Various other cases:


At Chelmsford, Essex in 1566, the first notable witch trial in England
occurred. The charges against three defendants, Elizabeth Francis, Agnes
Waterhouse and her daughter Joan were typical of most English trials as
the highly imaginative stories of young children were accepted as
evidence. Agnes Waterhouse was hanged on July 29, 1566 (possibly the first
woman hanged for witchcraft in England). Elizabeth Frances was imprisoned
for a year, and then in 1579, she was charged with witchcraft again and
hanged and Joan Waterhouse was found not guilty. Another notable trial in
Chelmsford occurred in 1589, which involved one man and nine women four
were hanged and three were found not guilty. Three of the witches were
executed within two hours of sentencing: Joan Coney, Joan Upney and Joan
Prentice. A mass trial at Chelmsford took place in 1645, in which
thirty-two women were accused and nineteen were hanged.


                         Convicted of Murder on Evidence of the actual Perpetrator
                            of the Crime, and executed at the Age of Nineteen at
                                     Tyburn, 27th of March, 1710

                         GRACE TRIPP was a native of Barton, in Lincolnshire;
                         and after living as a servant at a gentleman's house in
                         the country she came to London, was some time in a reput-
                         able family, and then procured a place in the house of Lord
                            During her stay in this last service she became connected
                         with a man named Peters, who persuaded her to be con-
                         cerned in robbing her master's house, promising to marry
                         her as soon as the fact should be perpetrated. Hereupon
                         it was concerted between them that she should let Peters
                         into the house in the night, and that they should join in
                         stealing and carrying off the plate.
                            Peters was accordingly admitted at the appointed time,
                         when all of the family, except the housekeeper, were out of
                         town ; but this housekeeper, hearing a noise, came into the
                         room just as they had packed up the plate; on which Peters
                         seized her and cut her throat, while Tripp held the candle.
                         This being done, they searched the pockets of the deceased,
                         in which they found about thirty guineas; with which, and
                         the plate, they hastily decamped, leaving the street door open.

                            The offenders were taken in a few days, when Peters
                         having been admitted as evidence for the Crown, Grace
                         Tripp was convicted, at the age of nineteen years, and
                         publicly hanged at Tyburn, on 27th March, 1710.


Jane Holt, Joan Williford and Joan Cardien were executed at Faversham,
Kent on September 29, 1645. As with most trials, the women confessed to the
usual wicked deeds of forsaking God, entering into a pact with the devil,
etc...etc...Of course they were forced to confess publicly.


The Flower sisters were hanged for witchcraft at Lincoln in March, 1618.
They were accused of hexing the family of the Earl of Rutland, whereby the
Earl's son died.


                                Hanged at Tyburn on I 7th of December, 1708

                        DEBORAH CHURCHILL, alias Miller, was born
                        within six miles of the city of Norwich, in the county
                        of Norfolk, of worthy honest parents, who gave her a very
                        good education, and brought her up in her younger years
                             in the ways of religion and good manners; but she had
                        wickedly thrown off all those good things which were
                        endeavoured to be fixed in her, and abandoned herself to
                        all manner of filthiness and uncleanness, which afterwards
                        proved her shame and ruin. She was first married to one
                        John Churchill, an ensign in Major General Faringdon's
                        regiment, by whose name she commonly went, but seldom
                        by her second husband's, who, two or three years before
                        her misfortunes, was married to her in the Fleet Prison,
                        upon agreement first made between them both that they
                        should not live together, nor have anything to do with each
                        other. Which agreement was strictly performed; and so
                        she continued freely to keep company with one Hunt, a
                        Lifeguardsman, as she had begun to do in her former
                        husband's time.
                           She had lived with the aforesaid Bully Hunt for seven
                        years together in a lascivious and adulterous manner,
                        which broke her first husband's heart, by whom she had
                        two children surviving at the time of her unfortunate death.
                        She had lived also in incontinency about three months with
                        one Thomas Smith, a cooper, who was hanged at Tyburn,
                        on Friday, the 16th day of December, 1709, for breaking
                        open and robbing the house of the Right Honourable the
                        Earl of Westmorland.
                           She was committed to New Prison for picking a gentle
                        man's pocket of a purse wherein was a hundred and four
                        guineas. Whilst she was there she seemed to be really a
                        pious woman; but her religion was of five or six colours,
                        for this day she would pray that God would turn the heart
                        of her adversary, and to morrow curse the time that ever
                        she saw him.
                           She at last got out of this mansion of sorrow also, but
                        soon forgetting her afflictions she pursued her wickedness
                        continually, till she had been sent no less than twenty times
                        to Clerkenwell Bridewell, where, receiving the correction
                        of the house every time, by being whipped, and kept to
                        beating hemp from morning till night for the small allow
                        ance of so much bread and water, which just kept life
                         and soul together, she commonly came out like a skeleton,
                        and walked as if her limbs had been tied together with
                        packthread. Yet let what punishment would light on this
                        common strumpet, she was no changeling, for as soon as she
                        was out of jail she ran into still greater evils, by deluding,
                        if possible, all mankind.
                           After Madam Churchill had reigned a long time in her
                        wickedness, as she was coming one night along Drury Lane,
                        in company with Richard Hunt, William Lewis and John
                        Boy, they took occasion to fall out with one Martin Were,
                        and she aggravating the quarrel by bidding them sacrifice
                        the man, they killed him between King's Head Court and
                        Vinegar Yard. The three men who committed this murder
                        made their escape, but she, being apprehended as an
                        accessary therein, was sent to Newgate, and shortly after
                        condemned for it, on the 26th of February, 1708.
                           After sentence of death was passed on her, her execu-
                        tion was respited, by virtue of a reprieve given her upon
                        account of her being thought to be with child; which she
                        pretended to be, in hopes it might be a means to save her
                        life, or at least put off her death for a time. But when she
                        had lain under condemnation almost ten months, and was
                        found not to be with child, she was called to her former
                        judgment. Then, being conveyed in a coach to Tyburn, on
                        Friday, the 17th of December, 1708, she was there hanged,
                        in the thirty first year of her age.


