von Soretic
          XIV. inf. div., Genmj. von Szende
     Fiume Garnison, Feldmlt. von Istvanovic
     VII. Korps, Feldmlt.
von Schariczer
          XLIV. Schützen div., Genmj. Schönauer
          XVII. inf. div., Genmj. von Ströher
          XLVIII. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Gabriel
     XXIII. Korps, Feldmlt.
von Csicserics
          XLI. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt.
          X. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt. von Gologorski
          XII. inf. div., Genmj.
von Puchalski
          XXI. Schützen res. div., Feldmlt. Pohajsky
     Reserves: IV. inf. div., Feldmlt. Pfeffer
          XIII. Schützen div., Feldmlt. von Kasler
          XXXIII. inf. div., Genmj. Iwanski

Visit FEEFHS map room for a good Map of the Southwestern Theatre with placenames mentioned here, except for Caporetto.  Be sure to open in a separate window to toggle between this page and FEEFHS.

The food crisis in the Southwestern Theatre, temporarily alleviated by the conquest of fertile land and abandoned enemy stores, was renewed even more severely in winter 1918 thanks to the additional reserves sent to Italy after the December 1917 armistice between the Central Powers and Russia.  On 17 February 1918, Boroevic alerted Chief of Staff Artur Arz v. Straussenberg to the effect hunger was having on the morale of the troops in his Isonzo Army and the VI. Army.  On 28 February, he stated "Even if, in the end, the occupied Italian territory is bled dry by totally disregarding the needs of the civilian population and completely neglecting cultivation, any improvement in the army supplies would only be secured for a few days...  If supplies from the hinterland remain the same, there will be a rapid decline in the physical powers of the fighting troops and a dwindling of their morale, already much lowered in the past few weeks due to insufficient food.  As a result, one will have to say that the innumerable sacrifices of life and property have been in the end in vain.  The troops are no longer moved by incessant empty phrases, that the hinterland is starving or that one must hold out, especially as it is known that in the Monarchy there are still extensive regions with unexhausted food supplies, and because the men are sure that the provisions for German troops are far better.  The troops will endure no more experiments, they must be adequately supplied to be able to live and fight.  I therefore beg again most urgently for vigorous measures to overcome the present food crisis as quickly as possible."

GWS, 9/03
Supreme Commander Kaiser Karl and his best General inspect the Isonzo Front from a high vantage point, 1917.
Orders of Battle:  Italian Front, June 1918
Immediately preceding the Piave Offensive

Commander of the Southwestern Front, Feldmarschal Boroevic von Bojna
Boroevic Army Group, Feldmarchal Boroevic von Bojna
VI. Armee, Generaloberst
Erzherzog Josef
     II. Korps, Gen. d. Inf. Rudolf Krauss
          VIII. inf. div., Genmj. von Dokonal
     XXIV. Korps, Feldmlt.
von Goiginger
          XXXI. inf. div., Feldmlt. Lieb
          XIII. Schützen div., Feldmlt. Kindl
          XVII. inf. div., Feldmlt. Ströher
          res., XI. Honved kav. div., Genmj.
Isonzo Army, Generaloberst von Wurm
     XVI. Korps, Gen. d. Inf.
          XXXIII. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Iwanski
          LVIII. inf. div., Feldmlt.
von Zeidler
          XLVI. Schützen div., Feldmlt. von Urbanski
     IV. Korps, Gen. d. Kav.
Fürst Schönburg-Hartenstein
          LXIV. Honved inf. div.,  Feldmlt. von Seide
          LXX. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt.
von Berzeviczy
          XXIX. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Steiger
     VII. Korps, Gen. d. Inf.
von Schariczer
          XIV. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Szende
          XXIV. inf. div., Feldmlt. Urbarz
          IX. kav. div., Feldmlt. von le Gay
          XLIV. Schützen div., Feldmlt. Schönauer
     XXIII. Korps, Gen. d. Inf.
von Csicserics
          XII. inf. div., Feldmlt.
von Puchalski
          X. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Gologorski
          I. kav. div., Genmj. von Habermann
          res., LVII. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Hronzky
     K.u.K. res., IX. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Greiner
          XXXV. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Podhoranszky
          XLI. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt.
von Schamschula
          LI. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt. von Benke
          XII. Schützen kav. div., Genmj. von Karapancza

"Dear General Boroevic..."

