NostraticDictionary.htm


Tlazoltotl

NOSTRATIC DICTIONARY

for Altaic, Afrasian, Dravidian, Eskimo(1), Indo-European, Kartvelian(1), Sumerian, and Uralic

(Nostratic Hypothesis)

Part One


by Patrick C. Ryan

currently under construction Copyright 2000 Patrick C. Ryan (4/14/2005)






Dmitri Shostakovich, Symphony 10, First Movement




Nostratic has come to mean a language super-family from which a number of other language families are believed to be descended.

In 1996, Allan R. Bomhard published a book, Indo-European and the Nostratic Hypothesis (Studia Nostratica I), which included a 652-item dictionary of Nostratic roots and supporting data from various language-families and languages.

I have been following Bomhard's publications for some years, and have had conversations with him regarding the details of some of his reconstructions.

There are, of course, differences of opinion between us.

I do not subscribe to Bomhard's

In the Table of Correspondence found after the listing of lexical cognates below, the column entitled PROTO-LANGUAGE shows the earliest syllables before vocalic contrasts were replaced by a contrast of glides and no glide (during the Pontic stage) in some language-families.

After each entry, I will fully explain my reasons for the proposed reconstruction. The numbers employed will be the roots as numbered in Bomhard (1976:141-235), which reconstructions will immediately follow.




PL / NOSTRATIC LEXICAL COMPARISONS


(IE entries in parentheses are keywords in Pokorny)
entries marked by ** have been reconstructed by the author

[PAA = Afrasian; PA = Altaic; PD = Dravidian; ES = Eskimo; PIE = Indo-European;
PK = Kartvelian; PN = Nostratic; PL = Proto-Language(2); PS = Semitic; S = Sumerian; PU = Uralic]

Cro-Magnon Man



(535)-[(529)]PN *mal-*m6l- "honey" > PIE *mel-i-t[h]- "honey"; PAA *mal-/*m6l- "honey"



(535)PN *mel- "to lick" > PIE *mel/*mol/*mL- "to lick"; PAA *mal- "to lick" (source: PL *ME-NHA)



(529)PN *melay- "licky=sweet" > PIE *me/oley- "sweet"; PAA *malay- "sweet" (source: PL *ME-NHA-E)



(528)PN *mal- "to become full" > PIE *me/ol- "to become full"; PAA *mal- "to become full"; PD *mal- "to increase, to abound, to be plentiful, to be full; (n.) abundance, wealth, strength, greatness" (source: PL *MA-NHA)




(518)PN *mul-/*mol- "to rub, to crush, to grind" > PIE *mel- /*mol-/*mL- "to rub, to crush, to grind"; PAA *mal-/*m6l "to rub, to crush, to grind"; PU *mola- "to rub, to crush, to break, to smash"; PD *mel- "to be or become thin, weak, lean; (adj.) soft, tender, thin"



1. (290)PN *k'ur-/*k'or- "crane" > PIE *k'er- /*k'R- "crane"; PU *korka- "crane"; PD *korku- "crane"



2. (235)PN *gur-/*gor- "to rumble, to roar, to growl, to gurgle" > PIE *g[h]ur- "to rumble, to roar, to growl, to gurgle"; PK . . . ; PAA *gar-/*g6r- "to rumble, to roar, to growl, to gurgle"; PD *kur- an imitative sound: "to bark, to snore, to snarl, to growl"; Altaic . . .

Among the other many matters mentioned, it may be well to recall the major point of this digression: namely, that PL/Nostratic aspiration occasions a lengthening of the vowel in pre-Uralic and pre-Dravidian, and a raising of the height of the root-vowel in Uralic and Dravidian so that a Nostratic word with o, in the absence of aspiration, appears as Uralic and Dravidian o but originating from a PL root with initial aspiration, as u.

Thus Nostratic k?o occurs in Uralic and Dravidian as ko while Nostratic k?xo, with elimination of glottalization and substitution of aspiration for the fricative, becomes first pre-Uralic and pre-Dravidian /kho/ then /ko:/; and finally Uralic and Dravidian /ku/.

If we can provisionally entertain this explanation, we can return to the problem which occasioned it.

I have already foreshadowed a portion of the to be proffered explanation by suggesting that Proto-Language MHO-RA should be reconstructed for Bomhard's 526, which would produce an entry, as I would amend it:

(526)PN *mo:r- "to crumble by rubbing" > PIE *me:/o:r- "to disintegrate"; PU *mura- (or *muri-[?]) "to crumble"; PD *mur_- "to crush, to break, to cut", *mur-, "to break, to crush, to destroy"; S(umerian) mur(?), "to crush, to grind" (source: PL *MHO-RA)



(518)PN *mol- "to crumble by rubbing" > PIE *me/ol- "to rub, to crush, to grind"; PAA *mal- "to rub, to crush, to grind"; PU *mola-[?] "to crumble" (source: PL *MO-NHA)

(290)PN *k?or1- "crane" > PIE *ger/or- /*gR- "crane"; AA *kar- "crane"; PU *korka- "crane"(?; or karka); PD *korku- "crane" (source: PL *K?O-RHA)



(235)PN *k?xor1- "to rumble, to roar, to growl, to gurgle" > PIE *gher-/*ghor- "to rumble, to roar, to growl, to gurgle"; PK *gRgwin- "to thunder, (n.) thunder", *gurgwal-, "to thunder, to rumble, to roar, (n.) thunder"; PAA *gar- "to rumble, to roar, to growl, to gurgle"; PD *kur- an imitative sound: "to bark, to snore, to snarl, to growl"; Altaic: Manchu (possibly in) gur seme "snarling, growling, talking too much" (source: PL *K?XO-RHA)




(361)PN *q'wur-/*q'wor- "to swallow; (n.) neck, throat" > PIE *k'wer-/*k'wor-/*k'wR- "to swallow; (n.) neck, throat"; PK (*q'worq'- >) *q'orq' "throat, gullet"; Afroasiatic: Semitic : Jibbli k.erd "throat"; Mehri k.ard "voice, throat"; PFU *kurk3- "neck, throat"; PD *kural- "neck, throat"

(359)PN *xel- "to be in pain" > PIE * k'wel-, "prick, piercing pain, suffering, death(-agony)"; PK *q'wal- "to slay, to kill"; PAA *al- in Egyptian n-j, "to suffer"; PD *kel- "feather"; (source: PL *XE-NHA)

(361)PN *xary2- "to swallow" > PIE * k'wer-/*k'wor-/*k'wR-, "to swallow, (n.) throat"; PK (*q'warq'- >) *q'orq' "throat, gullet" (cf. OHG qwerka, "throat"); PAA *ar- in Arabic ariba, "to drink"; Egyptian 33.t, "throat", 3b.w, "food"; PD in *kar.-d "neck"; Sumerian har, "to chew" (probably, better, "eat" from "swallow"); (source: PL *XA-RHE(-P?FO, 'place' = 'eating place'; cf. Egyptian 3b, "table with food"; and .IE ghrebh-, "grub", incorrectly listed under 2. (*)ghrebh- [for correct *gwrebh-], "scratch, score, dig")




(339)PN *k'wer-/*k'wor- "to be heavy, solid, bulky" > PIE *k'wer-/*k'wor-/*k'wR- "heavy, weighty"; PAA *k'wer-/*k'wor- "to be heavy, weighty"; PD *kor..- "to grow thick, solid, fat, stout"; S gur, "hefty"; gur4, gur13, gur14 "thick; to be or make thick"

(293)PN * k?ory2- "to plait, to braid[?]" > PIE *ger-/*gor-/*gR- "to plait, to tie together (by plaiting)"; "basket" with -bh- extension; PAA *kar- "to (re)turn"; PU *kori, "basket"(limited distribution); *kori-, "to plait" (based on Finnic-Samic *kuri- "to stitch, tie together"); S gur, (n.) "basket"; "to wind, to turn" (probably phonetic only for "to wind, to turn"; see 239) (source: PL *K?O-RE)