Indicted for witchcraft on March 10, 1607, Isobel was accused of causing
illness, tormenting people, turning ale sour and using charms. She was
strangled and burned on Castlehill, Edinburgh and her goods were forfeit
to the king.


                         Although only Twenty when she was executed at Tyburn, on
                            13th of July, 1708, she was a notorious Shoplifter,
                               and her two Husbands had already suffered
                                         the Death Penalty

                         ANNE HARRIS, alias Sarah Davies, alias Thorn, alias
                         Gothorn, was born of honest but poor parents, in the
                         parish of St Giles without Cripplegate; but being debauched
                         by one James Wadsworth, she soon abandoned all manner
                         of goodness. This Wadsworth was otherwise called " Jemmy
                         the Mouth " among his companions. He was hanged for
                         felony and burglary at Tyburn, in the twenty-fourth year
                         of his age, on Friday, the 24th of September, 1702. She
                         next lived with one William Pulman, otherwise called
                         Norwich Will, from the place of his birth, who also made
                         his exit at Hyde Park Corner, on Friday, the 9th of March,
                         1704-1705, aged twenty-six years, for robbing one Mr
                         Joseph Edwards on the highway of a pair of leather bags, a
                         shirt, two neckcloths, two pocket-books, twenty-five guineas,
                         a half broad-piece of gold, and four pounds in silver.
                            Now Nan, being twice left a hempen widow in less than
                         three years, had learned in that time to be as vicious as
                         the very worst of her sex, and was so absolutely enslaved to
                         all manner of wickedness through custom and opportunity
                         that good admonitions could work no good effects upon her.
                         Her inclination was entirely averse to honesty. Bidding
                         adieu to everything that looked like virtue, she drove a great
                         trade among goldsmiths, to whose shops she often went to
                         buy gold rings, but she only cheapened till she had the oppor-
                         tunity of stealing one or two; which she did by means of a
                         little ale held in a spoon over the fire till it congealed thick
                         like a syrup, for by rubbing some of this on the palm of
                         her hand, any light thing would stick to it, without the
                         least suspicion at all. She was as well known among the
                         mercers, lacemen and linendrapers on Ludgate Hill, Cheap-
                         side or Fleet Street as that notorious shoplifter, Isabel
                         Thomas, who was condemned for the same crimes.
                            But at last she was apprehended for her pranks, and being
                         so often burned in the face that there was no more room left
                         for the hangman to stigmatise her, the Court thought fit to
                         condemn her for privately stealing a piece of printed calico
                         out of the shop of one Mr John Andrews; and she was
                         publicly hanged, in the twentieth year of her age, at Tyburn, on
                         Friday, 13th of July, 1708.


A notorius mass witch trial in England, which involved twenty alleged
witches. The evidence of confessing witches was readily accepted and in
all, ten of the accused were hanged, one died in jail, two were sentenced
to jail for a year and the rest were acquitted. Young Alison Device, who
was only eleven-years old, was amongst those that were hanged along with
her mother and brother


The trial of twenty-seven-year old Madame Desle la Mansenee is important
in documenting the continued involvement of the Inquisition in witch
trials. In 1529, the Inquisitor-General visited the village of Anjux to
collect hearsay gossip from the villages. Complaints focused on one woman,
Desle la Mansenee and in March, 1529, the inquisitor began interrogating
the woman. At first she didn't confess, so she was subjected to torture.
By April 8, she was naming her accomplices at the sabbats and on December
18, 1529, she was hanged and her body was burned.


