Silver Lion Head from Ur

Sumerian Glossary(1)

by Patrick C. Ryan


currently under construction (1/13/2008) Copyright 2008 Patrick C. Ryan

IMPORTANT NOTE: Though I hope some will still find this glossary to be useful (it can be easily downloaded for off-line reference, or printed), the capabilities of the Sumerian Dictionary prepared under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania are so wide-ranging and impressive that I cannot neglect to provide a link. The originators have my sincerest appreciation. PCR 5/2005

| A | B | D | E | G | G[~]2 | (N)G[~]3 | H | I | K | L | M | N | P | R | S | Š | T | U | Z |

Ur Nammu, Third Dynasty of Ur

All available readings for Sumerian signs in Kurt Jaritz' Schriftarchäologie der altmesopotamischen Kultur (1967) are listed in the Sumerian Sign Value Register.

Arranged by the sign numbers from that register, Sumerian archaic sign forms where available courtesy of Dr. Antonio Reguera Feo, are displayed in Sumerian Archaic Signs.
The signs are also available in Sumerian Archaic Sign Table by pressing the corresponding number in that Table if the number is highlighted.
In this Glossary, subscripts within parentheses (2,3) indicate
multiple graphic forms presumably semantically identical.
Sign values in brackets [ ] indicate
commonest readings of questionable sign readings.
Syllabic signs used as grammatical formants are
linked to and explained in
Sumerian Grammar - 4 - Index of
Grammatical Formants
and Selected Vocabulary


(n)g[~]3ana2-ga: noun, hill country ('land' + 'milk')

(n)g[~]3ana6 [DARA4]: (see (n)g3anam6)

(n)g[~]3anam4: (see us5, u8)

(n)g[~]3anam6: noun, ewe

(n)g[~]3e26: (see ( n)g[~]3a2)

(n)g[~]3u4: noun, domestic ox, bull (regularly followed by ra2) (see gur(1,4))

(n)g[~]3u10: pron., my (probably better originally **mę, later ; see there)

(n)g[~]3ux: grammatical, also (see ga)

1. (n)g[~]3ud: (see (n)g[~]3u4)

2. (n)g[~]3ud(KU6): noun, carp (bullhead)

(n)g[~]3ud3: noun, nest


1. ha: grammatical, necessitative ('must') (see 1. ku6)

ha-al-ma: noun, vandals (ha-lam + nominalizer)

ha-la: noun, share (see hal)

ha-lam: verb, to ruin; to destroy (often with -ta-) (see hul(1,3))

ha-luh: (see hu-luh)

ha-za: verb, to hold, grasp; to retain

(URUDU)ha-zi-in: noun, ax

2. ha: noun, school (of fish)

ha2: adj., numerous; diverse; assorted; mixed

ha3: noun, ten (usually read: 2. u)

hab(1,2): noun, foul smell; resin

habrud: noun, cesspit; pit, hole; cave, cavern (hab, 'to stink' + buru3, 'hole' + de2, 'to pour; to fill' [?])

had(1,2): (see hada2)

hada2: verb, to shine brightly; to dry

hal: noun, crotch; secret; divination expert; portion, share (see ha-la)

halba(2,3): noun, frost, freezing

halbi(2,3): (see halba(2,3))

1. har: noun, ring; bracelet

(G[~]IŠ)har-har: noun, a musical instrument (reduplicated 'ring, bracelet) (see kikkin2)

har-ra-an: noun, road; Harran, a city on the route to the Mediterranean

2. har: noun, hand mill (saddle quern); loan; obligation; interest-bearing debt; liver, soul (see kin2, kikkin)

HAR-tud: noun, domestic servant ('debt; grindstone' + 'to be born')

hara: noun, miller

hara5: noun, spout; vessel with a large spout

harub: noun, carob

haš: (see haz)

haš(2,4): noun, lower abdomen; back; thigh

(G[~]IŠ)hašhur: noun, apple (?); apricot (?)

haz: noun, to break or cut off (twigs, branches); to thresh grain.

