Genetic page 2 - Slaves at the Cape


Slaves at the Cape, South Africa

Author: A.M. van Rensburg (b4 c2 d1 e6 f5 g5 h3 i2)

Webmaster: M.A. van Rensburg (b4 c2 d1 e6 f5 g5 h3 i2 j1)

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Genetic Enrichment Page 1
My Genetic Enrichment Page 2
My Genetic Enrichment - EVA the Hottentot

My Connections
My own pool of genetic heritage includes, and were enriched by the following people, I have also indicated the line of descent down to my grandparents:

Catharina (Katrijn) van Malabar .... Speldenberg connection
Catharina van Malabaar had a child of which Cornelis Claassen was the stepfather. This child was known as Adriana Gabrielse van de Kaap (also known as Adriaentje Claassen).

Adriana Gabrielse van de Kaap had an illegitimate child with Hendrik Speldenberg. Adriana later married Pieter Boshouwer.

Elsje Speldenberg baptised 26 November 1679.

Catharina van Malabar => Adriaentje Gabrielse van de Kaap => Elsie Speldenbergh => b5 Geertruy Gerrits => b7c7 Dirk Coetzee => b7c7d2 Cecilia Anna Coetzee => b3c2d? Martha Maria Elisabeth Swanepoel => b2c? Maria Sophia Susanna Spamer => b4c2d1e6f5 Nicolaas Jacobus Janse van Rensburg => b4c2d1e6f5g5 Nicolaas Jacobus Janse van Rensburg => my father => me

Catharina van Malabar and Cornelis Claasen got married and had a child Maria Cornelisse

Catharina van Malabar => Maria Cornelisse => b8 Mattheus Willemse => c14 Susanna Willemse => c4 Arnoldus Jacobus Greyling => d11 Catharina Levina Cornelia Greyling => f1 Johanna Elisabeth Kruger => Johanna Elisabeth van der Westhuyzen => b6c3d1e7f6g?h1 Johanna Elisabeth Kuhn => my father => me

Katrijn van Malabar ..... Boshouwer connection (also Bezuidenhout and van Locherenberg connection)
She had a child Arriaantje van de Kaap. . Arriaantje got baptised 15 November 1662 at Cape Town. Later Katrijn married Cornelis Claasen (Kees de Boer) and thus he was the stepfather of Arrianntje. Arriaantje got married to Pieter Boshouwer on 9 July 1683. She became the stammoeder of the Bezuidenhouts and the van Locherenbergs.

Katrijn van Malabar => Arriaantje van de Kaap => b1 Gerbrecht Boshouwer => b4c5 Jannetje Bezuidenhout => b3c1d8 Anna Dorethea Pretorius => b2c4d4 Anna Catharina Jacomina du Buisson => b10c6d3 Lasya Claudina Buys => b2 Magadalena Alida Petronella Latsky => b6c3d1e7f6 Mattheus Willem Johannes Kuhn => b6c3d1e7f6g? Mattheus Willem Johannes Kuhn => b6c3d1e7f6g?h1 Johanna Elisabeth Kuhn => my father => me

Katrijn van Malabar => Arriaantje van de Kaap => b1 Gerbrecht Boshouwer => b4c5 Jannetje Bezuidenhout => b3c1d3 Gerrit Pieter Pretorius => b3c1d3e1 Johannes Lodewyk Pretorius => b3c1d3e1f6 Jan Christoffel Pretorius => b3c1d3e1f6g4 Anna Elisabeth Pretorius => b4c2d5e4f11 Lodevicus Johannes Combrinck => b4c2d5e4f11g3 Jacobus Johannes Burger Combrinck => my mother => me

Catharina van Malabar ..... Claasen connection
She was originaly from India, from the coast of Malabar. On the 13 March 1676 she got married to Cornelis Claassen.

Catharina van Malabar => Cornelia Cornelisse => Catharina Pyl => b2c8 Martha Elisabeth Botha => b3c2 Johannes Joachim Swanepoel => b3c2d2 Martha Maria Elisabeth Swanepoel => b2c? Maria Sophia Susanna Spammer => b4c2d1e6f5 Nicolaas Jacobus Janse van Rensburg => b4c2d1e6f5g5 Nicolaas Jacobus Janse van Rensburg => my father => me

Catharina van Malabar => Cornelia Cornelisse => Catharina Pyl => b2c6 Anna Botha => b5c1 Johannes Oosthuyzen => b5c1d5 Cornelia Margaretha Oosthuizen => c1d8 Andries Jonathan Fourie => c1d8e1 Margaretha Louiza Isabella Fourie => b4c3d3e10f6g3 Andries Jonathan Strydom => b4c3d3e10f6g3h8 Adriana Josina Strydom => my mother => me

In 1673 Cornelis had his son Claas baptised which he had with Catryn van Mallabar. He also had a girl Cornelia baptised 1674, at this occasion Catryn is described as "gedoopte swartinne". In 1676 another girl Alida gets baptised, again Catharina is given as the mother. However the same day, 13 March 1676, that they baptised their girl Alida they also got married. (Heese, Groep Sonder Grense, p 6). In SA Genealogies, Vol I there is a person with the name Claas Cornelisse van die Kaap who married 9 July 1690 at Cape Town to Beatrice van Cochin, could he be the eldest son?

In 1661 Cornelis Claasen also confessed to have had a child with the slave Isabella van Angola, look under Armosyn Claasz van de Kaap.

Angela van Bengale (Mooij Ansela) ..... Basson connection
Angela van Bengale and Arnoldusz Willemsz Basson got married the 15 Dec 1669.

Angela van Bengale => b3 Johannes Basson => b3c1 Arnoldus Johannes Basson => b3c1d3 Anna Catharina Basson => b8c7 Johannes Dewalt Hattingh => b8c7d4 *Johannes Dewalt Hattingh => b6c7d4e10 Christiaan Johannes Hattingh => b6c7d4e10f4 Martha Rhyna Hattingh => b2c1d2e2f2g3h4 Anna Elizabeth Sophia van Jaarsveldt => b4c2d5e4f11g3 Jacobus Johannes Burger Combrinck => my mother => me

Note:* Johannes Dewalt Hattingh was the half brother of Voortrekker leader (b3 c1 d5 e12) Andries W.J. Pretorius.