(239)PN *k?ory3- "to (re)turn" > PIE *ger-/*gor-/*gR- "to turn, to wind"; PAA *kar- "to (re)turn"; Egyptian T3(w) [bar-t], "don a garment" [ = "to wrap (repeatedly)"]; T3, "pellet"; s-T3, "roller for moving a ship, dung (fecal cylinder)"; PA *gre, "to turn, to twist, to wind, to wrap"[?]; *guri- "wide, broad, thick"; S gur, "to wind, to turn" ("basket"; probably phonetic only; see 293); better gur4, "to turn, to roll over"; gur2, "ring"; gur, "hefty"; gur4, gur13, gur14 "thick; to be or make thick" (source: PL *K?O-RHE)

(339)PN *xary(u)1- "value" (+"repeatedly" = "weighty") > PIE * k'wer-/*k'wor-/*k'wR-*k'wer-H-, "value"; * k'weru-/*k'woru-/*k'wRu-; *k'wer--s, "heavy"; PAA *ar(u)- possibly in Arabic arra, "to defame [if = "value negatively"]"; in Egyptian 3, "assign"; 3w, "weight, worth, value"; PD *kor..- "to grow, thick, solid, fat" (from [Starostin:] *kor.v-, "fat"; earlier *kar.v-[?] ); S *har(u[?]), "heavy" (= gur14)[?]; hara5, "heavy, fat"(?); in i-hara, "heavy [person]" or "very heavy"(?); (source: PL *XA-RE[-FA, 'do again' = 'weighty'])

(314)PN *gwar-/*gw6r- "to burn, to be hot; (n.) fire, warmth, heat" > PIE *gw[h]er-/ *gw[h]or "to burn, to be hot; (n.) fire, warmth, heat"; PAA *gwar-/*gw6r- "to burn, to be hot; (n.) fire, warmth, heat"; Altaic: Manchu guru- "to redden, to become inflamed"

(314)PN *xery- "to radiate" > PIE * k'wer-/*k'wor-/*k'wher-*k'whor-, "to radiate (heat or light)"; PAA *ar- probably in Arabic arra, "to be ill-natured [if = "to be hot"]"; arra, "to expose to the sun [if = "to warm or heat"]"; irr, "anger [if = "heat"]"; in Egyptian 3-m, "to be hot, burn"; PD *ker- "to warm by the fire"; S *ir, "light"; (source: PL *XE-RHE)

(Addition A)PN *xal- "to drip, emit drops" > PIE *gwel-, "to drip down, to run over, to well up"; PAA *al- "to drip, emit drops"; PD *Z^al- "(n.) spring, to leak"[?]; S *hal, "to excrete, to flow rapidly"; (source: PL *XA-NHA)




(219)PN *k?xap?fw- "top" > PIE * ghe/obh-(el-), "gable, head"; PAA *gab- probably in Arabic jabba, "to overcome"; in Egyptian Hb, "to triumph"; S *kap, "to overpower"; (source: PL *K?XA-P?FO)




(223)PN *gir-/*ger- "to scratch, to scrape" > PIE *g[h]er-/*g[h]or-/*g[h]R- "to scratch, to scrape", *g[h]reb[h]-/*g[h]rob[h]- "to scratch, to scrape", *g[h]rem-/*g[h]rom-, "to scrape"; PAA *gar-/*g6r- "to scratch, to scrape"; PD *kir- "to scratch, to scrape"

(223)PN *k?xery- "to make/be bare (by scraping)" > PIE (2.) *g^her-/*g^hor-, "to scratch, to engrave, to scrape"; PAA *gar- "to make bare by scraping"; Arabic in jarjara "to drag"; in jarasha "to throw off slough (snake)"; in ?ajraza "to be barren"; in jarana "to grind"; in jarada "to strip a branch of leaves"; in Egyptian H3, "to run aground"; in H3-y, "to be naked"; in s-H3-j, "to strip"; PD *ci:r- (possibly also ker-) "to scratch"; PA in *k'r(-)ga- "to scrape, to file"; S *kir(i)3, "to pinch off (better: "to scratch/scrape off[?]")"; *kir(i)4, "nose (better "**face")" (source: PL *K?XE-RE)




(225)PN *gar-/*g6r- "to swell, to increase, to grow" > PIE *g[h]re?-/*g[h]ro?- > *g[h]re:-/*g[h]ro:- "to grow"; PAA *gar-/*g6r- "to grow old"; PD *kar..- "to swell, to rise, to increase, to grow thick; (n.) bamboo seedling, bamboo sapling, bamboo shoot; a swelling, excess, abundance"; PY (Sirenikski) *q6R- "height"; PY *q6RaR- and *q6RataR- "to rise up", *q6RuR- "to inflate"

(225)PN *k?xory2- "to stick out"; IE *gher-/*ghor- "to stick out"; in *ghre:-ti- '**mountain' (cf. MHD gra:t, "fishbone, plant-spike, pinnacle, mountain-ridge"; PU possibly in *kura- "thicket, underbrush"; PAA gar-, "to stick out", in Arabic jarra, "to leave the spear in the wound"; possibly in Arabic jarura, "to be courageous, bold-spirited"; in Egyptian x3-w, "plants"; in Egyptian x3-s-t, "hill-country" (cf IE *gher-s- in Greek khrs-os, "dry, barren, waste, hardened {i.e. mountainous[?]}"); possibly in s-x3, "to 'remember (cause to stick out[?])"; PD *ko/o:r.- "sprout"; *kr_-(*d_-), "name of a mountain tribe", "**mountain" (cf. Malayalam kur_ icci, "hill country"); Altaic *kuri, "hill"; S kur "(n.) mountain", "rise up[?]"; kur2 "to be different (= to stand out[?])", "(n.) sprout[?]" (source: PL *K?XO-RHE)




(363)PN *q'wur-/*q'wor- "edge, point, tip, peak" > PIE *k'[w]er-/*k'[w]or- > "hill, mountain, peak"; PK *q'ur- "edge"; PAA *k'war-/*k'w6r- "highest point, top, peak, summit, hill, mountain, horn"; PD *kur_- "a mountain tribe; hill country, mountain country"; (?) S kur, "mountain"

(360)PN *nkhal- "(to cause) to rise (in an arc)"; IE *kel-/*kol- "to rise up"; AA qal-, "to rise", in Arabic qalla, "to lift, to raise"; in Egyptian qn-jw, "palanquin, portable shrine"; Altaic **kal- (Starostin has *kel-), "to rise" (source: PL *QHA-NHA)

(363)PN *xory- "be malodorous"; IE **gwer-/gw or- "malodorous" in *gwor-gw(or)o- "filth, manure"; **gwer-/gw or- "malodorous" > *gwer-/gwor- "volcano" > "mountain"; PU *kura, "body (= corpse[?])" ; PAA ar-, "be malodorous[?]", in Arabic arrara, "to defame (if = "to cause to stink[?]")"; in Egyptian X3-t, "corpse"; PD *kur.- "to rot (be malodorous[?])"; Altaic *k'o:rV-, "dung, excrement"; S **hur[?] for ur5, "to be unclean, impure; to smell"; hur "**malodorous[?]" in hur-sa(n)g[~], "malodorous peak" = "volcano[?]" (source: PL *XO-RHE)




(200)PN *tl[h]ir-/*tl[h]er- "highest point, highest rank; to be highly esteemed, to be eminent" > PIE *k[h]er-/*k[h]or-/*k[h]R- "highest point, top, summit, head, peak, horn"; PAA *tl[h]ar-/*tl[h]6r- "highest rank"; PD *cir_- "to be eminent, illustrious; to surpass; to be abundant; pre-eminence, abundance, wealth"; PA *kir- "mountain(-side), edge"