In 1582, several individuals were accused of witchcraft, in which the
testimony of children ranging in age from six to nine was eagerly
received. Two women were hanged , Elizabeth Bennet, for killing a man and
his wife and Ursula Kempe was indicted for three deaths and consequently


                            A "Question Lay" Thief, whose End was at Tyburn,
                                     on 22nd of December, 1703

                          MOLL HAWKINS was condemned on the 3rd of
                          March, 1703, for privately stealing goods out of
                          the shop of Mrs Hobday, in Paternoster Row.  She hav-
                          ing been reprieved for nine months, upon account of her
                          being then alleged quick with child -- though she was
                          not -- she was now called down to her former judgment.
                          When she came to the place of execution at Tyburn, on
                          Wednesday, the 22nd of December, 1703, she said she was
                          about twenty-six years of age, born in the parish of St Giles-
                          in-the-Fields ; that she served three years' apprenticeship
                          to a button-maker in Maiden Lane, by Covent Garden, and
                          followed that employment for some years after, but withal
                          gave way at the same time to those ill practices which were
                          now the cause of her death.


Anna Maria's execution for witchcraft on April 11, 1755, was the last
official execution for witchcraft in Germany. A coachman promised marriage
to Anna Maria if she would become a Lutheran. She journeyed to Memmingen
with the coachman to formerly renounce her Catholic faith. The coachman
seduced and abandoned her and she was delirious at the loss of her faith
and virginity. She wandered about the countryside dazed and crazed until
she was picked up and put in a bedlam. Here, the matron, Anna Maria
Kuhstaller beat Anna Maria until she confessed to having intercourse with
the devil. The matron denounced her to the magistrates and Anna Maria was
thrown in jail. Two weeks later, her trial began and apparently no torture
was needed as she was half-crazed by this time. She confessed to all sorts
of deeds and she was executed.


                            Who became a Shoplifter for Love of her Husband.
                               Executed at Tyburn 18th of December, 1691

                         MARY JONES was born in Chancery Lane, where
                         her parents lived in a great deal of credit. She
                         was brought up to the making of hoods and scarves at the
                         New Exchange in the Strand. She married an apprentice,
                         whom she loved extremely, and whose extravagances were
                         thought to be the first occasion of her taking to a dishonest
                         course of life; for as he was not in a capacity to get any
                         money himself, she was willing to do anything in order to
                         furnish him with whatever he wanted, being fond of having
                         him always appear like a gentleman. The first species of
                         thieving she took to was picking pockets.
                            One day, meeting near Rosamond's Pond, in St James's
                         Park, with one Mr Price, a milliner, keeping shop in the
                         same Exchange in which she was bred, Moll pretended to
                         ask him some questions about Mrs Zouch, a servant of his,
                         who had murdered her bastard child; whereupon he pulled
                         out a tin trumpet, which he usually carried in his pocket to
                         hold to his ear, being so very deaf that he could not hear
                         otherwise. Whilst he was earnestly hearkening to what
                         Moll said to him through this vehicle, she picked a purse
                         out of his breeches in which were fifteen guineas and a
                         broad-piece. Mr Price never missed it till he came home,
                         and then where to find her he could not tell.
                            Shortly after this she was apprehended for picking the
                         pocket of one Mr Jacob Delafay, a Jew, who was chocolate-
                         maker to King James II. and King William III., and lived
                         over against York Buildings in the Strand. For this fact she
                         was committed to Newgate and burned in the hand; which
                         punishment making her out of conceit with the trade of
                         diving or filing, she turned shoplifter, in which she was
                         very successful for three or four years; at the end of which,
                         privately stealing half-a-dozen pairs of silk stockings from
                         one Mr Wansel, a hosier in Exeter 'Change, she was detected
                         actually committing the theft by one Smith, a victualler, at
                         the Rose and Crown ale-house, over against the little Savoy
                         Gate in the Strand, who was buying a pair of stockings there
                         at the same time. This Smith, being a constable, seized her,
                         and carrying her before Justice Brydal, he committed her to
                         Newgate, after which she was burned in the hand again.
                            Still following the art and mystery of shoplifting, she
                         was apprehended for privately stealing a piece of satin out
                         of a mercer's shop on Ludgate Hill, whither she went in a
                         very splendid equipage and personated the late Duchess
                         of Norfolk, to avoid suspicion of her dishonesty; but her
                         graceless Grace being sent to Newgate, and condemned for
                         her life at the Old Bailey, she was hanged at Tyburn in the
                         twenty-fifth year of her age, on Friday, the 18th day of
                         December, in the year 1691.


