African Presence in Ancient America
African influence on Ancient America . Negroes in the New World
[Ivan Van Sertima] hypothesizes that Africans reached America in at least two pre-Columbian stages. The first being ancient Egyptians and Nubians, who reached the Gulf of Mexico between 1200 BC and 800 BC.
|The Lost Treasure of King Juba: The Evidence of Africans in America before Columbus|
The second Theoretical wave, Circa 1310 AD, the Mande/Mende people of Western Africa arrived along eastern Mexico, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and various Caribbean islands, some 180 years before Columbus. Although there is indications that other Mende migrations, perhaps in pre-history preceded the 14th Century wave.
One of the earliest civilizations of ancient America was the Olmec
society. Located along the Gulf Coast of Mexico circa 1000 BC.
Basalt stone heads, weighing up to forty tons , have
been found in various Olmec sites. Archaeologist
described their facial features as "amazingly Negroid." The
Olmecs may have been Blacks of Egyptian, North or West African lineage ,
they may have been an African settler-colony, or it may be purely
coincidental that the Olmec heads bear somewhat African features.
Major gaps exist in our knowledge of Olmec culture and history, but enough has been unearthed to hypothesize a significant African influence in America centuries before the advent of the Imperial-Colonial slave trade.
Although it is not 'written in stone' Studies indicate that there is a fair possibility that the Olmecs were not Amerindians who simply resembled Africans [although some Amerindians and Olmecs did naturally mix].
It has been claimed that the Olmecs used the Mending/Mende script, a writing system used among Africans in West Africa . Controversy surrounds the presence of writing among the Olmecs. Some scholars have maintained that the Olmec writing was identical to the Manding writing used in West Africa. While others believe that the Olmecs possessed an iconography but not a writing system.
An important paper on the Mayan writing that helped in the decipherment of the Olmec Writing was published by a Nineteenth Century scholar named Rafinesque . In this paper he discussed the fact that the Mayan glyphs were broken down into their constituent parts, they were analogous to the ancient Libyco-Berber writing, which originated in North Africa.
The Mende People
African Expedition to America Circa 1310 AD
The ruler of the West African Empire of Mali had been assured by
scholars that the world was round and new lands lay on the other side of
the vast ocean. This ruler decided to find out , he assembled enough
soldiers ,craftsmen and supplies to build an armada of ships of all
types and sizes. The fleet sailed, the following year only one
ship returned, that of a captain who had reversed course just as the
fleet was caught by a powerful westward-flowing current . The captain
bore no news other than that he had seen the rest of the ships continue
"So Abubakar [Abubakari is an honorary title, such as 'his
majesty' or 'his highness' not a proper name,] equipped 200 ships
filled with men and the same number equipped with gold, water, and
provisions, enough to last them for years…they departed and a long time
passed before anyone came back. Then one ship returned and we asked the
captain what news they brought.
Documented Post Colombian Black Indians
A contemporary historian of Columbus, noted that Spanish explorers found “Negro slaves” in Darien, Panama. “It is thought,. that, Negro pirates of Ethiopia established themselves after the wreck of their ships in these mountains.” [The explanation that they were former pirates is pure speculation on the Author, Peter Martyrs part ..See Opus epistolarum ] . They were captives of local Indians and had apparently come from a nearby colony. They were there before Balboa found them in 1513.
It is conceivable, however logistically improbable, that they were escaped Spanish slaves. The first slaves were brought to the West Indies by the Spanish about 1501. It is however ,quite possible that they were descended from either the Olmecs or the Mende.
Black Californians or Black Mojave were an indigenous group of Amerindians who once occupied parts of California. The enigmatic part of their existence is that they were not of the same racial stock as the typical Amerindian, they were Negro.
They fought the Spaniards, the Mexicans and Anglo-Americans up to the mid 1800's. Many were enslaved and later freed after slavery was abolished. Many others continued fighting and were eventually subdued. Most melted into the afro populations of the inner cities of southwestern US and Mexico where some of their descendants continue to resist civilization to this very day.
The Washitaw Nation, or Washitaw de Dutgdahmoundyah is a group of people who claim to be a sovereign Native American nation within the boundaries of the US, headed by Empress Verdiacee Tiari Washitaw Turner Goston El-Bey. [Wikipedia].
They present on their websites blatantly and ridiculously Africanized , Egyptianized artifacts as proof of their lineage from African and ancient Egyptian colonists of antiquity. Any aspects which could point to Egyptian or African origins on these artifacts is highly accentuated . The Olmec heads, for instance, of Central America hint at African racial grouping, while the Washitaw artifacts scream African, with a strong Classical Egyptian influence.
In 1991, the U.S. returned about 68,000 square acres of land to the Washitaw Nation of Louisiana. Although the Washitaw claim to own about 1/3 of the US. Washitaw's empress claims that the land sold by Napoleon to the United States in 1803, the Louisiana Purchase, was fraudulently obtained because she owns it. Verdiacee Goston, [the Empresses name before she decided to be the Empress] was indicted in 1984 for the alleged embezzlement of $150,000 in federal funds.
Jamassee/Yamasee and the Guale of the American Southwest were said by some to be of African origin, although there is no evidence of this prior to their mixing with colonial slaves.
"They Came Before Columbus" by Ivan van Sertima hypothesizes that the "Black Caribs" are descended from pre-Columbian African explorers who intermingled with the indigenous population . Conservative anthropological rationale for the existence of the Black Caribs is that escaped African slaves from a ship that had run aground near St. Vincent in 1675 were assimilated into the native culture and their offspring became known as Black Caribs.
However, a Century earlier, the son of Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand, may have been speaking of Black Caribs when he wrote about people seen by his father in Honduras: "The people who live farther east of Pointe Cavinas, as far as Cape Gracios a Dios, are almost black in color." he wrote
The Gullah People
The Gullah people of the sea islands off South Carolina and Georgia are a scholarly enigma.
Anthropologists have long been puzzled because their culture retains a much stronger African influence than the culture of former African slaves. Their language, cultural practices, folktales, and beliefs all give strong evidence of African roots.
The probability of this matter is that the Gullahs being isolated from the mainland influences were able to retain more of their African heritage, although I have heard Afro-Centrists argue convincingly otherwise.
Giants of Ancient America Midwest Mound Builders
Giants of Ancient America Southwest US & Mexico