(200)PN *nkher- "horn, highest point" > IE **k^er-/k^or- "horn, highest point"; PU *kura, "body (= corpse[?])" ; PAA qar-, "horn, highest point", in Arabic qar-n-un "horn, summit" (probably better "peak"); additionally in qari--un "hero of his time" and qirr--un "chief, hero"; PD *cir_- "to be eminent, illustrious; to surpass; to be abundant; pre-eminence, abundance, wealth"; Altaic *kir- "mountain(-side), edge" ; S **ir[?] for nir "prince, lord" (probably **ir6 "esteemed, prince") (source: PL *QHE-RA)

(Addition B)PN *nkhar1- "summit" > IE *ka(:)r- "height" (a variant form of *ker- (sic!: no palatalization) "head"); PAA qar-, "horn, highest point", in Arabic ma-qar- (q-r-y) "summit of a hill"; Egyptian q3(-j) "tall, high"; PD *cir_- "to be eminent, illustrious; to surpass; to be abundant; pre-eminence, abundance, wealth"; Altaic *kir- "mountain(-side), edge" = "summit[?]"; S **ar3 "high" (source: PL *QHA-RA)

(Addition C)PN *nkhary2- "to elevate" > IE (2.) *ka(:)r- "praise"; PAA qar-, "horn, highest point", in Arabic qar-n-un "horn, summit" (probably better "peak"); additionally in qari--un "hero of his time" and qirr--un "chief, hero"; in Egyptian s-q3 "praise, extol"; S **ar[?] for nar "sing" = "praise[?]" (source: PL *QHA-RE)









(14)PN *bul-/*bol- "to become worn out, weak, tired, old" > PIE *b[h]ol- "worn out, weak; misfortune, calamity"; PAA *bal-/*b6l- "to become worn out"; PD *pul- "to wither, fade, to become weak, to decrease"

(10 & 14)PN *p?ol- "to puff (up)"; PIE **bel-/*bol- "to puff", (2.) *bel-, "strong"; also occurring in (3.) *bhel-, "to blow up, to swell up, to grow", with derivatives in -u(:)(-i) and -i: *bhlei, "to blow up, to swell", and *bh(e)leu-, "to be weak, to be sick"; and in (2.) *swel-, "to smolder"; PAA in *bal-aH- "to become worn out"; in Egyptian fn, "to be weak, faint"; PD *pol- "to perish, to be weakened"; *pol-i-, "to increase"; Altaic *bo:lo/e-, "to be (as a result of "becoming, growing[?]"; cf. Mongolian *bol, "to become")"; Sumerian bul, "to blow"; bulug[~]3 (assimilated from **bulag[~]3), "to grow" (source: PL *P?O-NHA)




(12)PN *bul-/*bol- "to mix, to mix up, to confuse" > PIE *b[h]lend[h]-/*b[h]lond[h]-/*b[h]lNd[h]- "to mix, to blend"; PAA *bal-/*b6l- "to mix, to mix up, to confuse"; PA *bul-, "to mix, to mix up, to confuse"

(12)PN *p?fol- "to stir (up)"; PIE **bel-/**bol- "to stir", from which *bhlendh-/*bhlondh-/*bhlNdh- "to mix, to blend"; PAA *bal(-bal-) "to mix, to mix up, to confuse"; PA *bli-, "to stir"; PD *pul- "dirty"; Sumerian **pul3, "to revolve" (a sign conventionally reading bala, and meaning "to revolve", also reads pul3[?]); **pul(-pul), "to stagger" (a sign conventionally reading bul(-bul), and meaning "to stagger", also reads pul[?]) (source: PL *P?FO-NHA)




(11)PN *bul-u-/*bol-u- "to ripen, to blossom, to sprout, to mature" (extended from the preceding) > PIE *b[h]ulH-/*b[h]olH-/*b[h]loH- (> *b[h]lo:-; later also *b[h]le:-)"to blossom, to sprout"; PAA *bala-/*b6la-/*bal6-/*b6l6- "to grow, to mature"; PA *bo:l-, "to become"; S bulug[~]3, "to grow, to make grow"

(11)PN *p?fel2- "(to) sprout"; PIE (4.) *bhel-/*bhol- "to shoot up, to sprout luxuriantly"; (1.) *(s)p(h)el- "to burst"; PAA *bal- "to bear fruit (?aballa)"; PD *pil.- "to crack (open), to burst (open)"; Sumerian **pil2, "to sprout" (a sign conventionally reading bil2, and meaning "to sprout", also reads pil2[?]) (source: PL *P?FE-NHE)




(15)PN *baly-/*b6ly- "to shine, to be bright" > PIE *b[h]el-/*b[h]ol- "shining, white", *b[h]les-/*b[h]los- "to shine"; *b[h]liyC-/*b[h]leyC- (> *b[h]li:-/*b[h]le:-), *b[h]liyV-/*b[h]leyV- "to shine"; *b[h]lu-, *b[h]luH- (> *b[h]lu:-); PAA *bal-/*b6l- "to shine, to be bright"; PD *pal.- "to glitter, to shine"

(13)PN *bal-/*b6l- "to be or become dark, obscure, blind" > PIE *b[h]lend[h]-/*b[h]lond[h]-/*b[h]lNd[h]- "to make blind, to blind"; PAA *bal-/*b6l- "to be blind"; Altaic: Mongolian balai "dark, obscure, ignorant; intellectually or morally blind; stupid", balar "dark, obscure, blind, unclear, ignorant; primitive, primeval, dense, impenetrable"; Manchu balu "blind"

(11 & 13)PN *p?falw- "(to radiate) ray(s)"; PIE (1.) *bhel-/*bhol- "gleaming, white"; (2.) *(s)p(h)el- "to gleam, to shimmer"; PAA *bal- "to shine, to be bright"; PD *pal.- "to shine, glitter"; PA *balu- **"dark" (from **"white" = "blind") (source: PL *P?FA-NHO)




(10)PN *bul-/*bol- "to swell, to expand, to spread out, to overflow, to puff up, to inflate" > PIE *b[h]el-/*b[h]ol-/*b[h]L- "to swell, to puff up, to inflate, to expand, to bubble up, to overflow"; Kartvelian: Georgian *blom-, "multitude" in blomad "in a crowd, mass, mob, multitude"; PAA *bal-/*b6l- "to swell, to expand, to spread out, to overflow"; S bul, "to blow, to breathe, to puff"

(10)PN *p?elw- "(to) damp(en)"; PIE **bel-/**bol-; (3.) *bhel-/*bhol- "**to overflow", incorrectly inferred from *bhleu-/*bhlou- "to blow up, to overflow, to flow"; back formation (which retained bh), probably *bholo- "steam, mist"; **wel-/**wol- "to dampen", in (2.) *welk- "moist, wet"; PAA *bal- "to dampen (balla)"; PD *pe:l.- "to defecate"; PA *byalu "dirt (probably better "mud")"; Sumerian cf. bi "to pour out" (cf. Dravidian *pi:- "excrement"; bid3 "to defecate, to urinate"; biz "to pour out") (source: PL *P?E-NHO)




