Edward Henry Carter

 

From THE SEARCH FOR PEACE, 1949 by Edward Henry Carter

Poland, the greatest case, remains. The Poles had long been an advance guard of the Slavs in the quarrels and wars between Teuton and Slav, which fill a large part of the history of the Middle Ages and of the modern age. The Poles had early been converted to Christianity by Rome, and they were thus divided in sympathy from their fellow Slavs, the Russians, who had been converted by the Eastern, or Orthodox, Church centred at Constantinople. The Poles had throughout their history lived between two hostile, or at least unfriendly, peoples, Russia and Germany, ready when the time came to swoop down upon them and divide the spoil.

But there had been great moments in the history of Poland. She was once one of the chief Powers in Europe ; she had sometimes extended her sway over both Germans and Russians ; and at the height of her power she had once occupied the royal palace of Moscow. She had taken her kings sometimes from Saxony, sometimes from LIthuania ; . . . She became a distracted and ill-governed people under a feudal landowning ruling class, while Prussia was strengthening herself around her kings.

Long before Prussia united Germany in the nineteenth century, Poland had disappeared from the map. So feeble a prey gave little trouble to Frederick of Prussia and his successor, while Catherine of Russia was constantly fomenting discord in Poland to secure her own share with Prussia and Austria when the partitions of Poland were made.

There had been three partitions of Poland (before the fourth in 1939). But the spirit of the Polish people has never been daunted. During the French Revolution, one of the noblest Poles, Kosciuzko, fought hard himself and strove to gain French help for his efforts to put Poland on a more popular national basis. He failed before the combined armies of Russia and Prussia. Throughout the nineteenth century Poland was torn and bleeding, though never forgetting that she had once been a powerful nation, independent, artistic, and brave.

It was thus that the war of 1914, which brought such widespread loss of life and of treasure to the world, was actually to the Poles a resurrection. They would speak of the "miracle of the Vistula" when Soviet Russia was driven back from the gates of Warsaw in 1920. The organizer of the new Poland was Marshal Pilsudski, a principal leader of the Polish Socialist party, who kept a strong hand on warring political parties until his death in 1935.

In the twenty years that followed the Peace of Versailles, Poland, like Czechoslovakia, flourished internally and grew strong in the things that make a nation great. Her trade increased ; she built with marvellous speed a new port at Gdynia on the Baltic near Danzig. As the statesmen at Versailles had decided that Danzig should remain neutral under the League's supervision, Poland felt that she needed another outlet to the sea entirely her own. And so Gdynia soon became a port of over a hundred thousand people, while the trade of Danzig remained open to both Germans and Poles and maintained its old commercial importance, increasing rather than diminishing.

The ravages of wars were quickly repaired in the interior of Poland. A passionate desire among the Poles for further improvement, social and educational as well as industrial, soon made itself felt. That Poland needed an outlet to the sea was always maintained and admitted. She is by geography the homeland of the River Vistula, and it was about the outlet of the Vistula to the sea at Danzig that her quarrel with Germany developed in 1938-9. Added to this was the awkward arrangement by which Danzig and a part of Poland, often called the "Corridor," separated the bulk of the German Reich from its eastern section, East Prussia with the ancient Baltic city of Konigsberg (since 1945 occupied by Soviet Russia).

It was inconvenient that Germany should be thus divided ; but the inconvenience might have been overcome had men sought mutual goodwill rather than wholesale change and disturbance of the peace. It was partly because they undertook to defend the guaranteed rights of Poland that Britain and France, her Western friends, declared war in 1939.

Both Poland and Czechoslovakia had, at their rebirth in 1919, the guidance of able statesmen. Pilsudski, Marshal and Dictator, led Poland in war and politics. President Mazaryk [sic] exercised in Czechoslovakia a fine democratic influence ; his father had led the life of a feudal serf, but the son was very able and became world famous as philosopher and teacher (at one time in London and at another in the United States).

London : Pitman 1949, pp. 74-76.

 

Bibliographic, http://melvyl.cdlib.org

Author Carter, E. H. (Edward Henry), 1876-1953. Title The new past and other essays on the development of civilisation, by J. H. Breasted [and others] Publisher Freeport, N.Y., Books for Libraries Press [1968] Description viii, 183 p. 23 cm. Series Essay index reprint series Language English Note Reprint of the 1925 ed.

Author Carter, E. H. (Edward Henry), 1876-1953. Title History of the West Indian peoples [by] E. H. Carter, G. W. Digby [and] R. N. Murray. Publisher London, Nelson, 1967- Description v. illus., maps, ports. 20 cm. ISBN 175660409(v.1) Language English Contents book 1. Our heritage.--book 2. The story of our islands.--book 3. From earliest times to the 17th century.--book 4 [pt. 1] Eighteenth century to modern times.

