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Course contentLesson 1


Friulian is not a dialect of Italian. It is an autonomous language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romanic family, which developed around the year 1000 AD through the meeting of the Celtic, Latin and Germanic cultures. Here are a few examples of the phonetic differences between the two languages.


Friulian words drop the final vowel of the corresponding Italian word - except that words which in Italian end in a, end in e in Friulian.

Italian Friulian
mano man
fine fin
luna lune
poeta poete

However, the final a is altogether dropped if it is preceded by mm or st.

Italian Friulian
programma program
artista artist

Following the loss of the final vowel, the last syllable often becomes longer when accented.

Italian Friulian
vocąle vocâl

Ca and ga in Italian words very often correspond to cja and gja in Friulian words.

Italian Friulian
cane cjan
gatto gjat

Friulian words never end with the voiced consonants b, v, g, d .Only the voiceless consonants p, f, c, t can be found in final position in Friulian.

Examples

Italian do not exist Friulian
strambo stramb stramp
drago drāg drāc
crudo crūd crūt
sportivo sportīv sportīf

There are no double consonants in Friulian.

Italian Friulian
programma programe

Ss is used to represent the voiceless s occuring in intervocalic position.

Italian Friulian
rosa rose
rossa rosse

Friulian words have preserved the Latin consonant clusters bl, cl, fl, pl, gl which have become bi, chi, fi, pi, ghi, in Italian.

Italian Friulian
blawd biava blave
claudum chiodo claut
flasche fiasca flascje
plus pił plui
glaciem ghiaccio glace

Friulian and Italian words which are similar in form, may differ in grammatical gender.

Italian Friulian
miele (m) mīl (f)
estate (f) istāt (m)
monte (m) mont (f)
sonno (m) sium (f)

They may also have different meanings.

spacā (to shake) spaccare (to break)
bussā (to kiss) bussare (to knock)

© Copyright friulian version by Sandri Carrozzo
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