(Addition D)PN *p?al- "to (begin to) split"; PIE **bel-/**bol-; (1.) *bel-, "to cut out, to dig out, to hollow out"; (1.) *bhel-/*bhol- "flake", incorrectly inferred from *bh(e)leu-/*bh(e)lou- **"to split (cf. Old Icelandic blegdhe, "wedge")"; and *bhle/e:i-/*bhlo/o:i-/**bhli:- "**slit" in Russian blizn "break of threads in fabric", and Polish blizna "scar"; and *bhle/e:u-/*bhlo/o:u-/**bhlu:- "**flake" in Latvian blu:zga "skin which is becoming unattached"; back formation (which retained bh), probably *bholo- "flake" in Greek phols, "scale"; (8.) *wel-/**wol- "wound"; PAA *bal- "to split (balata, balaga, balaqa, bal)"; PD *pal- "tooth (if "splitter")"; possibly in *pa:>l- "seedling (if "splitter"[?]), from Sergei Starostin's website; PA *p/p'ala "tooth (from **bala, influenced by Uralic *pala[?])"; *ba:li- "harm, wound"; in *p:li- "to be separated, divided"; Uralic *pala "bit, bite, to eat"; *pala "spear, spit"; Sumerian *bal "to dig out" (source: PL *P?A-NHA)




(21)PN *bah-/*b6h- "to say, to speak" > PIE *b[h]eh-(*[b[h]ah-])(> *b[h]a:- "to say, to speak"; PAA *bah-/*b6h- "to say, to speak"

(21)PN *p?fahy- "to shout"; PIE (2.) *bha:- (*bhaH-) "to speak (publicly)"; PAA *bah- "to shout (bahala "to curse")"; in Egyptian bjbj "acclamation"; PD **pa(:)-, "be loud"; PA perhaps in *bja "happiness, joy (="loud celebration"[?]); Sumerian pa10 "speak loudly" (the sign reading I also reads pa10, and means, among other things, "speak"); in be2 (for **p2 [another reading for the sign read be2] from PN *p?fahey [PL P?FA-HE-E]), "to speak, to say" (source: PL *P?FA-HE)




(Addition E)PN *p?fah(y)l(u)- "to be cursed, evil"; PIE **bhe(:)lu-/**bho(:)lu-, with transferral of the stress-accent: (2.) *bhle:u-/*bhlo:u-/*bhlu:- "weak, wretched" ; PAA *bahal- "to curse"; also, probably with deletion of the medial h: bal "to afflict" ?a-ball-un, "wicked"; in Egyptian bjn "evil"; Sumerian **pl "to curse" (source: PL *P?FA-HE-NHA(FHA))




(26 revised p. 234)PN *biny-/*beny- "to join together, to fit together, to fasten, to twist together, to form or produce in any way" > PIE *b[h]en-d[h]-/*b[h]on-d[h]-/*b[h]Nd[h]- "to join together, to fit together, to fasten, to twist together, to form or produce in any way"; PAA *ban-/*b6n- "to join together, to fit together, to fasten, to twist together, to form or produce in any way"; PD *pin.- "to unite, to tie, to fasten; to twist or tie together"; *pinn- "to plait, to braid, to twist together"

(26 rev.)PN *p?enw- "to inseminate"; PIE **ben-/**bon-; (1.) *wen-/*won- "to inseminate", in Hittite wen- "to have intercourse with"; PAA *ban- "to construct, to build, to erect (a house), to inseminate (ban)"; PD *pin.- "to entwine, to twist"; *pinn- "to plait, to braid, to twist together"[?]; Sumerian possibly in pin (for **binx) "to inseminate[?]", an alternate reading or element of apin "seeder-plow" (source: PL *P?E-NO)




(Addition F)PN *p?a?- "to be separated"; PIE (2.) *wa:- (*waH-) "to be separated, to be apart"; in *wa:i- (*waHy-) "weak, wretched", and with the further extension -l: *wa:il- (*waHyl-) "weak, poor"; *wa:t-, "to be emotionally excited (if "to be separated from")"; PAA **ba?- "to be separated" (Akkadian b?a, "hole"; in Arabic ba?l-un "small, wretched, paltry [if "to be deprived of"]"; ba?aTa "to recline quietly on one's side, neglect [if "to be disassociated from"]"); PD in *pa:j- "to separate, to part, to comb"; *pi:l- "weak"; PA in *p'a:ji "part"; Sumerian ba "piece; to divide"; in be2 (for b2 = PN *p?a?y-) "to diminish, to lessen" (source: PL *P?A-?A)




(28)PN *bun-/*bon- "to puff up, to inflate, to expand, to make to swell"; (extended form) *bun-g-/*bon-g- "to swell, to fatten, to increase, to expand" > PIE *b[h]eng[h]-/*b[h]ong[h]-/*b[h]Ng[h]- "to swell, to fatten, to grow, to increase"; b[h]eng[h]u- "fat, swollen, thick"; PFU *pungka, *pongka "rounded protuberance, lump"; PD *ponk- "to increase, to swell, to expand"; S bun3 "to blow, to inflate; breath"

(Addition G)PN *p?ongw- "blister, boil"; PIE *we-n-g- (for *weng-) "be bowed"; note Albanian vegl "handle" ; PAA *baq- "blister"; possibly in Egyptian fg-3 "defecate"[?]; PD *ponk- (which Starostin's website has as *pong-), "to increase, to swell, to expand"; *pong-, "smoke"[?]; Uralic *pang(ka)- {for **ponga[?]}"handle"; PFU *pungka, *pongka "rounded protuberance, lump" (source: PL *P?O-QO

(Addition H)PN *p?fangw- "fat"; PIE *bheng^h- "fat, thick, dense"; PAA *baq- "fat"; possibly in Egyptian b(3)g "thick (of liquids)"; Uralic perhaps *pang(ka)- "handle" (source: PL *P?FA-QO

(28)PN *p?onw- "swelling"; PIE **wen-/**won-, "swelling", from which *wendh-/*wondh-/*wNdh- "to plait"; PU *puna- "to plait"; PD *pon.- "to join"; in *pun.-ud- "boil, wound"; Sumerian bun and bun2 "blister; to be swollen" (source: PL *P?O-NO)

(Addition I)PN *p?fanw-[?] "to command"; PIE *bhen-, "to command", listed incorrectly under (2.) *bha:-, "to speak"; PD in *pan.- "to command, speak, send" (source: PL *P?FA-NO)




(8)PN *buw-/*bow- "to go, to come, to proceed, to spend (time) > PIE *b[h]ewH-/*b[h]owH-/*b[h]uH- (> *b[h]u:-) "to spend time, to abide, to dwell"; PAA *baw-/*b6w "to come, to go in, to enter"; PD *po:- "to go, to proceed, to go away, to reach a destination; to spend time, to pass away"; S BU "to reach or arrive at a destination; to come upon, to meet, to encounter"



(Addition J)PN *p?fo?- "to be gone away"; PIE *bhe-/*bho- (for **bhoH- [**bho:-]) "outside of, outside, without"; (2.) *bhe:-/*bho:- (for **bhoH- [**bho:-]), particle of asseveration and emphasis; PAA *ba?- "to go away"; in Egyptian m bj "no"; bj (written b + single stroke), in reference to 'desert' ("outside"[?]); PD *po:- "to go, to proceed, to go away, to reach a destination; to spend time, to pass away"; S **pu (for **p) "to go away" (a sign which means "to go away", and is normally read gid2, sir2, and bur12 [for purx{?}] all with this meaning, also reads pu) (source: PL *P?FO-?A)

No appropriate Dravidian (which should have the form **pu:-) nor Uralic cognate can currently be identified.

and we amend:

(8)PN *p?fow- "to arrive (on foot), to walk to"; PIE *bhew-/*bhow- "to arise, to be (at)"; PAA *baw- "to arrive" (in Arabic bauwa?a, "to come and stay in a place"); in Egyptian bw "place" (better "destination"); S bu5[?] (for **px[?]) "to move about"[?] (source: PL *P?FO-FA)



(Addition K)PN *p?fowa?- "to be arrived on foot, to stay"; PIE in *bhewH-/*bhowH-/*bhuH- (> *bhu:-) "to spend time, to abide, to dwell"; PAA *bawa?- "to arrive" (Arabic bauwa?a, "to come and stay in a place"); PD *po:- (for *pu:-[?]) "to go, to proceed, to go away, to reach a destination; to spend time, to pass away"[?]; S BU (better p[?]) "to reach or arrive at a destination; to come upon, to meet, to encounter"[?] (source: PL *P?FO-FA-?A)




