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Kalam valley

2,900 to 5,700 (1992). Southern Chitral District. The largest village is Balanguru in Rumbur Valley. Southern Kalasha is in Urtsun Valley; Northern Kalasha in Rumbur, Bumboret, and Birir valleys. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Chitral. Dialects: SOUTHERN KALASHA (URTSUN), NORTHERN KALASHA (RUMBUR, BUMBORET, BIRIR). The southern dialect has 75% lexical similarity with the northern dialects, and there seems to be little contact between them. Kalasha is used in the home and for in-group communication in the north. In the south Khowar or Kati are sometimes used in the home and within the group. Related to Khowar, which is the main second language. Proficiency is limited; in Birir some men do not speak Khowar, and most of the women and children are monolingual. There may be an eastern dialect on the east side of the Chitral River south of Drosh. Typology: SOV. Pastoralists: goats, sheep, cattle; agriculturalists: wheat, barley, corn, apples, mulberries, walnuts, grapes. Traditional religion (north), Muslim (south).

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