Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)


Boeing's JSF  X-32


The Boeing X-32 JSF short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) variant for the U.S. Marine Corps and U.K. Royal Navy employs a direct lift system for short takeoffs and vertical landings with uncompromised up-and-away performance.




Lockheed Martin's JSF    X-35


The Lockheed Martin X-35 concept for the Marine and Royal Navy variant of the aircraft uses a shaft-driven lift-fan system to achieve Short-Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) capability. The aircraft will be configured with a Rolls-Royce/Allison shaft-driven lift-fan, roll ducts and a three-bearing swivel main engine nozzle, all coupled to a modified Pratt & Whitney F119 engine that powers all three variants.






 
 
 
 
 
Name X-35 (Lockheed-Martin)
X-32 (Boeing)
Type strike fighter with Short-Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) capability
Contractor two competing teams: 
Lockheed-Martin X-35
Boeing X-32
Service U.S. Air Force  U.S. Marine Corps
U.K. Royal Navy 
U.S. Navy 
Variants Conventional Takeoff and Landing (CTOL) Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) Carrier-based (CV) 
Unit Cost  $~28M $~35M $~38M 
Propulsion Baseline: Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 derivative from F-22 Raptor
Alternate Engine: General Electric F120 core 
Empty Weight ~22,500 lbs ~24,000 lbs 
Internal Fuel 15,000 lbs 16,000 lbs 
Payload 13,000 lbs 17,000 lbs 
Maximum Takeoff Weight ~50,000 lbs 
Length 45 feet 
Wingspan 36 feet 30 feet 
Speed supersonic 
Combat Radius over 600 nautical miles 
Crew one 
First flight 1999 
Date Deployed 2008 
Inventory Objectives U.S. Air Force
2,036 aircraft 
U.S. Marine Corps
642 aircraft
U.K. Royal Navy
60 aircraft 
U.S. Navy
300 aircraft 



 
 

The Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a multi-role fighter optimized for the air-to-ground role, designed to affordably meet
      the needs of the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and allies, with improved survivability, precision engagement
      capability, the mobility necessary for future joint operations and the reduced life cycle costs associated with tomorrow’s
fiscal environment. JSF will benefit from many of the same technologies developed for F-22 and will capitalize on commonality
and modularity to maximize affordability.

The 1993 Bottom-Up Review (BUR) determined that a separate tactical aviation modernization program by each Service was
not affordable and canceled the Multi-Role Fighter (MRF) and Advanced Strike Aircraft (A/F-X) program. Acknowledging
the need for the capability these canceled programs were to provide, the BUR initiated the Joint Advanced Strike Technology
(JAST) effort to create the building blocks for affordable development of the next-generation strike weapons system. After a
review of the program in August 1995, DoD dropped the "T" in the JAST program and the JSF program has emerged from the
JAST effort. Fiscal Year 1995 legislation merged the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced
Short Take-off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) program with the JSF Program. This action drew the United Kingdom (UK)
Royal Navy into the program, extending a collaboration begun under the DARPA ASTOVL program.

The JSF program will demonstrate two competing weapon system concepts for a tri-service family of aircraft to affordably
meet these service needs:
 


Boeing  X-32's engine with pitch nozzles.

The JSF concept is building these three highly common variants on the same production line using flexible manufacturing
technology. Cost benefits result from using a flexible manufacturing approach and common subsystems to gain economies of
scale. Cost commonality is projected in the range of 70-90 percent; parts commonality will be lower, but emphasis is on
commonality in the higher-priced parts.
 

Key design goals of the JSF system include:

     1)Survivability: radio frequency/infrared signature reduction and on-board countermeasures to survive in the future
     battlefield--leveraging off F-22 air superiority mission support

     2) Lethality: integration of on- and off-board sensors to enhance delivery of current and future precision weapons

     3) Supportability: reduced logistics footprint and increased sortie generation rate to provide more combat power
     earlier in theater

     4) Affordability: focus on reducing cost of developing, procuring and owning JSF to provide adequate force
     structure

JSF’s integrated avionics and stealth are intended to allow it to penetrate surface-to-air missile defenses to destroy targets,
when enabled by the F-22’s air dominance. The JSF is designed to complement a force structure that includes other stealthy
and non-stealthy fighters, bombers, and reconnaissance / surveillance assets.

JSF requirements definition efforts are based on the principles of Cost as an Independent Variable: Early interaction between
the warfighter and developer ensures cost / performance trades are made early, when they can most influence weapon system
cost. The Joint Requirements Oversight Council has endorsed this approach.

The JSF’s approved acquisition strategy provides for the introduction of an alternate engine during Lot 5 of the production
phase, the first high rate production lot. OSD is considering several alternative implementation plans which would accelerate this
baseline effort.

Lockheed Martin X-35's  engine with vertical thrust position.

Program Status

The focus of the program is producing effectiveness at an affordable price—the Air Force’s unit flyaway cost objective is $28
million (FY94$). We anticipate Congress will fully fund JSF for FY98 (USAF, USN and DARPA Program Elements), with a
$15M plus-up for alternate engine risk reduction efforts. The Concept Demonstration Phase (CDP) was initiated in November
1996 with the selection of Boeing and Lockheed Martin. Both contractors are: (1) designing and building their concept
demonstration aircraft, (2) performing unique ground demonstrations, (3) developing their weapon systems concepts. First
operational aircraft delivery is planned for FY08.

The JSF is a joint program with shared acquisition executive responsibilities. The Air Force and Navy each provide
approximately equal shares of annual funding, while the United Kingdom is a collaborative partner, contributing $200 million to
the CDP. CDP, also known as the Program Definition and Risk Reduction (PDRR) phase, consists of three parallel efforts
leading to Milestone II and an Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) start in FY01:
 

Source- Boeing and Lockheed-Martin
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