See pencil drawing of Andries Pretorius (19K) holding his sword. Hattingh was married to Anna Elisabeth Retief (after Hattingh passed away she married a Steenkamp) she kept a diary on the Great Trek and was the child of Francois Retief, older brother of Voortrekker leader Piet Retief. See (photo of brother (22k) of Piet Retief and also a photo of a sister of Francois & Piet Retief (16k) found in G Preller's book Piet Retief)

Angela was a slave from Bengale, India. The Ganges delta had numerous company stations, such as Hougli (Head Quarters), Kazimber, and Patna. Clothing, opium and saltpeter (the later used in preparation of gunpowder) was sold here. She was brought on the ship Amersfoort to the Cape (W Blommaert "Het Invoern van de Slavernij aan de Kaap", p 6 Archive Year Book of South Africa, 193 Vol I). In Oct 1655 van Riebeeck bought a slave Angela van Bengale. Angela was sold by Jan van Riebeeck on 19 Apr 1662 to Abraham Gabbema, on the next day he sold Domingo, Jan, Thomas and Claesje all from Angola, to Roeloff de Man. On the 13th April 1666 Gabbema signed a document which would lead to Angela's freedom six months later, see reproduction of this document which gave Angela her freedom (58k), from Boeseken p 102, 103. Angela was the third person to be freed from slavery at the Cape. Angela tried to save a Hottentot woman, Sara, who committed suicide by hanging, unfortunately she was already dead (Familia XVI p23).  Angela got married on the 15 December 1669 to the free burgher Arnoldus Willemsz from Wesel, he is known as Arnoldus Willemsz Basson, they had three children: Willem baptised Aug 1670, Gerrit baptised 12 March 1673 and Johannes baptised 5 May 1675. Basson, her husband died in 1689 and Angela died ten years later. Apparently her son Johannes predeceased her and I am a descendant of him. Angela received two properties as titles according to Cairns p 86.  Shell states: Ansiela van Bengal, originally one of Jan van Riebeeck's households owned the farm Kronendal in Houtbay, today it is a restaurant. Angela was also the mother of Anna de Koningh who got married to Olof Bergh, there is a drawing of Anna de Koningh which I have included at the beginning of Page 1 of My Genetic Enrichment.

Armozyn Claasz van de Kaap ..... Combrinck connection
Armozyn Claasz van de Kaap was born about 1661 according to her will which came into effect in 1728. Armozyn at the time of making her will was 67 years old, she was known as Armosyn Claasz van de Kaap. Her mother must have been a slave since when Armosyn had a child baptised on 15 Jan 1688, he is described as a child of Armosyn van die Kaap, a company slave. The father was most likely white and called Claas since she is given this patronym. A theory that I have presented gives the parents of Armosyn as Isabella van Angola and Cornelis Claasen, see Capensis 2/2000. Her first 38 years, at least till 1699, she spent in the Slave Lodge. In the court yard of the slave lodge they held pigs. The Lodge functioned as the brothel of Cape Town, the officials allowed one hour visit at night for this purpose. Armosyn must have also participated in providing for this need, from the births of children recorded for her, while in the Lodge. The Lodge housed the largest number of unattached women in the male dominated Cape, and was thus frequented. Sailors and slaves even danced stark naked at the Lodge: "als gantse onbeschaemde menshen see wel de Europeaanen als Slavinnen haar moedernaact ontkleeden en in't aspect en aensien van andere met malcanderen te dasen". In 1685 van Rheede stated "because of their poverty and lack of clothes, many slave-girls let themselves being used by whites in exchange for a dress or a blanket", he mentions that he noticed many slave women wearing soldier-coats. Continuing his remarks that many children in the Lodge both boys and girls were as white as Europeans. He states that out of 92 children under the age of 12 years, 25 boys and 19 girls must have had white fathers, in his diary he mentions 32 boys and 26 girls (refer to p114 MF Valkhoff New Light on Afrikaans and Malayo-Portuguese, J Hoge " Miscegenation in the seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries") . The Lodge had no external windows. The average number of inhabitants in the Lodge over the years were 476 persons per year. This was a unique community, in as much as they virtually operated autonomous. She had four children born during this time. Her first child, Frans was baptised 15 August 1677 and mention is made that the father is an unknown Christian. Johannes was her second child who was baptised 8 September 1686.

In 1711 Armosyn made application to the authorities, she was then a free black, for the freedom of her daughter Marie, either out of mercy or at a set price. The request was granted on condition of another three years of service by Marie. This document also reveals that Armosyn held the position of matron of the slave children at the Slave Lodge. Some of the duties of the matron included, being the schoolmistress, she lived in a separate room next to the Lodge's schoolgirls. Her name came from the term used for silk: "armozijnen, a thin satin-like material named after the town of Ormuz and was much used for linings, and atlassen, which were both a fine silk and a kind of piece goods, made of the same material, Kristoff Glamann, Dutch Asiatic Trade 1620-1740, p 21, 134. There were others names used for silk products: Allegiassen silk - consisted of brilliant colours, Gilams - silk from China or Persia, demasten - white heavy silk.

Due to her faithful service rendered, she was emancipated by Governor Willem Adriaan van der Stel. Margaret Cairns concludes that she must have been set free by mid-1704.

Armosyn was granted a title of a property in June 1708. This property was opposite the company gardens. She later transferred (T 1349/ 30 September 1720) this property to her son-in-law Hermanus Combrinck, he was married to her daughter Magdalena Ley. With the will that Armosyn made some of the jig saw puzzle fits together. Her Inventory is taken in 1733. (MOOC 8/5 no 76 26 Nov 1733. Everything was left to her daughter Magdalena, apart from the slave Sabina van Mallebaar, who was given to her grand daughter Margaretha Geertruy Frisnet.

The will mentions the names of the four children who did not die young, the known children of Armosyn:

1. Frans baptised 15 August 1677 most probably died young

2. Willem baptised 6 May 1685 most probably died young

3. Johannes baptised 8 Sept 1686 most probably died young

4. Claas Jonasz baptised 1 August 1688 he married 11 March 1725 Dina van Bima. Margaret Cairns p 92, discusses some difficulty in calculation of dates, regarding his baptism and the birth of his children.

5. Anna baptised 7 Sept 1692 most probably died young

6. Magdalena Ley baptised 26 August 1697. She was called 'halfslag' indicating that her father was white. She married Hermanus Combrinck 14 April 1720. Thus becoming the stammoeder of the Combrinck's. They had nine children. I am a descendant of their fourth child Hermanus Combrink who married Johanna Nel.

7. Manda Gratia, who died prior to the death of Armosyn, and had off spring. She was baptised 19 Nov 1679. She applied for her freedom on 3 April 1711.

8. and Maria Stuart, who also died prior to the death of Armosyn, had descendants. She had two children who took on the surname Cleef. Maria died round about 1713, it should be kept in mind that this was the time of the smallpox epidemic.

Armosyn displayed the characteristic of not remaining a victim of her circumstances but elevating herself, becoming the matron in the slave lodge and then becoming part of the freed community.

Isabella van Angola => Armozyn Claasz van die Kaap => Magdalena Ley => b4 Hermanus Combrink => b2c2 Hermanus Adrian Combrink => b2c2d5 Johannes Jacobus Combrinck => b2c2d5e4 Jacobus Johannes Burger Combrinck => b2c2d5e4f11 Lodevicus Johannes Combrinck => b2c2d5e4f11 Jacobus Johannes Burger Combrinck => my mother => me

Ansela van de Kaap (Haselaar) ..... Campher connection
Ansela van de Kaap lived in the late seventeenth century she had a partner Lorenz Campher.