1. he: noun, to mix

2. he(1,2): noun, abundance

he2-g[~]al2: noun, abundance ('abundance' + 'to be available')

he2: (see 1. ku6)

(GI)henbur(1,2): noun, (green) reed shoots, stalks

henzer: noun, weakling; cripple; infant

hi: (see 1. he)

hi-li: noun, charm; luxuriance ('numerous' + 'fine oil [for li2]')

hi-a: (see ha2)

hilib: noun, netherworld (possible foreign loanword[?])

hirim: (see hirin)

hirin: noun, nard grass

hu: noun, bird (see mušen)

hu-luh: verb, to scare; to become scared, frightened ('birds/fish' + 'to sweep away')

hu-ru(-um): noun, idiot, hillbilly (Akkadian loanword [?])

hu3: (see ha3)

hub2: noun, acrobat, athlete; a type of weaver (?); a left-handed or ambidextrous person (?)

hub2-gaz: noun, slaughter

hubur: noun, netherworld

hug[~]: (see hu(n)g[~]3)

hu(n)g[~]3: verb, to hire or rent (someone or something); to introduce (to a job); to rest, repose; to abate

hul(1,3): noun, evil

hul-g[~]al2: noun, evil ones ('evil' + 'to be')

hul2: noun, joy

huluh: verb, to tremble; to be terrified; to terrify

hum: verb, to wrestle; to be passionate; to bruise, punch; to smash, break; to thresh grain; to paralyze

hun: (see hug[~])

hup2: (see hub2)

hur: noun, hole

hur-sa(n)g[~]3: noun, mountains ('holes, valleys' + 'points, peaks')

huš: verb, to be angry (see guz, huz)

huš-a: noun, something red ('angry' + nominalizer)

huz: (see guz)


i: verb, to capture, defeat, overcome (see e3, ed2)

i-i: (reduplicated i)

i-bi2[BIL]: noun, smoke ('to go out, rise' + 'to burn')

i-lu: noun, song, lament ('to go out, rise' + 'to multiply')

i-ne: grammatical, progressive/imperfective of plural transitive active marű verbs

i-si-iš: noun, complaint; lament (see isiš(2,3))

i-zi: noun, waves ('to go out, rise' + 'to rise, go out')

i2: (see ia(2,7,9))

1. i3: noun, oil, fat, cream

i3-ab2: noun, fat of cows, cream [?] ('fat' + 'cow')

i3-ab2-se3 -ga: noun, clarified butter, ghee ('cow fat' + 'to make flat [by boiling away the water]{?}')

i3-dug3(-ga): noun, perfume; good oil ('oil' + 'sweet')

(LU2)i3-duh: noun, janitor

i3-gu-la: noun, perfumed oil ('oil' + 'flax' + 'beauty, desire')

i3-g[~]iš: noun, sesame oil ('oil' + 'tree')

i3-ir-a: noun, ointment ('oil' + 'perfume' + nominalizer [?])

i3-ku6: noun, fish oil ('oil' + 'fish')

i3-lah4: noun, a profession

i3-nun: noun, clarified butter, ghee ('fat, oil' + 'noble')

i3-ra2-ra2: noun, ointment mixer ('fat' + reduplicated 'to stir, mix')

i3-šah: noun, pig lard ('fat' + 'pig')

i3-udu: noun, fat, tallow ('fat' + 'sheep')

2. i3: adv., non-concomitant time (far past or far future, distal), 'then'

i4: (see ia4)

i7: (see ida2)

ia(2,7,9): noun, five

ia3: (see 1. i3)

ia4: noun, pebble, counter

ib2: noun, middle; waist; loins; thighs

ib2-lal: noun, underwear [?] ('hips' + 'to hang, stretch, extend')

ibila: noun, son; heir, successor; inheritance

ibira: (see tibira2)

id2: (see ida2)

id(4,8) (see itud)

ida2: noun, river; main canal; watercourse

idi: (see itima)

idigna: noun, the Tigris river

idim: noun, spring, underground water; weight, mass

ig: noun, door, entrance

(G[~]IŠ)ig-šu-ur2 . . . DU: verb, to bolt the door

ig2: (see e, noun)

igi-4-g[~]al2: noun, Ľ

igi-6-g[~]al2: noun, 1/6

igira2: noun, heron

ig[~]2i: noun, eye(s); face; front.