(9)PN *buw-/*bow- "to become, to arise, to come into being, to grow" > PIE *b[h]ewH-/*b[h]owH-/*b[h]uH- (> *b[h]u:-) "to become, to arise, to come into being, to grow"; PAA *baw-/*b6w- "to be or become full, filled; to become large"; PU *puwa- "tree, wood"; PD *pu:- "to bloom, to blossom, to flower, to flourish"; PA *bi- "to become, to arise, to come into being, to increase, to grow"; PE *puv6- "to swell"; PI *puvala- "to be fat"; *puvliq- "to swell up" (these forms either belong here or with no. 34 below)

(9)PN *p?ow- "to grow"; PIE in *bew-/*bow- > *bhew-/*bhow- "to grow"; PAA *baw- "to grow"[?]; S **bu10 "to grow" (sign which reads bulug[~]3, "to grow", also reads bu10); PE *puv6- "to swell"; PI *puvala- "to be fat"; *puvliq- "to swell up" (source: PL *P?O-FA)




(34)PN *p[h]uw-/*p[h]ow- "to puff, to blow, to exhale; to puff up, to inflate" > PIE *p[h]u/u:- "to puff, to puff up, to blow"; PK *p[h]u- "to swell, to puff up, to inflate"; PAA *p[h]aw/*p[h]6w "to puff, to blow, to exhale"; PU *puwa- "to blow"; PD *pu:- "to fart"; PE *puv6- "to swell"; PI *puvala- "to be fat"; *puvliq- "to swell up" (these forms either belong here or with no. 9 above)

(34)PN *phow- "to blow (up)"; PIE (1.) *pew/*pow-/*pu- "to puff, to puff up, to blow"; PK *p[h]u- "to swell, to puff up, to inflate"; PAA *paw "to puff, to blow, to exhale" (in Arabic fqa [f-w-q], "to gasp"; fkha [f-w-kh], "to blow"; PFU *puwi- "to blow"; S bu(2,5) "to blow; to brag ("to inflate")" (source: PL *PHO-FHA)




(Addition L)PN *p?few- "to flourish"; PIE *bhew-/*bhow- "to flourish"; *(s)p(h)eu-/*(s)p(h)ou- "to flourish", listed mistakenly under **(s)p(h)eu-d- "to press" (in AS spo:wan, "to flourish"); *(s)p(h)eu-/*(s)p(h)ou- "to flourish", listed mistakenly under **(s)p(h)e:(i)- "to flourish" (in OHG spuon, "to succeed"); PD *pu:- "to bloom, to blossom, to flower, to flourish" (source: PL *P?FE-FA)




(Addition M)PN *phfew- "to rot"; PIE (1.) *phew/*phow-/*phu- "to rot, to stink"; PAA **paw (Orel-Stobova: *fiwah.-)"to rot" (in Arabic fHa [f-w-H], "to diffuse perfume"; fja [f-w-j], "to spread perfume"; tafauwaa [f-w-], "to vomit"; fgha [f-w-gh], "to diffuse itself"; in Egyptian bw[.t], "abomination ["rotting thing"] {cf. Arabic ft.a-tun, "waist-wrapper"}"); PFU *puwi- "behind [if = "relating to the {position of the} anus"{?}]"; PD *pu:- "to fart"; S pu2 "to stink"[?] (source: PL *PHFE-FHA)




(Addition N)PN *phfew- "to rub (off)"; PIE (1.) *pew-/*pow-/*pew6-/*pu/u:-, "to clean, to purify, to sift"; PAA *paw "to split, to tear (into pieces); to grind up"[?], perhaps in Egyptian bwbw, "seed or grain offering"; PA in *pio:-po- "to cut through, to grind"; PD *pu:-, "to rub, to smear"; S perhaps bu(3,6) (for *pu), "to tear up, to tear out" (source: PL *PHFE-FHA)

(Addition O)PN *phfen- "(grain-)rubber, quern"; PIE (1.) *pen-, "to (force-)feed"; (1.) s)p (**h)en-(d)-/*(s)p (**h)on-(d)-/*(s)p (**h)N(d)- , "**to press" in Latvian spist, "to press, to force"); PAA **pan "(grain-)rubber" (Egyptian bn.wyt "corn-grinders, querns"; PFU *pnV- "to grind"; S perhaps in da(-)bin "coarse barley flour (for **pin if 'hand+press-down'+n[?]) (source: PL *PHFE-NA)




(Addition P)PN *phon- "breath" or "nose[?]"; PIE in *pne-w-, "to gasp, to breathe"; in *pen-dh-, "nose" (cf. Ossetic fi.nj, "nose"; Armenian pinj, "nose"; PAA **pan "nose" (for Orel-Stobava's *fin-, "nose, smell"; and *funVg-, "nose"); in Egyptian fnD "nose"; S bun2 "nose" (source: PL *PHO-NA)




DISCUSSION: Contrasting with Nostratic *phow-, 'blow (up)', a Nostratic root with the affricate *phf(ow-) can be identified. The IE cognate appears as *pe:w-, 'beat; sharp, sharply hew' in Latin pavio:, 'I beat, stamp'; pavimentum, 'beaten/stamped ground', indicates the nature of the 'beating': it is stamping of the feet rather than by blows of the fists or with another implement. The lengthened vowel in IE serves to distinguish this root from (1.) *pew-, 'clean, purify, sift', discussed above.

Accordingly, we reconstruct: PL *PHFO-FHA, 'stamp'+'do-repeatedly' = 'beat by stamping (on)'.

The Altaic cognate may be in *p'uske-, 'kick, knock', if *-ske- is regarded as a suffixal formant while Nostratic phfo is probably the first element in *p'ok'i-, 'trample, kick'.

No Dravidian nor Uralic cognate seems to be identifiable at present.

A Sumerian sign that pictures a snake can be read as bu or pu. The Egyptian sign for [f] pictures a snake; and Egyptian [f] represents Nostratic p?o and pho, both of which would appear in Sumerian as bu. I interpret those facts to mean that the Sumerian sign depicting a 'snake' originally read bu, representing Nostratic pho and PL *PHO, 'venomous snake'. Among the meanings recorded for bu is 'tear apart'. I propose that since bu-sign could also be read pu as a result of a general confusion between unaspirated and aspirated stops, that pu (better **p [from pre-Sumerian *pu-u]) is the source of 'tear apart', which is better interpreted as 'break apart by stamping'.

It is surprising not to be able to find an AA cognate for this root. However, there is one possibility that might be considered: Egyptian has bw, 'place'; this might be a derivation of the root if it means 'stamped area', along the lines of Latin pavimentum.

On this basis, we must amend to include:

(Addition Q)PN *phfow- "beat by stamping (on)"; PIE *pe:w-/*po:w-/*p6w-/*pu/u:- "to beat; sharp, to sharply hew, *to stamp"; in *(s)p (h)ew-d-/*(s)p (h)ow-d-/*(s)p (h)ud- "to press"; PAA in Egyptian bw "place (if = 'stamped area')" ; PA in *p'u-ske-[?], "to kick, to knock"; S pu (better **p) "to break apart by stamping[?]" (source: PL *PHFO-FHA)




EXCURSUS

It should also be noticed that in Bomhard's dictionary under the 33 entries beginning with b in the b-section, only one, #23, begins with the sequence *bi-/*be- ("in addition to, with, together with"); in addition, there are a few more scattered through the dictionary arranged by the root-final, such as #214, *bitl[h]-/*betl[h]-, 'to slit, split'. Unless Nostratic was subject to a phonotactic rule which Bomhard nowhere discusses or mentions, this seems like a very odd distribution: why no *ber- or *bel- inter alia?