Ansela van de Kaap => b2 Agnita Campher => b2 Anna van der Swaan => b9c? Johanna Alida Putter => b6c1d3 Johannes Philipus Kruger => b6c1d3e3 Willem Johannes Kruger => b6c1d3e3f1 Johanna Elisabeth Kruger => Johanna Elisabeth van der Westhuyzen => b6c3d1e7f6g?h1 Johanna Elisabeth Kuhn => my father => me

b2 Agnita Campher => b2 Anna van der Swaan => b9c? Zachariah Putter => b7c5 Johannes Lodewyk Kruger => b7c5d3 Anna Maria Kruger => b3c?d?e? Johannes Lodewikus van der Westhuyzen => b3c?d?e?f? Andries Marthinus van der Westhuyzen => b3c?d?e?f?g? Johanna Elisabeth van der Westhuyzen => b6c3d1e7f6g?h1 Johanna Elisabeth Kuhn => my father => me

Ansela van die Kaap and Lorenz Campher had the farm Murasie near Koelenhof. They had the following children:

b1 Cornelis baptised 13 October 1686 married 7 January 1709 Dorothea Oelofse

b2 Agnietie who married Gerrit van der Swaan

b3 Anthoinetta married Ary van Wyk, second marriage Joachim Scholtz

b4 Jacoba married 10 November 1711 Joost de Klerck, second marriage Ruldolf Frechen

Catharina van Bengale erroneously known as Opklim ..... Vermeulen connection
Catharina van Bengale was born in 1663. She was a slave from Bengale, India. She got married 7 Nov 1694 to Jan Willemsz Vermeulen. They had their children, prior to the marriage, while she was still a slave.

Jan Willemsz Vermeulen from Utrecht, had the following children baptised, which he had with Catharina van Bengale:
b1 Sybrand 27 May 1685. Witness was Maria Mostert
b2 Anna 8 Dec 1686, Anna
b3 Maria 20 Feb 1689, witnesses
Jan van Brienen en Maria Losee (she was formerly a slave)
b4 Wilhemina 6 Jan 1691, witnesses Aeltje Ameyde (she was Aeltje Claesz, married to Arij Gerrits Prinsloo and later Lourens Heyns)

Only after Catharina obtained her freedom did he marry her in 1694. Living with a slave woman and then only later marrying her became a common phenomenon at the Cape (Heese, Groep Sonder Grense, p6)

It is very likely that the following information pertains to the same person:
On 23 Dec 1677 26 year old Catrijn van Bengale was sold to Hester van Lier (Weyers), she was the widow of Wouter Mostert, plus the two children of Catrijn, six year old Martha, and three year old Magdalena to her son-in-law Tolbias Vlasvath. For the amount of Rds 80 (Boeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks, p 134)

On the 24 May 1680 Catrina a slave of fiscal Tobias Vlasvat had a two old month baby named Margareta. The father of the child was Jacob van Bengal. Vlasvath gave the child to Titus van Bengale with the undertaking that he would take care of the child until the child was able to provide for herself. Titus were previously a slave of Sybrant Abbema. (Boeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks, p 138)

In the Cape baptism records was recorded on 19 April 1680 that Margaritha was baptised, the father being Jacob van Bengale, the mother was Catarina slave of Vlasvath, one of the witnesses were Titus van Bengale.

Catharina van Bengale => b2 Anna Vermeulen => b2 Susanna Durand => b3c4e5 Susan Elisabeth Viljoen => b8c7 Johannes Dewalt Hattingh => b8c7d4 *Johannes Dewalt Hattingh => b8c7d4e10 Christiaan Johannes Hattingh => b8c7d4e10f4 Martha Rhyna Hattingh => b2c1d2e2f2g3h4 Anna Elizabeth Sophia van Jaarsveldt => b4c2d5e4f11g3 Jacobus Johannes Burger Combrinck => my mother => me

Note:* Johannes Dewalt Hattingh was the half brother of Voortrekker leader b3c1d5e12 Andries W.J. Pretorius. It is rather ironical that Jan Bantjes the secretary of the voortrekkers who were mentioned as being a 'coloured' what have found a good companion in AWJ Pretorius. As noted via his mother AWJ Pretorius were a descendant of Jan Willemsz Vermeulen en Catharina van Bengale. AWJ Pretorius great grandmother on his paternal side was Helena van Malabar. Dit wil voorkom uit getuienis dat Helena, 'n slavin uit Malabar, Indie, en Johannes Vosloo drie buite-egtelike kinders, Johannes, Helena en Casper tussen 1694 en 1698 voortgebring het. Die datum van die dood van Helena Vosloo word afgelei van die datum van die sensus laat April 1723 en die indien van haar testament op 26 Mei 1723. Margaret Cairns beweer dat Helena nie 'n kind was van Jan Vosloo nie aangesien hy haar erflating teruggetrek het en ook dat hy spesifiek aangedui het dat hy geen lewende afstammeling het nie. Verder terug was daar ook Cathryn van die Kaap en Catharina Opklim van Bengale. Die voortrekkers het melding gemaak van Jan Bantjes as 'n gekleurde persoon. In Erasmus Smit se Dagboek is daar op Zondag, 1 Jan. 1837 die volgende inskrywing: 'De hr. De Klerk heeft 'n bruine jonkman met zich medegebracht; en daar deze enige talenten heeft, verzocht ik hem in de kerk voor te lezen en te zingen. Hij voldeed mij zeer wel; zijn naam is Jan Bantjes; maar hij heeft zich binnenkort zelf aan deze diens onttrokken; en hij vond veel schrijfwerk bij de heren in dit leger.' Gustav Preller, wat die Dagboek geredigeer het, voeg die volgende voetnoot by: 'J.G Bantjes, later Sekr. van genl. A.W.J. Pretorius.' Drie dae vroeër verwys hy na die broers Klein, wat die 'leger' besoek het om koring te verkoop of te verruil as '3 gedoopte Basterds van Nieuwland'.

Hattingh was married to Anna Elisabeth Retief (first married to Hattingh and later to Steenkamp) she kept a diary on the Great Trek and was the child of Francois Retief, older brother of Voortrekker leader Piet Retief. The Bengali slaves tended to be bought from the feringhi (Portuguese and mestizo raiders) of the Arakan coast, and these slaves were then purchased at the port of Dinga, see H Sutherland, p 266 'Slavery and the Slave Trade in South Sulawesi 1660 - 1800' in ed A Reid, Slavery and Bondage and Dependence in Southeast Asia.

India became such an imported part of the VOC trade that the fleet would sail direct from south India, without travelling to Batavia as the custom first was. There were two sailing route from the Cape to India between August and January the ships would sail north following the coast of Africa, through the Mozambique strait and then round Madagascar to India. The other months they would sail east three hundred miles and then head north towards India The journey to India took about 80 days. The return trip was usually done between the months of October and February.