Author Carter, E. H. (Edward Henry), 1876-1953. Title A history of Britain, Publisher Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1960. Description xxiv, 1116 p. illus., maps (part col.) 20 cm.

Author Carter, E. H. (Edward Henry), 1876-1953. Title Two paths to freedom; Great Britain and the Commonwealth and the United States of America, by E.H. Carter and Phyllis Wragge. Publisher London : Philip, 1951. Description 346 p. illus. 19 cm.

Author Carter, E. H. (Edward Henry), 1876-1953. Title The search for peace: a brief survey of world history / by E.H. Carter ; maps prepared under the direction of J.F. Horrabin. Publisher London : Pitman, 1949. Description x, 189 p. : maps ; 19 cm.

Author Carter, Edward Henry, 1876-1953 Title Russian cavalcade, by E. H. Carter Publisher London : Nelson [1944] Description viii, 152 p. : ill. ; 19 cm Language English Note First published Sept. 1943; first published in this ed. 1944 Map on lining-papers Note "Suggestions for further reading": p. 147-149

Author Carter, E. H. (Edward Henry), 1876-1953. Title Russian cavalcade, by E. H. Carter. Publisher London, New York [etc.] : T. Nelson and sons ltd., [1943] Description x, 166 p. : illus., map, ports. 19 cm. Language English Note Map on lining-papers. "Suggestions for further reading": p. 147-149.

Author Marten, Clarence Henry Kennett, 1872- Title Histories by C.H.K. Marten ... and E.H. Carter ... With illustrations from contemporary sources, and drawings by Hugh Chesterman ... Publisher Oxford : B. Blackwell, [1942] Description 4 v. illus., maps. 19 cm. Language English Note "First printed February, 1926 ... Reprinted January, 1942." Contents v. 1. Our heritage (early times).--v. 2. The middle ages (1066-1485).--v. 3. New worlds (1485-1688).--The latest age (1688-1927).

Author Carter, E.H Title General history in outline and story / by E.H. Carter and C.K. Ogden Publisher London : Produced for the Orthological Institute, Cambridge by Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1938 Description x, 288 p. : ill., maps,ports., tables. ; 19 cm

Author Carter, Edward Henry. Title The Norwich subscription books, a study of the subscription books of the diocese of Norwich, 1637-1800, Publisher London, New York [etc.] T. Nelson & sons, ltd. [1937] Description xxii, 201, [1] p. front., fold. maps, facsims. (part fold.) fold. tables, diagrs. (part fold.) 23 cm.

Author Carter, Edward Henry. Title A history of Britain, Publisher Oxford, The Clarendon press, 1937. Description 5 v. illus., maps. 20 cm.

Author Carter, E. H. (Edward Henry), 1876-1953. Title A history of Britain / by E.H. Carter and R.A.F. Mears. Publisher Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1937. Description xxiv, 1050 p. : ill., maps ; 20 cm.

Author Norwich Cathedral (Norwich, England) Title Studies in Norwich Cathedral history: an episcopal visitation of the Priory in 1308 and an archiepiscopal adjudication on priory rights in 1411. Documents edited by E.H. Carter. Publisher Norwich : Jarrold, 1935. Description 74 p. illus.

Author Wells, H. G. (Herbert George), 1866-1946. Title A short history of mankind, by H.G. Wells; adapted and edited for school use from the author's "Short history of the world", by E.H. Carter ... Publisher Oxford, B. Blackwell, 1927. Description viii, 183, [1] p. front., illus. (incl. maps) 19 cm. Language English Note A reprint of the first edition, published by Blackwell in 1925.

Author Carter, E. H. (Edward Henry), 1876-1953. Title The new past and other essays on the development of civilisation, by J. H. Breasted, H. J. Fleure [and others] edited by E. H. Carter. Publisher Oxford : B. Blackwell, 1925. Description viii, 183, [1] p. diagr. 19 cm. Language English Note "This book is the outcome of a conference held at Aberystwyth university in April, 1924."--Pref. note. Contents The new past, by J. H. Breasted.--Some origins of civilisation, by H. J. Fleure.--The diffusion of civilisation, by W. J. Perry.--The Biblical record, by A. Nairne.--Classical civilisation and modern Europe, by H. J. Rose.--The cultural unity of western Europe, by J. W. Headlam-Morley. --The problem of political unity, by R. Muir.--Some economic factors in general history, by G. Unwin.--The birth of modern science, by C. Singer.--The history of mathematics, by H. E. J. Curzon.--Some desultory remarks on art and civilisation, by W. Rothenstein.--Britain's place in western civilisation, by F. S. Marvin.

 

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