(1)PN *baw-/*b6w- "to be or become aware of or acquainted with, to notice, to observe" > PIE *b[h]ew-d[h]-/*b[h]ow-/*b[h]u-d[h]- "to be or become aware of"; PAA *baw/*b6w "to be or become aware of; S bu-i- (rare) "knowledge, learning"

(1)PN *p?faw- "(to be) attentive (to)"; PIE *bhew-/*bhow-/*bhu- "(to be) attentive (to)" in Greek piphasko:, "to show, to make known"(? = if "to cause to be attended to"); in *bhew-dh-/*bhow-dh-/*bhu-dh- "to be or become aware of"; PAA *baw- "(to be) attentive (to)"; in *bawa?- "to acknowledge a fault (to have obtained attention with regard to)", and "to point a spear towards (to have directed attention to)"; in *bawa-h "to understand (to be in an attentive state)"; in *bawa-h. "to become known, to be revealed (to [have] come to the attention of)"; S in buzur4 (for puzur4) "tribute, honor, blessing" (if analyzable as **pux, "attention" + zur, "to provide, to tend") (source: PL *P?FA-FA)




EXCURSUS

We have investigated a sufficient number of roots to be able to notice the very obvious pattern: that roots most frequently have *l, *n, *w, *y, and the to be discussed *r as a final element of the biconsonantal root.

In the section of Bomhard's dictionary of roots beginning with *b (33), there are only seven roots, which we can easily *reduce to five, not terminated by one of these consonants: *#11, which is an extended form of an *-l root; #18, *bad-; *#19, which is an extended form of an *-r root; #20, *bah-; #21 *bah-; #22, *bak'-; #23, *bi.

There is no additional *bed- and *bod-; *beh- and *boh-, *bek'- and *bok'-; or even *ba and *bo. I believe that this demonstrates fairly conclusively that the five terminal consonants listed above are true formants.

Of the *b-roots ending in *-r, some are derived from PL *RE, 'scratch', which served as a metaphor for man's attempts to modify the material objects of the world around him.

Of the 15 roots containing final *-r, four are easily relatable semantically to 'scratch': Bomhard's PN #2 *bur-, 'bore, pierce'; #5 *bar-, 'projection, bristle, point'; #24 *bar-, 'seed, grain'; #32 *bar-, 'scrape, cut, carve, whittle, trim'.

Another group (two) are those containing *RHA, 'color', which characterized primarily visual objects or phenomena: #4 *bar-, 'swell, puff up, expanded'; #29 *bur-, 'dark-colored'.

Yet another group (four) are those containing *RHE, 'come down (on) with', which described the effective agent of the transformation: e.g., #3 *bur-, 'smash'; #7 *bar-, 'twist, turn (better 'knot')'; #16 *bar-, 'shine, be bright'; #17 *bar-, 'be kind, charitable, beneficent, do good' (an ethical interpretation of #16); #30 *bur-, 'cover, enclose, wrap up'; #31 *bur-, 'whirl, rage, palpitate'.

Of the remaining three, one is derived from *RHE, in its generalized meaning of 'come' (#6 *bar-, 'bear, bring, carry'); another from *RA, 'high' (#19 *bur-gy-, 'protrude, be prominent'); and the final root, #33 *bar-, 'make a sound, utter a noise', is derived from *RHA, 'fly'.

As we have seen, Bomhard's PN *b represents Nostratic *p? or *p?f, and which can be determined usually from IE, which has *b, or, more usually *w for Nostratic *p?, and *bh for Nostratic p?f. AA shows *b for both; and Dravidian, and Uralic also p for both. Altaic seems to be showing a pattern of *p' for Nostratic *p?, and *b for Nostratic p?f but examples are relatively few. However, where an Egyptian cognate can be found, it will show *b, or, more usually p or f for Nostratic *p?, and *b for Nostratic p?f. Sumerian theoretically shows b for Nostratic *p?, and p for Nostratic p?f but the double values for the initials (voiced and voiceless) for the reading of so many signs makes the determination singularly difficult through Sumerian.




(2)PN *bur-/*bor- "to bore, to pierce" > PIE *b[h]or-/*b[h]ur- "to bore, to pierce"; PAA *bar-/*b6r- "to bore, to pierce"; PU *pura- "borer, auger"; PD *pur- "to bore, to perforate; borer, gimlet"; PA *bur- "to bore through, to pierce"; S bur3 "to bore through, to pierce"

(2)PN *p?fory- "to drill" > PIE (3.) *bher-/*bhor-/*bhR- "to drill"; PAA *bar- "to drill"; PU *pura- (Sammallahti: *pur-) "drill"; PD *pur- "to bore, to perforate; borer, gimlet"; PA *bur(a)- "to bore through, to pierce"; S bur3 (for **purx) "to bore through, to pierce" (source: PL *P?FO-RE)




(32)PN *bar-/*b6r- "to scrape, to cut, to carve, to whittle, to trim" > PIE *b[h]ord[h]-/*b[h]Rd[h]-/*b[h]red[h]- "(piece) cut off"; PAA *bar-/*b6r- "to scrape, to cut, to carve"; PU *para- "to scrape, to cut, to carve"; S bar "to split (with a tool or weapon)"; bar "to cut into, to notch, to cut or slit open, to carve, to slice, to cut up"; bar "to dig, to excavate"

(32)PN *p?ary- "to split" > PIE (7.) *wer-/*wor-/*wR- "to rip open, to score"; in *bhredh-/*bhrodh-/*bhRdh- (Pokorny: *bheredh- "to cut") "(piece) split off"; PAA *bar-/*b6r- "to scrape, to cut, to carve"; PA *p'ra- "cross-beam, constructing piece"; *p'arV- "thill"; PU *para- (Rdei: *par3-) "to scrape, to cut, to carve"; PD *par- "to cut, to split"; S bar "to split (with a tool or weapon)"; bar "to cut into, to notch, to cut or slit open, to carve, to slice, to cut up"; bar "to dig, to excavate" (source: PL *P?A-RE)




(3)PN *bur-/*bor- "to strike, to hit, to beat, to strike down, to strike to pieces, to smash" > PIE *b[h]er-/*b[h]or ]-/*b[h]R- "to strike, to fight"; PK *bRg- "to struggle, to fight"; PAA *bar-/*b6r- "to strike, to fight"; PD *por- "to fight, to engage in battle; fight, battle, war, quarrel"; Altaic: Mongolian burci "to raze, to destroy, to break, to crush"; S bur "to destroy, to exterminate, to eradicate; to tear out, to pull out, to remove; bur "to cut, to cut into pieces"; bur3 "to demolish, to tear down, to destroy"; bur3 "to cut open, to cut into; slain; killed"; bur3(-bur3) "to rend, to split, to cleave, to slash"

(3)PN *p?fory- "to stomp, to smash" > PIE (3.) *bher-/*bhor-/*bhR- "to beat (on)"; PAA *bar-/*b6r- "to strike, to fight"; PD *po:r.- "to split, to cleave"; Altaic: Mongolian burci "to raze, to destroy, to break, to crush"; S bur (for *pur) "to destroy, to exterminate, to eradicate; to tear out, to pull out, to remove; bur (for *pur) "to cut, to cut into pieces; to knap, flake off (flint)"; bur3 (for **purx) "to demolish, to tear down, to destroy"; bur3 (for **purx) "to cut open, to cut into; slain; killed"; bur3(-bur3) (for **purx[-**purx]) "to rend, to split, to cleave, to slash" (source: PL *P?FO-RHE)




(20)PN *bah-/*b6h- "to shine" > PIE *b[h]eh- ([*b[h]ah )-/]) *b[h]oh- (*b[h]a:- /*b[h]o:-) "to shine"; PAA *bah-/*b6h- "to shine"