By mid-1918, Boroevic was one of the favourite subjects of Italian propaganda.  Gleaning ideas from the Jugo-slav movement centred in Rome, the Italian propaganda included an open letter from Ante Trumbic to Feldmarschal Boroevic, asking him why he was content to serve the Germans and lead the best Jugo-slavs to their certain deaths, instead of serving the cause of justice and leading the same youths to their liberation?  Boroevic was further compared to Jellacic, who in 1848 fought against Hungarian insurgents on behalf of the Austrian Kaiser, only to have his Croatian land placed under military rule, thus causing contemporaries to exclaim, "What Hungary receives as punishment, Croatia receives as reward!"  The upshot was that name of Boroevic was in danger of replacing the traitor Brankovic as the villain in Serbo-Croatian ballads.  Such letters were not for Boroevic but for leaflets, printed in the millions and dropped over primarily Croat or Bosniak sectors of the front.

GWS, 9/03
Orders of Battle:  Italian Front, October 1918
Immediately preceding the final Italian offensive

Boroevic Army Group, FM Boroevic von Bojna
     XXVI. Korps, GdI von Horsetzky
          40. Honved inf. div., FML
von Nagy
          28. inf. div., GM
von Zeidler
          42. Honved inf. div., FML v. Soretic
          4. inf. div., FML Haas
     I. Korps, GdI
          48. FML von Karstwehr
          13. Schützen div., FML Kindl
          17. inf. div., FML Ströher
     XV. Korps, GdI
Karl Scotti
          50. inf. div., FML Gerabek
          20. Honved inf. div., GM Stadler v. Monte San Michele
     Army res., 60. inf. div., GM Pacor v. Karstenfels und Hegyalja
          55. inf. div., FML
Aurel v. le Beau
          21. Schützen div., FML Klein
6. Armee, GdK
Fürst Schönburg-Hartenstein
     II. Korps, GdI Rudolf Krauss
          31. inf. div., FML Lieb
          25. inf. div., GM Werz v. Ostenkampf
          11. Honved kav. div., GM Jony de Jamnik
          12. Schützen kav. div., GM Karapancza v. Kraina
     XXIV. Korps, GdI
Emmerich Hadfy v. Livno
          41. Honved inf. div., FML
Rudolf Schamschula v. Simontornya
          51. Honved inf. div., GM Daubner
     Army res., 10. inf. div., FML Watterich v. Watterichsburg
          43. Schützen div., FML v. Stöhr
          34. inf. div., FML v. Luxardo
Isonzo Army, GO
Wenzel v. Wurm
          29. inf. div., FML v. Berndt
          7. inf. div., FML Baumgartner v. Wallbruck
     IV. Korps, FZM
Tamasy von Fogaras
          64. Honved inf. div., FML Seide
          70. Honved inf. div., GM
Berezeviczy v. Berezevicze u. Kakas-Lomnitz
          8. kav. div., GM v. Donokal
     VII. Korps, GdI
Schariczer v. Reny
          33. inf. div., FML Iwanski v. Iwanina
          12. inf. div., GdI Waitzendorfer
          24. inf. div., FML Urbarz
     XXIII. Korps, GdI
Csicserics v. Bacsany
          46. Schützen div., GM Fischer v. Potruzyn
          58. inf. div., GM Wolf v. Monte San Michele
     XXII. Korps, GdI Kletter v. Gromnik
          14. inf. div., FML Szende v. Fülekkelecsény
          2. inf. div., FML Jemrich v. d. Bresche
     Army res., 57. inf. div., FML Hronzy v. Bojemil
          26. Schützen div., FML Pohajsky
Army Group res., 44. Schützen div., FML Schönauer