Catharina van Bengale / Groot Catrijn ..... Snyman connection
Groot Catrijn, was also known as Catharina van Bengale. She was a slave woman from Paliacatte, on the Coromandel Coast, India
. She was born about 1631 and died about 1683. She was a slave in Batavia to the free woman Maria Magdalena (we don't know whether she had a surname)

Catrijn was sexually assaulted on 8 October 1656 by her lover, the slave Claes van Malabar, in a stable at Fort Rijswijck. In the altercation, she hit Claes with a ladder across his stomach. Claes died four days later due to a burst bladder from the blow he received. Catharine then faced charges of murder and received the death sentence. She was however pardoned, being banished as a slave to the Cape. She arrived at the Cape on 21 February 1657 on the ship Prins Willem. This ship was part of the return fleet which left Batavia on 4 December 1656. Catrijn was the first recorded female slave convict at the Cape.

Groote Cathrijn then gets baptised as an adult with her fellow slave friend Mooij Ansela on 29 April 1668.

The soldier Hans Christoffel Snijman had a relationship with Groot Catrijn who was a slave woman. From this relationship was born Christoffel Snijman. Christoffel Snyman was baptised on 9 March 1669.

Groot Catrijn later got married the free black (mardijker) Anthonij (Jansz) (de Later) van BENGALE on 20th December 1671. In a letter dated 6 January 1672 it is mentioned that Groot Catrijn was freely pardoned. A tragedy must have taken place since the whole family died between December 1682 and February 1683, the only one who did not die was Christoffel Snijman. Many people wrongly consider the father of Snijman to be this free black, but he was the stepfather. Christoffel is the stamvader of the Snyman family.

Catharina van Bengale (also known as Groote Catrijn) => Christoffel Snyman => b5 Elsie Snyman => b4c2 Anna Margaretha Botha => b1c2 Jacobus van Rensburg => b1c2d9 Margaretha Isabella van Rensburg => b3c9d3e3 Beatrix Johanna Lombard = > b4c3d3e10f6 Cornelius Johannes Strydom => b4c3d3e10f6g3 Andries Jonathan Strydom => d3e10f6g3h8 Adriana Josina Strydom => my mother => me

Catharina van Bengale (also known as Groote Catrijn) => Christoffel Snyman => b3 Maria Magadalena Snyman => b1c4 Jacobus Botha => b1c4d1 Maria Catharina Botha => b1c2d9 Margaretha Isabella van Rensburg => b3c9d3e3 Beatrix Johanna Lombard = > b4c3d3e10f6 Cornelius Johannes Strydom => b4c3d3e10f6g3 Andries Jonathan Strydom => b4c3d3e10f6g3h8 Adriana Josina Strydom => my mother => me

Catharina van Bengale (also known as Groote Catrijn) => Christoffel Snyman => b7 Philippus Snyman => b7c1 Christoffel Snyman => b7c1d1 Jacomina Snyman => b2c4d1e1f2 Daniel Petrus Marais => b2c4d1e1f2g4 Hester Dorothea Marais => b2c1d1e1f1g10 Hester Dorothea Wessels => b1c6d5e7f?g5 Maria Dorothea Catharina du Preez => b4c3d3e10f6g3h8 Adriana Josina Strydom => my mother => me

A Company slave ..... van der Merwe / Heyns connection
Willem Schalk van der Merwe had a child with a slave woman, she originally worked for the VOC company at the Cape. Simon van der Stel gave this slave woman to van der Merwe, and she was set free in 1686 (Attestasie 1664 in C 326 pp 478-9, p 6 en 27). Their child was called Maria Schalk van der Merwe and when she grew up, she got married on 23 September 1696 to Paul Heyns.
Company slave => Maria Schalk van der Merwe => b4 Michiel Africanus Heyns => b4c4 Ockert Heyns => b4c4d8 Margaretha Isabella Heyns => b20c2d9 Beatrix Anna Petronella Fourie => b20c1d8e1 Margaretha Louiza Isabella Fourie => b4c3d3e10f6g3 Andries Jonathan Strydom => b4c3d3e10f6g3h8 Adriana Josina Strydom => My mother => me

Diana van Madagascar ..... Odendaal connection

On 12 May 1691 a 25/26 year old Diana van Madagascar was sold by Joris van Straaten to Christaan Freser for 65 Riksdaalers. She got sold by Freser on 28 December 1693 for 90 riksdaalers to Dietlof Biebouw. Dietlof had a 'voorkind', called Susanna with the female slave Diana. The baptism entry for Susanna states that the mother was the slave of Cornelis Linnes, and the father being Biebouw. Diana VAN MADAGASCAR, was also known as Diana VAN DE KAAP: Susanna who was baptised on 23 February 1687 (at her baptism she is referred to as being the slave of Cornelis Linnes). She got married 13 September 1711 with the stamvader Willem Odendaal.

Further research needs to be given to see whether the information below pertains to her:

Diana van Madagascar 20 / 21 years old sold by Will Deeron to Jan Vlock for Rds 48 on 5th May 1686. The age given for this person seem to synchronize with the age given above in 1691.

William Deeron was an English ship captain of the ship "John and Mary". This ship arrived at the Cape in 1686 (most likely early April). Jim Armstrong indicates that this ship traded for slaves at Malandara, also known as Lytvoets. We know that in 1679 there was war between Dian Mananghe (St Augustine) and their neighbours at Lydtvoet (Known by the English as Light foot's river) they belonged to the Sakalava tribe. Slaves would have been available from both sides.

The traditional name of one of the slaves sold by Deeron was preserved, he sold Secca Gijoa on 26 April 1686 to Simon van der Stel. This name may help future researchers identify which clan these slaves came from in Madagascar.

On a previous slaving trip, the ship "John en Mary" stopped at the Cape in January 1684. They had a ship load of slaves from Lytsvoet River, and they were on taking them to Barbados. Was the ships destination in 1686 again Barbados. This is mere speculation since we do not know whether the slave of Jan Vlock was the same slave which Cornelis Linnes purchased

Diana van Madagascar => b1 Susanna Bibault => b1 Engela Odendaal => b4c6 Andries de Klerk => b4c6d2 Johanna Elisabeth de Klerk => b3c4d11 Catharina Levina Cornelia Greyling => b6c1d3e2f1 Johanna Elisabeth Kruger => b3c?d?e?f?g? Johanna Elisabeth van der Westhuyzen => b6c3d1e7f6g?h1 Johanna Elisabeth Kuhn => my father => me

Dorethea van de Kaap ..... Bruyns connection
Dorethea van de Kaap lived in the middle of the eighteenth century her partner was Jan Snyder => Johanna Magdalena Snijders => b1c5d5 Hendrik Willem Bruyns => b1c5d5e5 Moses Christiaan Willem Bruyns => b1c5d5e5f2 Christiaan Jacobus Theodorus Bruyns => b1c5d5e5f2g? Magdalena Johanna Maria Bruyns => b4c2d1e6f5g5 Nicolaas Jacobus Janse van Rensburg => my father => me

Helena van Malabar ..... Vosloo connection
Helena van Malabar (today this area in India is known as Kerala) came from the west coast of India as a slave. The main Dutch port was Cochin, pepper was the trading commodity here. There were also a Roman Catholic presence amongst the people here since it used to be a Portuguese trading station. In 1716 there were 336 households in Cochin, 232 were European or Indo-European. There were 116 European men, twelve of them were married to European women, whereas 80 of these men had indo-european wives, and twelve had Indian wives refer to FS Gaastra, De Geschiedenis van de VOC, p 78. The Dutch operated in four regions in India:
1. Bengal
2. Mallabar Coast (South west coast of India)
3. Coromandel Coast (East coast of India)
4. Gujarat.

