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With androdiol, only that small portion which converts to testosterone can be converted further to estradiol, and that will occur only in the same percentage that other testosterone converts to estradiol. articles on steroids Injectable steroids. Norandrodiol cannot convert directly to estrogen, and even after conversion to nandrolone is not readily converted to estrogen. Norandrostenedione can be converted to estrone by aromatase, but is a very poor substrate for that enzyme. It can actually act as a competitive inhibitor, blocking better substrates such as androstenedione or testosterone. articles on steroids Teen-bodybuilding-photo-gallery. It is possible then, though unproven, that norandrostenedione might have some value as an aromatase inhibitor in bodybuilding. I do think, however, that the pharmaceuticals designed for the purpose should be assumed to be better choices. Aromatase inhibitorsThe most commonly used aromatase inhibitor in bodybuilding is aminoglutethimide (Cytadren). articles on steroids Injectable steroids. This drug also inhibits an enzyme (desmolase) necessary for synthesis of cortisol, but fortunately, aromatase can be inhibited with levels of drug that cause only limited inhibition of desmolase. Contrary to popular belief, it is generally not desirable to inhibit cortisol production. Doing so will likely lead to joint problems, and furthermore once the inhibition ends, the price of above-normal cortisol production must usually be paid. For an average male, a dose of 250 mg/day (one tablet) appears optimal. The half-life is 8 hours, so the drug is better taken in divided doses. The best plan seems to be to take half a tablet on arising, and quarter tabs six and twelve hours later. This keeps levels generally fairly constant, but allows a small drop in the hours shortly before arising, which is then compensated for by the higher dose on arising. With this scheme, inhibition of cortisol production is generally too low to be noticed, and generally there is no rebound effect on discontinuance. However it is not a bad idea nonetheless to taper off, first omitting the midday quarter tab dose for a few days, then omitting both quarter tab doses, then reducing the initial dose to one quarter tab, and then ending completely. A week is sufficient for the taper. Some people suffer a degree of lethargy or sedation from aminoglutethimide, even at this low dose, but most do not. Anastrozole (Arimidex) is a superior aromatase inhibitor which does not have the above side effects. It is, however, very expensive. With moderate doses of testosterone it seems that 1 mg/day is sufficient, and some have claimed half a tab to be sufficient. I do not have blood test data to verify that, however. Receptor blockersClomiphene (Clomid) and tamoxifen (Nolvadex) are the most popular drugs of this class. They are more precisely referred to as "selective estrogen receptor modulators. " This is because their mode of action is not so simple as merely blocking the estrogen receptor. Estrogen receptors require not only hormone but also activation of regions of the receptor called AF-1 and AF-2. AF-1, to be activated, requires phosphorylation, while AF-2 can be activated by any of a number of cofactors, such as IGF-1. As it happens, clomiphene and tamoxifen are estrogen receptor antagonists (blockers) in cells that depend on activation of the AF-2 region, while in cells which activate AF-1, these compounds are estrogens. In some cells these drugs activate one of the types of estrogen receptor (ERa ) but are antagonists of the other type (ERb ). The result is that these compounds are antiestrogenic in breast tissue, fat tissue, and in the hypothalamus, which is what we want in bodybuilding, but are estrogenic in bone tissue and with respect to favorable effect on blood lipid profile, both of which are, again, desirable. They also appear to have some estrogenic effect on mood, though this may be in only parts of the brain (the matter is not studied. )Cyclofenil is a similar drug to the above two.
Articles on steroids
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