(3)PN *p?fahy- "to come across from a halo, to shine" > PIE (1.) *bha:-/*bh6- "to gleam, to illuminate, to shine"; PAA *bah- "to shine"; PA (in[?]) *paja "to shine, to glitter"; S pa(*-i10) "to shine" (source: PL *P?FA-HE)




(16)PN *bar-/*b6r- "to shine, to be bright" > PIE *b[h]erEk'-, *b[h]reEk'- (> *b[h]re:k'-) "to shine, to gleam, to be bright"; PK *berc'q'-/*brc'q'- "to shine"; PAA *bar-/*b6r- "to shine, to be bright"; PD *par- "to shine (brightly), to become dawn"; S bar "to shine, to light, to illuminate, to sparkle, to glitter, to glisten; bright, shining; light, brightness"; bar6-bar6 "light, white; to whiten, to make white"

(16)PN *p?fary- "to come down on with a halo, to illuminate" > PIE (5.) *bher-/*bhor-/*bhR- "gleaming"; PAA *bar "to gleam, to be bright"; PD *par- "to shine (brightly), to become dawn"; S bar (for par2) "to shine (on), to light, to illuminate, to sparkle, to glitter, to glisten; bright, shining; light, brightness"; probably a different root (Nostratic *p?far from PL *P?FA-RHA[?])! bar6-bar6 (for *parx-*parx) "light, white; to whiten, to make white" (see Addition Q) (source: PL *P?FA-RHE)






(203)PN *tl[h] unk[h]-/*tl[h]onk[h]- "to hook up, to hang; hanging, dangling; peg, hook" > PIE *k[h]onk[h] "to hook up, to hang; peg, hook"; Afroasiatic: Semitic: Arabic ankala (< *tl[h]ank[h]-al-) "to hook up"; ankal "peg, hook"; PD *cun.k- "end of cloth left hanging out, a dangling tatter"



(261)PN *k[h]un-k'-/*k[h]on-k' "to be bent, curved, crooked; hook" > PIE *k[h]enk'-/ *k[h]onk'- "hook"; PD *kon.k- "hook, clasp"

(203)PN *khxenk- "(hanging) hook; to hang" > PIE *k^(h)enk-/*k^(h)onk-/*k^(h)Nk- "to hang; (hanging) hook"; PAA *ghanak- "to hang, (hanging) hook" in Egyptian Hnk "to present, to offer"; (source: PL *KHXE-NA-KHA)

(Addition T)PN *khxank- "(draping) peg; to drape (over)" > PIE *k(h)enk-/*k(h)onk-/*k(h)Nk-/*k(h)ek-/*k(h)ok- "(draping) peg, to drape (*over)"; PAA *ghanak- "to hang, (hanging) hook" possibly in Egyptian Hnk "to present, to offer"; S kak (for **kang/**ka(n)g[~]) "peg" (source: PL *KHXA-NA-KHA)

(Addition U)PN *khxayk(u)- "shaman; power(ful)" > PIE **k^(h)a(:)k-/*k^(h)ek-/*k^(h)ok-/*k(h)eik(u)-/k(h)oik(u)-/k(h)ik(u)- "power(ful)"; PAA *ghayak- "power(ful)" in Egyptian Hk-3.w (for **Hjk-3.w) "magical spells"; Hk-3.y (for **Hjk-3.y) "magician"; S kak2-(ku) (for **kag-gu5) "(be) power(ful), lord" (source: PL *KHXA-E-KHA[-FA]) (source: PL *KHXA-E-KHA)



(261)PN *nkhaykhx- "bent stick, plow" > PIE *ka/a:k(h)- "bent stick, plow"; AA *qayagh- "bent stick, **plow" in Late Egyptian q(3)H(3) "wooden brace on the neck of prisoners, harness horses/cattle, men; equipment for garden buildings"; qH-y (BotD) "moon"; S ge/i (for **(n)kak2x) "plow" (source: PL *QHA-E-KHXA)



(Addition V)PN *nkhakhx(u)- "club, hammer; to bend by hammering" > PIE *kek(h)u- "club, hammer"; AA *qagh(aw)- "to hammer" in Egyptian qHqH "to hammer, to bend by hammering"; S ge/i (for **(n)k2akx; or, for (n)kak22[-ku]) "tool (="hammer[?]")" (source: PL *QHA-KHXA[-FA])



(Addition W)PN *khxankh(arw)- "hungry, to be hungry; hunger" > PIE (2.) *k(h)enk(-r)-/*k(h)onk(-r)-/*k(h)Nk(-r)- "to be in pain; hungry, to hungry; hunger"; PAA *ghaqal- "hungry, to be hungry; hunger" in Egyptian Hqr "hungry, to be hungry; hunger"; S kan(1,3,5) (for *ka(1,3,5)[?]) "apprehension, worry; affliction, trouble; to be troubled (if = "to be doubled over in pain")" (source: PL *KHXA-QHA[-RO])



(Addition X)PN *nkhaysw- "bone" > PIE *keis- /*kois-/*kis- "arm, thigh"; AA *qayas- "bone" in Egyptian q(j)s "bone"; S ge/i (for *(n)g[~]s) and ni2 (for *sx "bone" (source: PL *QHA-E-SO)



(Addition Y)PN *nkhoy-(nkhoy-) "bound(-up)" > PIE *keink^- /*koink^-/*kink^- (Pokorny (1.) *kenk-) "to gird, to tie on or around"; AA *qay- "restricting" in Egyptian qj.t "duty"; S nini (for *ii) "to surround" (source: PL *QHO-E(QHO-E)



(257)PN *k[h] ang-(/*k[h]6ng- "to sing, to sound" > PIE *k[h]an- "to sing, to sound"; Afroasiatic: Egyptian kny "to call"; PD *kan.- "to sound, to tinkle, to rattle, to jingle"

(257)PN *khxanw- "hive; to hum, to sing" > PIE *kan- (for **kha/a:n-) "to sing, to ring"; PAA *ghan- "to hum, to sing, to buzz" in Arabic ?aghanna; Egyptian Hn "to cheer someone on"; in Hnw 'said of the onset of the wind'; Uralic *kan3-3 (Rdei) "to call"; Dravidian *kan.- "to sound, to tinkle, to rattle, to jingle" (source: PL *KHXA-NO)

(Addition Z)PN *khxano(y)nkh- "honey-comb" > PIE *ken6k- (for **kha/a:ne(i)nk-) "honey; honey-yellow, golden yellow"; PAA *ghanaq- "honey" in Egyptian Hnq.t "beer (better "mead")" (source: PL *KHXA-NO(-E<)-QHA)






(422)PN *ma?-/*m6?- "to increase (in numbers), to be many, to be abundant" > PIE *me?-/*mo?- (> *me:-/*mo:-) "more, abundant, considerable"; PAA *ma?-/*m6?- "to increase (in numbers), to be many, to be abundant"; S me "abundant, plenty"

(422)PN *ma?- "(to be) full, ripe" > PIE (2.) *ma:- "*full, good, at a good time, appropriately timed"; PAA *ma?- "(to be) full, (to be) filled"; PA in *m:-jV- (n.) "fat"; Dravidian *ma:- "big, great (really: "*full-term")"; *ma:- "black, dark" (="ripe"); in *ma:n.- "to become excellent, glorious; to be full, abundant, great; (n.) greatness, excellence, splendor, glory" S ma6 (for **m6) "luxuriant"; ma (for **m) "date (really "ripe")" (source: PL *MA-?A)






(513)PN *maH-/*m6H- "to increase, to swell, to exceed, to surpass, to be great" > PAA *maH-/*m6H- "to increase, to swell"; PD *ma:- "big, great"; *ma:n.- "to become excellent, glorious; to be full, abundant, great; (n.) greatness, excellence, splendor, glory"; *me:l-ti- "chief, head; greatness, excellence"; S mah "to be or make great, magnificent; to be much, many"