The reason why Portuguese was so widely used was due to the slaves from Malabar and Coromandel Coast who had Portuguese contact previously. Bengal was textile country, Coromandel Coast was piece good material, and Malabar was pepper country.

The social system of the Nayars was based on what is called "taraurad", where the family is established on the basis of the female ancestor (refer to KM Panikkar, Malabar and the Dutch, p x )

Innocent children were kidnapped by the Mohammedans and sold at Cochin to the Dutch, then they were send to Batavia or the Cape, reference Adoor KK Ramachandran Nair in his book Slavery in Kerala, p 16.

Helena van Malabar was set free as a slave with her little boy 20 Nov 1696 at the Cape. She had a relationship with Johannes Vosloo. Jan Vosloo was the Companies 'baashoutkapper' and his slave Helena helped him in the forest. In his Testament of 1732 he mentions that he never had children. Yet in his Testament which was made before 1718, he mentions the names of Caspar, Johannes and Helena as his inheritors. We can suspect that he was thus the father. Greater evidence is found when he requested to have these three children set free from slavery. On 11 November 1707 he requested to have an eleven year old slave girl set free. This little girl must have been Helena Vosloo who would thus have been born 1696. Johannes Volsoo mentions that their mother has brought this child into the world, in his home. He also states that he has taken care of them and was bringing them up and would like to continue to do this. He offers to pay the required 25 Rds to the VOC for Helena. Helena Vosloo was thus set free on 10 April 1708. The Political Council made him responsible to provide for her until her wedding day. Thus the Council of Policy ascribed to him the duties of a father. (refer to JL Hattingh "Beleid en Praktyk, die Doop van Slawekinders en die sluit van gemengde verhoudings aan die Kaap voor 1720" Kronos 1982, Vol 5, p 37 ff and also the article by JL Hattingh "Slawevrystelling aan die Kaap tussen 1700 en 1720", Kronos, 1981 Vol IV, p 31).

Their daughter called Helena Vosloo who was born c1696, got married to b3 Johannes Pretorius:

Helena van Malabar => Helena Vosloo b3 => b3c1 Johannes Pretorius => b3c1d3 Gerrit Pieter Pretorius => b3c1d3e1 Johannes Lodewyk Pretorius => b3c1d3e1f6 Jan Christoffel Pretorius => b3c1d3e1f6g4 Anna Elisabeth Pretorius => b4c2d5e4f11 Lodevicus Johannes Combrinck => b4c2d5e4f11g3 Jacobus Johannes Burger Combrinck => my mother => me

Helena van Malabar => Helena Vosloo b3 => b3c3 Anna Pretorius => b5c3 Anna Elisabeth de Beer => b2c3d2 Zacharias Albertus van Jaarsveldt => b2c3d2e2 Adriaan Johannes Frederik Gustaaf van Jaarsveldt => b2c3d2e2f2 Hendrik Johannes van Jaarsveldt => b2c3d2e2f2g3 David Johannes van Jaarsveldt => b2c3d2e2f2g3h4 Anna Elisabeth Sophia van Jaarsveldt => b4c2d5e4f11g3 Jacobus Johannes Burger Combrinck => my mother => me

Helena van Malabar => Helena Vosloo b3 => b3c1 Johannes Pretorius => b3c1d8 Anna Dorethea Pretorius => b2c4d4Anna Catharina Jacomina du Buisson => b10c6d3 Lasya Claudina Buys => b2 Magdalena Alida Petronella Latsky => b6c3d1e7f6 Mattheus Willem Johannes Kuhn => b6c3d1e7f6g? Mattheus Willem Johannes Kuhn => b6c3d1e7f6g?h1 Johanna Elisabeth Kuhn => my father => me

Check document CJ 2649 no 117 p 606

Akteskantoor, Transporten en Schepenkennise, 1708, fol 163 10 April 1708. J Hoge, Personalia of the Germans at the Cape 1652 - 1806 (Argiefjaarboek vir Suid-Afrikaanse Geskiedenis, 1946, p 442. Anna Böeseken book Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658 - 1700

Latea van de Kaap
Latea van de Kaap in 1843 was baptised as an adult and she assumed the name Elizabeth Gertryde Markunes X 1843 b1c5d5e5 Moses Christiaan Willem Bruyns => b1c5d5e5f2 Christiaan Jacobus Theodorus Bruyns => b1c5d5e5f2g? Magdalena Johanna Maria Bruyns => b4c2d1e6f5g5 Nicolaas Jacobus Janse van Rensburg => my father => me

Latea van de Kaap got married to Moses (Moos) Christian Bruyns. In the booklet "Foot-loose in Stellenbosch" by Ters van Huysteen, there is a reference to Moos: Here CM Bruins had a smithy. It is a dapper little cottage reminding one of the old days when one could hear the clangour of hammer and anvil, when wagon-tires were shrunk in a dung fire, saddle horses were shod and felloes adjusted to shape in this little house. In the photo of the house you will notice two arches, the left one was the entry to the workshop of Moos. See photo of the former home of Latea and Moos (11k) Moos operated here as a smith. It is today the Information Centre in Stellenbosch. The house is known as "De Witt Cottage" in Plein street. The mill-stream ran in front of it, and opposite was the old police station. The little shop next door was run by two Malays Francias and Lysje." Latea must have been a rather pretty girl. Some rhymed couplets from 1841 tell us in no 18: "Dan volgt Latea nimmer schuins De deelgenoot van Christiaan Bruyns" Quoted in Read, p 68, 69

They produced thirteen children according to Read p 68. Three children were born prior to the adult baptism of Latea when she changed her name to: Elizabeth Gertryda Markunes. Latea and Moos then got married. (Check Colonial Office documents eg no 519 where permission was granted in the 1800's to marry a former slave with whom they were living with) Read p 68 lists the names of the children:

Hendrik Leendert born 1835 Stellenbosch

Christian Jacobus Theodorus born 1840 Stellenbosch he married Maria Dorothea Jooste and I am a descendant of them

Andries Jacobus born 1842 Stellenbosch

Jacobus Theodorus born 1844 Stellenbosch

Andries Martinus born 1846 ?

Jacobus Christian born 1848 Victoria West

Hermanus Jacobus born 1851 Victoria West

Samuel Jacobus born 1851 Victoria West

Johannes Willem born 1857 born Victoria West

Francois Petrus born 1853 Victoria West

Moos and Latea must have travelled to Carnarvon and Victoria West to practise his trade of repairing wagons

Maria van Negapatnam ..... Visser/Hattingh connection
Maria must have been a slave from the South East coast of India. (Familia 1978 p30,31) partner b2 Coenraad Visser, => b2c7 Susanna Visser => b8 Christiaan Hattingh => b8c7 Johannes Dewalt Hattingh => b8c7d4 *Johannes Dewalt Hattingh => b6c7d4e10 Christiaan Johannes Hattingh => b6c7d4e10f4 Martha Rhyna Hattingh => b2c1d2e2f2g3h4 Anna Elizabeth Sophia van Jaarsveldt => b4c2d5e4f11g3 Jacobus Johannes Burger Combrinck => my mother => me

The trading town of Negapatnam which is situated on the Coromandel coast (South East coast of India) was captured by the Dutch in 1659/1660. It served as an outlet for the rich Tanjore hinterland and the Kaveri delta. It was a weaving and textile centre, they also exported rice. This Tamil area produced cotton and thread. Foreigners enjoyed purchasing piece goods from here: sheets, table cloths, serviettes, calicoe shirts, handkerchief, aprons, gowns and petticoats. The name Negapatnam comes from the local word "naga" meaning snake, since there were so many cobra's in this area, and "patnam" meaning city. P Baldaues, Naauwkeurige beschrivinge van Malabar and Choromande

"There was a steady supply of slaves, either by the destitute selling themselves or by conquest in war or kidnapping ... After a severe famine or devastation caused by prolonged warfare, a number of people would betake themselves to the coastal ports and offer themselves for sale" Aratsaratnam p 104, 105 Merchants, Companies and Commerce on the Coromandel Coast. The slaves were then taken to South east Asia to the slave markets of Acheh, Pegu and Arakan. Baldaues p 156, describes it in 1669 The population has no seed to grow and no rice to eat. "duysenden van menschen quamen na de stadt, om haar vrouw en kinderen to verkoopen, van wegen den schrikkelijken hongers-noodt, de straten en wegen lagen met lijken bezaeyt ... men kon zommige om niet en voor de kost tot slaven bekomen" a slave was sold for 4 or 5 gulden. Between 4 and 5,000 were sent to Jafnapatam, and more to Colombo, and thousands to Batavia and other places. He describes them as being very black, the people look like, " doode geraamten", bones poking out, sunken jaws, eyes sunk in their skulls. Fever and chicken poxs left its toll with thousands perishing. In 1677 the Dutch were prohibited from purchasing slaves as they had done under earlier governments. There were even Persian traders that frequented this harbour, refer to the article by Sanjay Subrahmnayam in ed Frank Broeze, Gateways of Asia: Port Cities of Asia in the 13th - 20th Century

In India there were many Buddhist temples which required top crafstmen, surely some of these skilled craftsmen would have come to the Cape.

Jan Coenraad Visser, born ca 1633, Ommen (Overijssel) Netherlands, married ca 1653 in Netherlands to Margaretha Gerrits, born ca 1640 Hardenberg, Netherlands. He arrived in at the Cape 1657, was a soldier and preacher, burger 30 Sept. 1659, had 6 children. Margaretha arrived in SA 1662. She was murdered by a slave, Claas van Malabar, March 1692. Jan Coenraad died c July 1718 in Cape.

b1 Maria Jansz Visser, born 1655, Ommen, Netherlands, arrived Cape 1662 with mother, who married Willem Willemse, but had 2 children with Ockert Cornelis Olivier, a labourer for Willem Willemse. She became stammother of this OLIVIER family.

b2 Coenraad Visser, born ca 1660, Netherlands, arrived Cape 1662 with mother. He married 5 Aug. 1685 Catherina Everts van der Zee, born 1671 aboard the ship Europa. Coenraad had 10 children (I don't know how many Catherina had) - perhaps others can figure out whose children were Catherina's and whose were Maria van Negapatnam's. Coenraad had several children with Maria van Negapatnam or Maria van Bengale. Maria was born c1669, baptised c 1722 at Stellenbosch at the age of 53.

b3 Zacharias Visser, arrived SA 1662 with mother, christened Aug 23/28, 1665 at Cape Town, married three times, Dietrich PUTTER, Johannes BASSON and Andries KRUGEL. SA Genealogies, Vol 4 gives the marriage date to Andries Krugel as 5 Jul 1706

b5 Gerrit Jansz Visser, married Jannetje Hendriks THIELEMANS and had 12 children.

b2c7 Susanna Visser - 7th child of Coenraad Visser (No. 2 above) was a daughter of Maria van Negapatnam. (Maria had 3 children by Coenraad Visser?) Susanna was born ca 1693/98, married 6 Nov. 1716 to Hans Hendrik (Heinrich) Hattingh. Hans' first marriage 19 Jan. 1698 was to Marie de Lanoy of France, widow of Ary Lecrevain. Hans was a burger & farmer, owned 'Speyer' by Stellenbosch & 'La Motte' in Franschhoek, and died ca April 29, 1729. Susanna Visser's second marriage 20 Feb. 1732 to Wilhelm Rubeik (Rube) of Wezel. SA Genealogies, Vol 3, Also has the following farm for Hattingh - Hadersleben

In 1662 his wife Margaretha Gerrits and five children joined him in the Cape. After the death of his wife, Margaretha in 1692, the slave Maria van de Kust Coromandel went to call Jan Coenraad Visser. It should be remembered that Negapatnam was a town on the coast of Coromandel.

In March 1696 he promised to set free the slave Maria van Bengale with three of her children, which included the 3 year old Susanna, once he (Visser senior) died. This took place c November 1710. At this time Susanna daughter of Coenraad Visser (junior) was a young woman, and she apparently was already working or living as a slave at Hans Heinrich (Hendrik) Hattingh. From 1709 they started to baptise a number of Hattingh children prior to them getting married at Stellenbosch church 16 Nov 1716.

In 1722 Susanna's elderly mother, Maria van Negapatnam, 53 years old, was baptised at Stellenbosch. Prof Leon Hattingh states that this was the first Black adult baptism that he has found in the Stellenbosch church register. Hans Hattingh and Susanna were the witnesses. Prof Leon Hattingh concludes, thus Maria van Negapatnam is the stammoeder of the Hattingh's in South Africa. It should be remembered that Hans Hattingh was married 19 Jan 1698 previously to Marie de Lanoy (the wid. of Ary Lecrevent). Some books make mention that the wife was from Bengale others from Negapatnam, I must admit that Bengal and Negapatnam on the Coast of Coromandel is not the same location. Now we need to ask ourselves how come this variation in what is given as place of origin, in fact these mistakes were not uncommon, refer to JL Hattingh "Naamgewing van Slawe, Vryswartes en ander Gekleurdes" Kronos 1983, Vol VI, p 9. In this article he gives a number of examples. Hattingh makes specific mention of Jan Coenraad Visser who granted freedom to Maria van Bengale and her daughter Susanna in 1696. Then he states that Susanna Visser in 1721 had her elderly mother Maria van Negapatnam baptised, quoting from his book Die Eerste Vryswartes van Stellenbosch 1679 - 1720, p 65. He concludes that this is the one and same person.

Regarding Margaretha Gerrits murder. {The court case reference is: AR VOC 4030 (14 Mar 1692) fol 328.} Maria/Marie van Negapatnam was the slave girl of Margaretha Gerrits and Jan Coenraad Visser. On a Friday evening in March 1692, the slave girl Maria and her mistress Margaretha was working in the kitchen, when a household slave Claas van Mallebar, passed through the kitchen on the way to chop wood in the yard. Margaretha scolded at Claas for not getting the wood in time for her baking, and she refused to believe his excuse that he was on the mountain looking for the cow. Claas then said: "Jou oud hond, Jij moogste den selvs gaan haalen" - You old dog, go and fetch it yourself! Margaretha then attempted to strike Claas, but he lifted his axe and buried the axe in her neck. It was fatal and her her head was almost decapitated. This occurred in front of Maria, Robert Shell, p 219 states that after this murder, Maria van Negapatnam ran to Visser (senior) and cried: "Baas, Baas! Moeder is dood! Moeder is dood!". Shell explains that at the Cape, slaves considered the mistress as both mistress and mother, and the masters as fathers. But in this case, depending on when Maria had children of Coenraad Visser (junior), ironically she may have been her de facto mother-in-law.

If Coenraad Visser (junior) was married 5 Aug. 1685 to Catherina Everts van der Zee, Maria van Negapatnam would have then been 16 years. When did Coenraad Visser start to have an intimate relation with Maria? I do not know. But one can only imagine the interactions that must have taken place between all these individuals. Catherina Everts van der Zee would have been two years younger than Maria van Negapatnam, with whom Coenraad was having a sexual affair.

Maria in March 1696 had three children, including the three year old Susanna. It would be interesting to know more about the other children, how old were they? Were all three children Coenraad Visser's (junior) children? Obviously Coenraad Visser (Junior) would have gotten to know the slave Maria in his parents home, he was nine years older than Maria. Maria was born c 1669 taken from her age given at adult baptism, thus she would have been 23 when Margaretha was murdered.

2. Susanna Visser was 16 years old in 1709 and Hans Hattingh would have been 47 years old when there was a baptism entry 27 Oct 1709 for b4 Marij. Most likely named after Susanna's mother=> Maria van Negapatnam. Maria would have received her name most likely due to the Portuguese influence in Negapatnam, the Dutch defeated the Portuguese in 1659/1660 here.

If Maria was born in 1669 this was soon after the big drought that Badaeus describes which affected Negapatnam, and we can presume that it was during this drought that she was sold into slavery.

The tabloid's of Murdoch and the TV soapies, have to compete hard with the early Cape. On the other hand a rather a grim picture of exploitation? rape? or was it love? many secrets remain hidden.

J.G.Taylor in The Social World of Batavia p 228, gives a Malay glossary, one word caught my attention, and its use: "nyai" - term used by the Dutch to denote a concubine/housekeeper to a European. The Afrikaans word for sex is "naai". Did this word come from the Malay which referred to a concubine to a European? Was this practice so common that eventually the word took on new meaning? or was this a common word that slipped in since they would not have spoken publicly about sex in Dutch.

Robert Schot van Bengale ..... Langeveld connection
Robert Schot van Bengale, also refered to as van Batavia was a wealthy free black. In August 1731 Anna Maria Brits widow of Hermanus Gerrits van Oldenburg, cashed in her slave, Carel van Batavia, when the wealthy free black, Robert Schot van Batavia, foreclosed on his 1725 loan to her deceased husband (Shell p 109 CJ 3080 fol 92, no 184). Robert Shell states in Children of Bondage p 262, Koornhoop on the Liesbeek river was owned by the wealthy Robert Schott van Bengal, who also owned a market garden in Cape Town, Schottsche Kloof DO TN 1705 (1725).

Robet Schot died in 1742. Robert Schot van Bengale had a child with Lena van de Kaap. This child was Helena Rebekka Schot van de Kaap and she was born 1725.

Robert Schot van Bengale => Helena Rebekka Schot van de Kaap => b4 Johanna Christina Langeveld => b2 Coenraad Jacobus Spamer => b2c? Maria Sophia Spamer => b4c2d1e6f5 Nicolaas Jacobus Janse van Rensburg => b4c2d1e6f5g5 Nicolaas Jacobus Janse van Rensburg => my father => me

The Love Affair that ended in Murder: Between Maria Mouton and her slave lover Titus of Bengal
Maria Mouton was the third daughter between the Huguenot Jacques Mouton and Maria de Villiers. Maria Mouton married Frans Joosten and they farmed in the Twenty-four Rivers area. In 1714 Joosten was brutally murdered by Maria and her slave lover, Titus Bengale. The two of them had a sexual relationship for three years. Titus and his accomplice, Fortuijn of Angola, received the sentence of being impaled and after their death their heads were to be cut of and displayed on poles for the others to see on the highway. Whereas Maria was bound to a pole and strangled. The court case is found in CJ 318. I am a descendant of Maria Mouton and Frans Joosten:

Maria Mouton => b1 Jacob Jooste => b1c4 Jacobus Jooste => b1c4d10 Hendrik Pieter Jooste => b1c4d10e3 Jacobus Johannes Jooste => b1c4d10e3f7 Maria Dorothea Jooste=> b1c5d5e5f2g? Magdalena Johanna Maria Bruyns => b4c2d1e6f5g5 Nicolaas Jacobus Janse van Rensburg => my father => me

Maria Mouton => b1 Jacob Jooste => b1c5 Maria Dorothea Jooste => b7c1d1 Joseph de Klerk => b7c1d1e3 Maria Dorethea de Klerk => b1c4d10e3 Jacobus Johannes Jooste => b1c4d10e3f7 Maria Dorothea Jooste=> b1c5d5e5f2g? Magdalena Johanna Maria Bruyns => b4c2d1e6f5g5 Nicolaas Jacobus Janse van Rensburg => my father => me

Moses van Macassar and Sara van Macassar .... Van Graan connection
Both Moses and Sara must have received these biblical names from their European masters. Moses was also know as Moses Aron/ Moses Arensz van Macassar. I suspect that even though Aron can be derived from the biblical Aaron, that it is indicating the name of his father which must have been Aron or Aren. On 17 October 1700 they were baptised, "Na voorgaande belijdenis gedoopt" Susanna van Macassar, Moses Aarens and Rebecca. Sara died c 1709/1710.

There are no indications for the following observation, but it would pay to remember this possibility. In 1699 it was agreed that the women and children of Shaykh Yusuf's extended family were to be allowed to be repatriated. The authorities also decided that the slaves of Shaykh Yusuf would be taken over by the company to cover some of the expenses. Thus some slaves from Macassar could have been part of the extended family of Shaykh Yusuf.

Moses subsequently got married on 2 Nov 1710 to Jacomijntje van Madagascar. They made a will CJ 2651 no 12 on 1721, May 21, in which we have the cross mark of Moses.

The local name for Macassar was Oedjong Pandang, the Dutch referred to it at first as Uithoek and then build a castle which they named Rotterdam. Batavia issued in 1665 a prohibition on the purchase of slaves from Celebes (Sulawesi). Since they were stolen people refer to H Sutherland, p 266, 268 'Slavery and the Slave Trade in South Sulawesi' in ed A Reid, Slavery and Bondage and Dependence in Southeast Asia.

Between 1666 and 1669 a war was fought between the tribes of Goa under command of Sultan Husanuddin and, Bugis tribe from Bone and Soppang under command of Arung Plakka. During this war they caught 195 Macassar women and children and sent 50 to Batiavia and the rest to the Molluccas to be sold as slaves, with the profit to be shared amongst the Dutch officers. The Dutch used the Bugis to suppress the Goa kingdom. Part of the final peace treaty with Goa in 1667 was the demand of supplying 1,000 slaves or in kind to the Dutch.

The term slavery encompasses a broad spectrum: real slaves, prisoners, debt bondsmen, free followers.

The slaves from Macassar, southern part of the Indonesian Island of Celebes (Sulawesi), where know to be dangerous and truculent. They were considered a stubborn nation and people were cautious in case they gave trouble. The Malay slaves tended to run amok. Without reason they would run down the streets with a knife crying "Amok! amok!" slashing and stabbing anything until they were overpowered or killed, this was an honourable way of committing suicide(Victor de Kock p195). Valentijn in Bescrijvingen Vol III no 2 p136 refer to the Macassar's "men vind in't Oosten, geen trotzer, vernuftiger, oorlogskundiger, nog dapperder volkeren, als de Macassaaren". He also speaks of the women p137 "De vrouwen zyn door de bank veel schooner, netter besneden van wezen, en veel blanker, dan alle andere Indiaanze vrouwen ... waarom zy by die meeste Hollanders voor alle andere slavinnen gezogt worden, te meer dewyl zy seer fraai van oogen, mooi, dog wat plat van weezen, zeer vriendelijk, lieftallig, n doorgans zeer beleeft en wel opgevoed zyn. ... Deze vrouwen zyn in haar ijgenland ook zeer moedig, en trots, en weten haar fatsoen zoo wel, als de beste Hollandze juffrouw, te houden". One can hardly find more positive superlatives to describe them. Their culture included them filing their teeth and covering it with gold.

The VOC got their slaves from the Indian Ocean basin, see map of significant place names in this slave trade (42k). The ports of Batavia, see map of 1747, National Library of Australia (50k), and Java, see map dated 1775 National Library of Australia (48k), played a significant role in the VOC trade. Here is a picture of the ship, Lydsman at St Augustine Bay, Madagascar, in 1715 (24k) obtaining slaves, reproduced in de Kock. One of the lasting contributions made by these folks from the east was their influence on Cape cuisine.

Moses and Sara van Macassar => Rebekka Moses => b2 Sara van Graan => Magdalena Elizabeth Volschenk => b11c4 Catharina Grobbelaar => b7c1d1e3 Maria Dorothea de Klerk => b1d4d10e3 Jacobus Johannes Jooste => b1c4d10e3f7 Maria Dorothea Jooste => b1c5d5e5f2g1 Magdalena Johanna Bruyns => b4c2d1e6f5g5 Nicolaaas Jacobus van Rensburg => My father => me

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When the original claims was made that Afrikaners had a small percentage of non-white ancestory, it caused a major polemic (some racist even wanted to take H.F. Heese to court). Research by J.A. Heese who studied the genealogical composition of the Afrikaner looking at the period 1657 - 1867 and he concluded that the Afrikaner nation ancestry was Dutch 34.8%, German 33.7%, French 13.2%, Non White 6.9%, British 5.2%, Other European nations 2.7%, Unknown 3.5%. GFC de Bruyn used a different form of calculation and his results were: Dutch 34.1%, German 29.2%, French 24.7%, British 0.3%, Other European nations 2.4%, Non European 5.4%, Unknown 3.9% (refer to J.S. Bergh ed., Herdenkingsjaar 1988, RTJ Lombard "Die bydrae van die Franse Hugenote tot Suid-Afrika se bevolkingsamestelling"). The above reaffirms this claim, with the presence of non-white blood amongst Afrikaners in my own ancestors. The Indian element forms a major portion of the mix ancestors of Afrikaners, "In geheel is die IndiŽrelement by gemengde huwelike veel groter as die aandeel wat slavinne uit ander wÍrelddele gehad het" Heese, Groepe sonder Grense, p 7.

Some books that may be of help in relation to Afrikaners and Slaves:

Anna Boeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700, Cape Town 1977

D.B. Bosman, "Uit die Biografie van 'n Hottentotin in beskawing", Huisgenoot, 3 July 1942 and 10 July 1942

Jose Burman, Who really Discovered South Africa, Chapter II, Cape Town, 1968

Margaret Cairns, "Armosyn Claasz of the Cape and Her Family" Familia XVI, 1979, p84 ff

Victor de Kock, Those in Bondage, 1950

G.C. de Wet, Die Vryliede en Vryswarte in die Kaapse Nedersetting: 1657-1707, Cape Town 1981

Elphick and Gilliomee, The Shaping of South African Society

Hans Friedreich Heese, Groepe sonder Grense: Die rol en status van die gemengde bevolking aan die Kaap 1652-1795, Belville 1984

J.A. Heese, Die Herkoms van die Afrikaner 1657-1867, Cape Town, 1971

V.C. Malherbe, "Krotoa, called 'Eva': A Woman Between" Communications No 19/1900, Centre for African Studies, University of Cape Town.

E.C. Godee Molsbergen, Tijdens de O. I. Compagnie

Audrey Eunice Read, A Research into the History of the Family Bruijns/ Bruyns/ Bruins/ Broens

Robert C.-H. Shell, Children of Bondage: A Social History of the Slave Society at the Cape of Good Hope, 1652-1838

Robert Ross, Cape of Torments: Slavery and Resistance in South Africa

M.F. Valkhoff, New Light on Afrikaans and Malayo-Portuguese

J.C. Wells "Eva's Men: Gender and Power in the establishment of the Cape of Good Hope, 1652 -74, The Journal of African History, Vol 39, 1998, No 3

Dictionary of South African Biography, Vol II, 'Eva', pp 223, 224

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