                           Who robbed many Houses, and was hanged at Tyburn
                                      on 3rd of November, 1703

                          THIS offender had almost as many names as the
                         fabulous hydra had heads.  She was born in the parish
                         of St Martinís-in-the-Fields, and took betimes to ill courses,
                         in which she continued till her death.  Madam Ogle was
                         not more dexterous at bilking hackney coaches than Moll
                         Raby at bilking her lodging, in which species of fraud her
                         talent originally lay, and at which she had more success
                         than at anything else she undertook.
                          One of her adventures was at a house in Great Russell
                         Street, by Bloomsbury Square, where, passing for a great
                         heiress, who was obliged to leave the country by reason of
                         the importunate troublesomeness of a great many suitors,
                         she was entertained with all the civility imaginable. This
                         seemingly honest creature, who was a saint without but a
                         devil within, continued there about a fortnight to increase
                         her character, making a very good appearance as to her
                         habit, for she had a tallyman in every quarter of the town.
                         One day, when all the family were absent except the maid,
                         she desired her to call a porter, and gave him a sham bill,
                         drawn on a banker in Lombard Street, for one hundred
                         and fifty pounds, which she desired might be all in gold;
                         but fearing such a quantity of money might be a temptation
                         to make the porter dishonest, she privately requested the
                         maid to go along with him, and she, in the meantime,
                         would take care of the house. The poor maid, thinking no
                         harm, went with the porter to Lombard Street, where they
                         were stopped for a couple of cheats ; but they alleging their
                         innocence, and proving from whence they came, a messenger
                         was sent home with them, who found it to be a trick put
                         upon the servant to rob the house; for before she came
                         back, Moll Raby had gone off with above eighty pounds
                         in money, one hundred and sixty pounds worth of plate,
                         and several other things of a considerable value.
                            For offences of this nature she was thrice burned in the
                         hand, after which she married one Humphry Jackson, a
                         butcher, who was taught by her to leave off his trade and
                         go upon the pad in the daytime, while she went upon the
                         " buttock and twang " by night; which is picking up a cull
                         or spark, whom, pretending she would not expose her face
                         in a public-house, she takes into some dark alley, where she
                         picks his fob or pocket of his watch or money, and giving a
                         sort of " Ahem ! " as a signal she has succeeded in her design,
                         the fellow with whom she keeps company, blundering up in
                         the dark, knocks down the gallant and carries of the prize.
                            But after the death of this husband Moll turned arrant
                         thief, and in the first exploit she then went upon she was
                          like to come scurvily off.  The adventure was this. Going
                         upon the night sneak (as the phrase of these people is), she
                         found a door half open in Downing Street, at Westminster,
                         where, stealing softly upstairs into a great bedchamber, she
                         hid herself under the bed. She had not been there above
                         an hour before a couple of footmen brought candles into
                         the room, whilst the maid , with great diligence, was laying
                         the cloth for supper. The table being furnished with two
                         or three dishes of meat, five or six persons sat down, besides
                         the children that were in the house; which so affrighted
                         Moll that she verily thought that if their voices and the
                         noise of the children had not hindered them they might
                         have heard her very joints smite one against another and
                         the teeth chatter in her head. At length supper was ended,
                         and not long after they all withdrew themselves ; when
                         Moll, coming from under the bed, wrapped the sheets up
                         in a quilt, and sneaking downstairs made off the ground
                         as fast as she could.
                            Mary or Moll Raby, alias Rogers, alias Jackson, alias
                         Brown, was at last condemned for a burglary committed
                         in the house of Lady Cavendish, in Soho Square, the
                         3rd of March, 1703, upon the information of two villains
                         ---namely, Arthur Chambers and Joseph Hatfield---who
                         made themselves evidences against her. At the place of
                         execution at Tyburn, on Wednesday, the 3rd of November,
                         1703, she said she was thirty years of age, that she was
                         well brought up at first, and knew good things, but did
                         not practise them, having given herself up to all manner of
                         wickedness and vice.

The Salem Witch Trials

What careful observers learned rather quickly was, despite +he Biblical
injunction against allowing a witch to live and despite the English law of
1603 (practitioners of witchcraft were to be executed even upon first
offense),those who confessed were seldom even brought to trial. However,
once brought to trial--that is, once having been accused and NOT having
confessed-- conviction and execution by the Special court set up in Salem
was a certainty.

June 2

Bridget Bishop convicted, (hanged June 10)

June 29

Sarah Good

Sarah Wildes

Elizabeth How

Susanna Martin

Rebecca Nurse

all convicted, (hanged July 19)

 Aug. 5

Martha Carrier

convicted, (hanged Aug. 19)

early Sept.

6 tried, 6 executed (one escaped, one reprieved)

Sept. 7

nine tried, nine condemned: 5 confess, all reprieved, 4 go on to
the gallows.

Sept. 22

Martha Corey
Mary Easty (sister of Rebecca Nurse)
Alice Parkerr
Ann Pudeator
Margaret Scott
Mary Parker
all hanged.