ig[~]2i-du: adj., for a lead animal

IG[~]2I-G[~]AR(-m): noun, review, inspection, supervision

ig[~]2i-hul . . . dim2: verb, to put the evil eye (on someone) ('eye' + 'evil' + 'to fashion')

ig[~]2i-il2-la: noun, choice ('eyes' + 'to lift' + 'desire')

ig[~]2i-nig[~]in2: noun, treachery ('eye' + 'to wander, turn away')

ig[~]2i-nim: noun, upper country ('to face' + 'east')

ig[~]2i-nu-du8: noun, blind person - a slave ('eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open')

ig[~]2i-sig5: noun, pulverized (onions) (see mun-gazi)

ig[~]2i-še3 . . . dib(1,2): verb, to pass in front of/before ('face' + terminative suffix + 'to pass by')

ig[~]ar: (see eg[~]ar)

iku: noun, a surface measure of 3600 meters2 = 100 sar

il2: (see ila2)

ila2: noun, carrier

(G[~]IŠ)ildag(2,3): noun, a species of poplar tree

ili2: (see ila2)

illar: noun, (see illuru)

ilimmu: noun, 9 (i2, '5' + limmu, '4')

illu: noun, high water, flood; (amniotic) fluid; resin

illulu: (see illuru)

illuru: noun, throw-stick; javelin; bow

1. im: (see 1. imi)

im-babbar(1,2): noun, gypsum ('clay' + 'white') ]

im-gid2-da: noun, small, one column tablet ('clay tablet' + 'long' + 'side')

im-nun: noun, edge of the civilized world ('writing tablet' + 'great' [?].

im-šu: noun, paragraph, extract (on a tablet) ('clay tablet' + 'portion')

im-šu-gub: noun, list tablet ('clay tablet' + 'portion' + 'to write down')

2. im: (see 2. imi)

im-g[~]iri2: noun, lightning storm ('storm' + 'lightning flash')

im-hul: noun, evil wind ('wind' + 'evil')

im2: (see gim4)

imgaga(2,3): noun, husked (?) emmer wheat

1. imi: noun, clay, mud; tablet

2. imi: noun, wind; direction; weather; storm; cloud; rain (see tumu)

imin(2,3): noun, seven; innumerable; totality (i2, '5' + min, '2')

imma: (see enmen)

imma(2,3): (see enmen2)

immen: (see enmen)

immen(2,3): (see enmen2)

immin: (see enmen)

immin(2,3): (see enmen2)

immindu: noun, roasting, baking oven (or clay covering for baking bread in ashes (imi, 'clay' + ninda, 'bread')

in: noun straw; insult, offense, invective

in-dal: noun, chaff ('straw' + 'to fly')

in-nu: noun, straw ('straw' + nu2, 'bed' [?])

in(-še3) . . . dub2: verb, to insult; to taunt (with -ni-) ('insult' ( + terminative suffix) + 'to knock down')

inda: (see ninda2)

inda4: (see ninindu)

inim: noun, word; command, order; oath, agreement

1. ir(1,10): verb, to bring; to lead away (see ri6)

2. ir(1,10): noun, sweat; smell, odor, scent; perfume, fragrance

ir-si-im: noun, fragrant aroma ('perfume' + 'to fill up' + 'wind')

ir2: (see er2)

ir(3,11): (see arad(1,2))

ir11: noun, servant

isi: noun, pit; clay pit

isim(2,3): (see isimu(2,3))

isimu(2,3): noun, shoot, sprout; offspring, descendant

isiš(2,3): noun, moaning; laughter

iskim: (see g[~]iškim)

: (see iši)

iši: noun, mountain

išib: noun, exorcist or incantation priest

išin [PA.ŠE]: noun, stalk

it4 (see itud)

iti: (see itud)

itid: (see itud)

itim: (see itima)

itima: noun, cella, chapel

itu: (see itud)

itud: noun, moon; month; moonlight

izi: noun, fire

izi-gi6-eden-na: noun, shadow

izi2[KI-IZI]-ur5: noun, coal ('fire-place' + 'liver, soul')


ka: noun, mouth

ka-aš-bar: noun, decision (see eš-bar)

(G[~]IŠ)KA-dub2-ba: noun, a field tool (?)