(513)PN *mehy- "(to be worthy of) remark; remarkable" > PIE (4.) *me:-/*mo:- "great, considerable"; PAA *mah- "(to be worthy of) mention"; in Egyptian s-mj "to report [cause to be remarked]"; perhaps also in my, particle = "I say"[?]; Dravidian *me:-[l-]- "fine, good"; in *me:l-ti- "chief, head; greatness, excellence"; S me (for mi3, i.e. **m3) "to speak, to call" (source: PL *ME-HE)




(514)PN *maG-/*m6G- "to be of great influence, importance, or power; to be eminent, exalted, highly esteemed, glorious, illustrious" > PIE *meg[h]-/*mog[h]- "to be of great influence, importance, or power; to be eminent, exalted, highly esteemed, glorious, illustrious"; Kartvelian: Georgian magli "high, great"; PAA *mag-/*m6g- "to be of great influence, importance, or power; to be eminent, exalted, highly esteemed, glorious, illustrious"

(546)PN *mik'-/*mek'- "to exceed, to surpass, to be in excess, to grow, to increase, to swell, to expand; (adj.) big, great, much" > PIE *mek'-(/why not mok'-?) "big, great, much"; PD *mik- "to exceed, to surpass, to be in excess, to grow, to increase, to swell, to expand; (adj.) great, much, superior; (n.) abundance, fullness, excess, surplus"

(546)PN *mak?x- "(to be) full (of), (to be) large (with)" > PIE *meg(h)- "big, great"; Kartvelian: in Georgian magali "high, great"; PAA *mag- "(to be) full" in Egyptian mH "(to be) full" (source: PL *MA-K?XA-)

(514)PN *mak?xa- "(to be) completely full (of); (to be) amply large (with), great with" > PIE *meg^h-/*mog^h- (from **meghy-) "(to be) full of; (to be) large with"; PAA *maga- "(to be) completely full (of)"; perhaps in Arabic majaa "to speak and act inconsiderately (if = "to be completely full of one's self")"; in Egyptian mHj "to be drowned"; S mah "(to be) large" (source: PL *MA-K?XA-A)

And we must amend to include:

(Addition AA)PN *mayak?xa- "(to be) overly full (of); (to be) excessively large (with), excessively great with" > PIE *meig^h-/*moig^h-/*mig^h- (from **meighy-) "(to be) overly full (of), (to be) excessively large (with); to overflow; to urinate"; PAA *mayaga- (simplified to a triliteral root for Semitic: *maga[?]) "(to be) overly full (of), (to be) excessively large (with); to overflow"; perhaps in Arabic majaa "to speak and act inconsiderately (if = "to be overly full of one's self")"; in Egyptian mHj (for **mjHj) "to be inundated"; in Egyptian mH (for **mjHj) "manure"; PD *mik- "to exceed, to surpass, to be in excess, to grow, to increase, to swell, to expand; (adj.) great, much, superior; (n.) abundance, fullness, excess, surplus"; S mah (for **mh) "(to be) excessive[?]" (source: PL *MA-E-K?XA-A)




(545)PN *mag-(why not /*m6g-?) "young; young person, child" > PIE *mag[h]-, *mag[h]u- "young person, child"; PD *maka- "young person, child"



(545)PN *ma?ak?x "(to be) infant(ile)" > PIE *ma(:)gh- "infant"; in *ma(:)ghu- "infantile, young"; in *ma(:)ghos- "infancy"; PAA *ma?ag- in Late Egyptian mH (for **mjH) "child"; PD in *maG-l- (for **ma(:)k- + **-l-) "child" (source: PL *MA-?A-K?XA-(FA-)/(SHA-)




(537)PN *mat'-/*m6t'- "to be or become wet, moist" > PIE *mat'- "to be wet, moist"; AA *mat'-/*m6t'- "to be or become wet, moist"



(537)PN *ma?at?w "(water-)drop; to drip" > PIE *ma(:)d- "wet; to drip"; PAA *ma?adw- "(water-)drop; to drip"; perhaps in Arabic maDDa "to grieve (if = "to drip [tears]")"; in Egyptian mt.wt (for **mjt.wt [Coptic {S} matou]) "semen, seed, progeny, poison" (source: PL *MA-?A-T?O-)


DISCUSSION: There is yet another root based on Nostratic *mo?- dealing with '(large bodies of) water':

(530)PN *mar-/*m6r- "any body of water: lake, sea" > PIE *mar-i- "a body of water: lake, sea"; Afroasiatic: Egyptian mr "any body of water: lake, pool, cistern, flood, reservoir, stream, basin, canal"; PA *m:r- "river, water"



(530)PN *mo?arw-(/roy-) "bank (of any body of water)" > PIE *mo(:)r-i- "a body of water: lake, sea"; PAA *ma?arw- "bank (of any body of water)"; in Egyptian mr (for **mjr {Coptic [S] me:r, 'shore'}) "any body of water: lake, pool, cistern, flood, reservoir, stream, basin, canal"; PA *m:r- (from **mo:ri) "river, water"; PU probably in *mor(-)t3 "end, edge, bank"; PD *mur(-i)- (Starostin) "mud"[?]; S mul2,4 (for **ml2,4(u) "bank[?]" (source: PL *MO-?A-RO-[E-])






(Addition AB)PN *ma:th- "digging-stick" > PIE *ma(:)t- "(pick-)axe, mallet/stick"; PAA *mat- "stick"; in Egyptian mdw "staff, rod, *digging-stick"; PD *mat.- "stalk, branch"[?]; S in mad(-)lu "right-angled tool (if = "pick-axe")"; mat2 (for **md2), '**rod' (source: PL *MHA-THA-(FHA-)




go to Part Two











go to Nostratic Table of Correspondences ?





PL MORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS IN NOSTRATIC

(not included under lexical headings)

press here to see








to investigate these phonological correspondences in detail, see

TABLE OF PL / IE / AFRASIAN CORRESPONDENCES
TABLE OF PL / IE / ALTAIC CORRESPONDENCES
TABLE OF PL / IE / DRAVIDIAN CORRESPONDENCES
TABLE OF PL / IE / SUMERIAN CORRESPONDENCES
TABLE OF PL / IE / URALIC CORRESPONDENCES








NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS





For an explanation of the Proto-Language and Indo-European notational conventions used in these essays, press here.





Afrasian










PROTO-LANGUAGE MONOSYLLABLES

In order for readers to judge the semantic plausibility of the analysis of Proto-Language (PL) compounds suggested here, I am including access to a table of Proto-Language monosyllables and the meanings I have provisionally assigned.

Most assignments can be exhaustively supported by data from actually attested forms but a few animates are very doubtful; and this list does not represent the "final" solution of these questions, which will only be approached when other scholars assist in refining it.

Patrick C. Ryan

Summer 1998




ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY









the latest revision of this document can be found at

HTTP://WWW.GEOCITIES.COM/Athens/Forum/2803/NostraticDictionary. htm

Patrick C. Ryan * 9115 West 34th Street - Little Rock, AR 72204-4441 * (501)227-9947

PROTO-LANGUAGE@email.msn.com










select your own background music






1. Although Bomhard has chosen to include a limited amount of material from Eskimo and Kartvelian languages, those entries will not be investigated in this current work.

2. I am including Proto-Language forms in the examples I discuss. I am not going to argue for a wider inclusion of language-families with Nostratic into a higher grouping in this essay. I would hope that those who reject such an idea a priori would regard the Proto-Language forms as simply pre-Nostratic.

3.

To validate these correspondences of Nostratic t?o/t?so/tho/thso, we can propose: