

Notes41
Ancient Indian Numbering System
See
also "Chaturanginee Army"
In
the present Indian counting system:
USA
System
Indian System
100,000 100
Thousand is 1,00,000
One Lakh
1,000,000 1 Million
is
10,00,000 Ten Lakh
10,000,000 10 Million
is 1,00,00,000 One
Crore
100,000,000 100 Million is 10,00,00,000 Ten Crore
But
the ancient Indian legionaries have names like:
"Ayut"
= One thousand; 1,000 per unit
"Shanku" = One trillion; (1,000,000,000,000) or 10^{12}
"Arbud" = 1,000 Shanku
"Madhyam" = 10 Arbud
"Antya" = 10 Madhyam
"Samudra" = 20 Antya
"Paraardh" = 30 Samudra
These
numbers have been described by Sugreev to Raam while giving the count of his
military power. Some say about this that "Sugreev meant that
innumerable monkeys were coming"; while others hold the view that
ancient Hindu organized their military pattern in a particular nomenclature
apart from the generalized numbers.
The
present Indian system is taken from Indian astrology in which every number
is increased by a multiplication of ten  1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000 etc.
(This is called decimal system  originated from "deca" means 10).
As said in verse:
Ekam
dash shatam asmat sahastram ayutam tatah param laksham 
Prayutam kotim ath arbudam vrindey kharvam nikharvam cha 
Tasmat mahaa sarojam shankum saritaam patim twat antam 
Madhyam paraadham aaryuhya ath uttaram dash gunam tathaa gyeyam 
Leelaavatee
mathematics also says:
ek
dash sahastra aayut laksh prayut kotyah kramashah 
arbudam abdam kharv nikharvam mahaapadmam shankhvah tasmaat 
nidhih cha antam madhyam parardham iti dash gunaa uttaram sangyaah 
sankhyaaya sthaanaanaam vyavahaar artham kritaah poorvaih iti 
[Taken
from Valmiki
Ramayan 3/39/44]
It
means that,
one = 1
1 ten = 10;
10 ten = 1 hundred;
10 hundred = 1 thousand (Ayut)
10 thousand
100 thousand = 1 lakh
1 prayutam =10 lakh, = 1 million;
100 lakh = 1 koti =1 crore;
100 crore = 1 arbud (Arab) = 1 billion
100 arbud = 1 vrinda
100 vrinda = 1 kharv (Kharab)
100 kharv = 1 nikharv (Neel)
100 nikharv = 1 mahaa padm (Padm)
100 mahaa padm = 1 shanku (Shankh) = 1 lakh crore
100 shanku = 1 samudra
100 samudra = 1 antya
100 antya = 1 madhyam
100 madhyam = 1 paraardh
By
this, the nomenclature of million, billion and trillion, was in ancient
days. This may be observed by the names "Prayutam" ( a million);
"arbud" ( a billion); "shanku" (a trillion) ....
Present
USA
Counting System 

Present
Indian
Counting System 

1 
1 
1 
1 
10 
Ten 
10 
Ten 
100 
1
hundred 
100 
1
hundred 
1,000 
1
thousand 
1,000 
1
thousand (Ayut) 
10,000 
10
thousand 
10,000 
10
thousand 
100,000 
100
thousand 
1,00,000 
1
lakh 
1,000,000 
1
million 
10,00,000 
10
lakh 
10,000,000 
10
million 
1,00,00,000 
1
crore 
100,000,000 
100
million 
10,00,00,000 
10
crore 
1,000,000,000 
1
billion 
1,00,00,00,000 
1
arab (Arbud) 
10,000,000,000 
10
billion 
10,00,00,00,000 
10
arab 
100,000,000,000 
100
billion 
1,00,00,00,00,000 
1
kharab (kharv) 
1,000,000,000,000 
1
trillion 
10,00,00,00,00,000 
10
kharab 
10,000,000,000,000 
10
trillion 
1,00.00.00.00.00.000 
1
neel 
100,000,000,000,000 
100
trillion 
10,00,00,00,00,00,000 
10
neel 
1,000,000,000,000,000 
1,000
trillion 
1,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 
1
padm 


10,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 
10
padm 


1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 
1
shankh (Shanku) 


10,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 
10
shankh 


1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 
1
samudra 


10,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 
10
samudra 


1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 
1
antya 


10,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 
10
antya etc. 
[Taken
from: Valmiki
Ramayan 3/38/31]