ka-duh-a: adj. with open mouth ('mouth' + 'to crack open' + nominalizer)

ka-garaš2-a: noun, catastrophe

ka-guru7: noun, granary supervisor ('mouth' + 'silo')

ka-šakan: noun, supervisor of the fat stores ('mouth' + 'large oil jar')

ka-ta . . . kar: verb, to deprive ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to take away')

ka-ta-e3: noun, utterance ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to go out')

ka-tar . . . si-il: verb, to praise ('mouth' + 'to decide' + 'to split')

ka2: noun, gate

ka2-bar-ra: noun, outer door ('gate' + 'outside' + genitive)

ka5(-a): noun, fox

kabar: noun, shepherd boy

kad(4,5): verb, to tie, bind together

kad(6,8): (see kid6)

kadra(1,2): noun, gift, bribe

(G[~]IŠ)kak: noun, peg; nail, spike; bone; hinge, joint, knee

kal: (see kalag)

kala: (see kalag)

kalag: verb, to repair, mend

kalam: noun, the land (of Sumer); nation

kam(1,2): verb, to desire

kam2: verb, to change

kan(3,5): noun, apprehension, worry; affliction, trouble

kankal: noun, hard soil; uncultivated land

kar: noun, embankment; quay-wall; mooring-place; harbor; marketplace; port authority

kar-kid: noun, prostitute ('marketplace' + 'reed mat')

kar2: (see kara2)

kar3: (see gar3)

kara2: verb, to encircle, besiege; to impute, accuse; to shine, illuminate; to be bright (of light, day)

kara6: (see guru7)

karadin(4,5): (see garadin(4,5))

karaš: (see garaš2)

kas(1,2): noun, beer

kas4: (see kaš4)

kaskal: noun, expedition, caravan; road (kas4, 'to travel fast' + kal, 'swift')

kaš(1,2): (see kas(1,2))

kaš-de2-a: noun, banquet, libation ('beer' + 'to pour' + nominalizer)

kaš-gig2: noun, dark beer ('beer' + 'black, dark')

kaš-gig2-dug3-ga: noun, good dark beer ('beer' + 'black, dark' + 'sweet, fresh' + nominalizer)

kaš-kal: noun, strong (?) beer ('beer' + 'strong; excellent')

kaš-si4: noun, red-brown beer ('beer' + 'red-brown')

kaš-sur-ra: noun, pressed out beer ('beer' + 'to press; to brew' + nominalizer)

kaš3: noun, urine

kaš4: noun, speed; runner, courier, messenger; nonresident, non-citizen, tourist

kašbir: noun, small beer; sweet beer

keš2: (see kešda)

keš2-de6: noun, a fish measure ('to join, tie' + 'to carry')

keš2(-d): (see kešda)

kešda: noun, knot

ki: noun, earth; place; ground; grain

ki-a . . . su-ub: verb, to kiss the ground; to prostrate oneself ('ground' + locative + 'to suck')

ki-a-nag[~]: noun, death offering ('earth' + 'water' + 'to water')

ki-bala: noun, rebel land ('place' + 'to revolt')

ki-bur2: noun, solution ('place' + 'exposed')

ki-dul: noun, secret; obscure point ('place' + 'to cover, hide')

ki-duru5: noun, parts of the field where the ground is moist ('ground' + 'moist')

ki-e-ne-di: noun, playing ground ('place' + 'to play')

ki-en-gir: noun, Sumer ('place' + 'lords' + 'noble' {for gir15} [?])

ki-še3 . . . g[~]ar: verb, to fall/throw upon the ground ('ground' [ + 'onto' ] + 'to set')

ki-hul: noun, mourning rites

ki-in-dar: noun, hole, crevice ('ground' + nominalizer + 'to split') (see ki-dar)

ki-in-gi4-a: (see kin-gi4-a)

(LU2)ki-inim-ma: noun, witness ('man' + 'place' + 'oath' + genitive)

ki-lal: noun, weight ('place' + 'to weigh')

ki-lug[~]2al-gub: noun, royal place ('place' + 'king' + 'to stand')

ki-na2: noun, sleeping quarters; bed ('place' + 'to lie down')

ki-sa2-a: noun, socle ('place' + 'to compare with' + nominalizer [?])

