Forms of Soviet Propaganda During the Cold War
White Propaganda-
    It originated from an easily identified source, such as a newspaper cartoon.  This white, or overt, propaganda, was orchestrated by the international information subdepartment of the Ideology Department, or prior to 1988 the Propaganda Department, of the Soviet Communist Party Central Committee.  It conveyed messages through Radio Moscow and Radio Peace and Progress, press agencies, and other informational departments, both domestic and abroad.
      A major part of the "white" Soviet propaganda during the Cold War was the Novosti Press Agency (APN).  This press published political documents, especially those dealing with active measures.  Between 30 to 40 active specialists worked at this agency at any given time.  Specialists determined how to devise arguments and organize information for the covert media placements.  This information would be published internationally in an unattributed or falsely attributed fashion.
Black Propaganda-
Published by what appears to be a friendly sources, it actually came from an adversary.  This propaganda was coordinated by Service A of the KGB's First Chief Directorate, the part of the KGB which the division responsible for foreign intelligence operations.  Their measures included forgeries, covert media placements, and controlled media presentations, especially abroad.
        During the late 1960's, the role of foreign propaganda became more widespread and effective.  The KGB's main covert technique,disinformation, attempted to deceive the public in certain countries.  During this period, the United States was the main target for their operations, which were designed specifically to attack the American foreign and defense policies.  The defectors circulated documents that claimed to be speeches, letters, or policy statements of the United States.  The Soviets gained an international presence and expanded propaganda campaigns by using an international front through groups like the KGB.
Gray Propaganda-
     While it seemed like a neutral source, it was published by an adversary. These measures were coordinated by the International Department of the Soviet Communist Party Central Committee.  It controlled foreign influence operations in the party-to-party and people-to-people areas.  An example of this type of propaganda is that Soviet nongovernmental organizations would not deny their Soviet affiliation, but they claimed to be pursuing an independent line from the Soviet government.
       An example of Soviet gray propaganda seen during the Cold War was the Soviet disinformation to Indonesian President, Sukarno.  In the fall of 1964, the Czech STB, with KGB support, launched a massive campaign in Indonesia against American influence.  Upon meeting with the President, informatives presented forged documents detailing the CIA's plot to assasinate him, as well as the British-American plan to invade Indonesia.  After hearing this falsified information, Sukarno publicly announced his anti-American sentiment, which was published in several newspapers.  Following this news, anti-American opposition grew dramatically, and all American influence was eliminated from the country. 
Links Outside This Site:
An Interview With Boris Efimov, a Soviet Political Cartoonist
Russian Culture Navigator
A site that provides information about individuals involved with Soviet Propaganda
This site details information about the 3 types of propaganda discussed on this page
Soviet Active Measures During the Cold War
Links Within this Site:
The Cold War
Soviet Propaganda During the Cold War
Soviet Propaganda Posters During the Cold War
A Summary of Soviet Propaganda During the Cold War
Bibliography of the Site