ki-sikil: noun, young girl; virgin ('place' + 'pure')

ki-sug8: noun, fallow land

ki-sum-ma: noun, onion-growing land ('land' + 'onions' + genitive)

ki-šar2: noun, horizon; everywhere ('place' + 'totality')

ki-ta: noun, below ('ground {surface}' + 'from')

ki-tuš: noun, seat; dwelling place ('place' + 'to sit, dwell')

ki-umum2: (see ki-umun2)

ki-umun2: noun, "place of knowledge" (school) ('place' + 'idea, knowledge')

KI-UD(-k): noun, desert land ('place' + 'sun; dry')

ki-ur3: noun, territory; living grounds ('place' + 'roofs')

ki-zah3: noun, a sacred locality ('place' + 'to hide')

ki3: verb, to build; to make; to act

kibir2: noun, firewood, kindling

(GI)kid: noun, reed mat

kid(2,7): verb, to pinch off (clay); to remove; to divorce; to dispossess; to open

KID2-alam: noun, sculptor ('to pinch off clay' + 'statue')

kid6: verb, to weave a mat

1. kig[~]2: (see 1. kin)

2. kig[~]2(KU6): noun, a fish

kig[~]2-du3-a: noun, construction work ('tasks' + 'to build, erect' + nominalizer)

kig[~]2-gi4-a: noun, messenger, envoy ('messages' + 'to return' + 'the one who')

kig[~]2-sig: noun, evening meal; afternoon work [?] ('tasks' + 'late')

(NA4)kikkin [HAR]: noun, mortar

kikkin2[ HAR.HAR]: noun, milling; mill house (reduplicated kin2, 'hand mill')

kili3: (see kilib3)

kilib: noun, package, bundle

kilib3: noun, totality; star(s)

kilim: noun, herd of (wild) animals

kim: (see gim)

1. kin: noun, message, order; task, work

2. kin(KU6): noun, a fish

kin2: noun, hand mill (for grinding)

kinbur: noun, bird's nest or perch

kinda: noun, barber

king[~]2al: noun, commander, director (1. kin, 'task' + g[~]2al, 'big, great')

kingusili: noun, greater part; five-sixths (5/6)

kir: noun, cow of intermediate age

kir2: noun, a large vessel; beer keg

kir3: verb, to nip off (clay); (see kud, kid)

kir(4,6): noun, stream dam, weir (see kiri(3,4))

kir11: noun, female lamb

kiraši: noun, emmer wheat for making beer

kiri2: noun, rope

kiri(3,4): noun, nose; muzzle (of an animal) (see kir(6,4))

kiri4 šu . . . g[~]al2: verb, to pay homage to, to greet (dative) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to place on')

kiri4-zal: noun, joy ('nose' + 'to be full, abundant')

(G[~]IŠ)kiri6: noun, orchard, garden

kisal: noun, courtyard; weight measure (ki, 'place' + sal, 'spacious')

kisim(3,5,6,7): noun, milk-processing wasters; spoiled milk

kisim(1,4): noun, cheese maggot

kisim(2,3,5): noun, stable, pen

kislah(1,2): noun, empty lot; threshing floor

kissa: noun, supporting wall

kiš-nu-g[~]al2: adj. brightly lit

kiši: noun, chamber pot (see kaš3)

kiši4: noun, half; forelock (sign of a freeman)

kiši(5,10): (see kišib)

kiši(7,8,9): (see kišib(7,8,9))

1. kišib: noun, mouse

2. kišib(1,3): noun, hand; fist; seal; sealed bulla; receipt (see keš2, 'to snatch; to bind')

kišib-g[~]al2: noun, seal-keeper ('seal' + 'to have')

kišib(7,8,9): noun, ant

ku: verb, to base, found, build; to lie down

KU-KU: noun, ancestors (?) ('to found; to lie down' [?])

(DUG)ku-kur-du3: noun, a jar ('solid base' + 'mountain' + 'to mould, make')

ku-li: noun, friend; a capacity measure

ku-mul: noun, cumin (Elamite loanword [?])

ku2: (see gu7)

ku3: (see kug)

ku3-babbar: noun, silver ('noble metal' + 'white')

ku3-dim2: noun, goldsmith, metal worker ('noble metal' + 'to fashion')

ku3-luh-ha: noun, refined silver ('noble metal, silver' + 'to clean' + genitive)

ku3-sig17: noun, gold ('noble metal' + 'yellow')

ku3-zu: noun, expert, erudite ('bright' + 'to know')

ku4: (see kur9)

ku5: verb, to cut off (with -ta-); to breach (a dike); to separate; to levy tax or tribute; to curse (regularly followed by ra2) (see kir3, gur10)

1. ku6: grammatical, necessitative ('must') (see 1. ha)

2. kű6: noun, (shell-?)fish: possibly assimilation of kua)

6-a-de2: noun, fresh fish ('fish' + 'water' + 'to pour, water')

6-banšur-ra: noun, fish for the (offering) table ('fish' + 'table' + genitive)

6-dar-ra: noun, dried fish ('fish' + 'to slice [?]' + genitive)

6-il2: noun, fish delivery ('fish' + 'to carry')

ku7: (see kuruš)

ku10: (see gig2)

kua: noun, fish (ku2, 'food' + a, 'water').

kud: (see ku5)

kug: noun, noble metal; silver; money

kukku2 [MI.MI]: adj., dark

kul: adj., heavy; thick

kum: verb, to crush, bruise

kum2: noun, heat

kum4 [UD]: adj., a word describing bread and flour

kun: noun, tail; outlet, reservoir (of a canal); grasp

(KU6)kun-zi: noun, fish-pond fish

(G[~]IŠ)kun(4,5): noun, threshold; ladder; stairs

kung[~]2al: noun, fat-tailed sheep (kun, 'tail' + g[~]2al, 'big')

kunig[~]x: noun, refined asphalt, bitumen

kunin2: (see kunig[~]x)

kur: noun, mountain; highland; (foreign) land; the netherworld

kur2: noun, enemy

kur3: (see gur)

kur4: (see gur(1,4))

1. kur5: (see ku5, kud)

2. kur5: (see guruš(3,4))

kur6: (see kurum6)

kur7: (see kurum7)

kur9: noun, entrance

kurku(1,2): noun, bounty, abundance (reduplicated kur9, 'to deliver')

kuru5: noun, (see kud)

kuru7: noun, (see kurum7)

kurum6: noun, a basket of food-rations

kurum7: noun, lookout, spy

kurun(1,2): noun, a type of alcoholic drink; wine

kuruš: noun, sweet; plump, fat; honey (see kurušda)

kurušda: noun, sweet fodder (for fattening cattle); fattener (of cattle); stock-breeder

kuš: noun, skin, hide, leather

kuš-nag[~]: noun, leather water pail or hose or bag ('leather' + 'to drink')

kuš2: verb, to be tired; to be out of breath; to worry; to calm

kuš3: noun, forearm; ell, cubit = 15 barleycorns (še) = ˝ meter; channel

kuš6: (see kuruš)

kuš7: noun, devastation, destruction; valet, esquire, body-servant, boy

kušu: noun, herd of cattle or sheep

kušu(-ki). . . tag: verb, to crawl; to run

kušu2: noun, turtle (see ŠIM.UŠU2, where 'whale' may be meant)

kušum: verb, to scorn, reject, hurt; to abandon

kušumx [U.PIRIG[~]]: (see kušu)

kušumx(-ki). . . tag: (see kušu(-ki). . .tag)


(n)k2al: verb, to value; to be rare (see kalag)

(n)k2am(1,2): noun, grasp, grip


la: noun, abundance, luxury, wealth; youthful freshness and beauty; bliss, happiness; wish, desire

la-la: noun, joy; charms (reduplicated 'happiness')

1. la2: verb, to penetrate, pierce, force a way into (in order to see); to know; to look after; to have a beard (see lal)

2. la2: verb, to be high; to hold; to lift; to carry; to hang (from) (with -ta-); to weigh; to pay; to deduce; to strap, harness (with -ši-); to dress oneself; to place, set; to bind (a reed pillar); to stretch, extend, reach; to load; to lessen, be few, diminish; to accuse, denounce; to fall back, retreat

la2-ia3[NI]: noun, remainder of debt left over, difference, arrears ('to weigh; minus') (see lalla)

lag: noun, piece; lump, gob; clod

lag[~]: (see lag)

lagab: noun, block (of stone); trunk (of tree)

lagar: noun, temple servant

lah: verb, to dry out; to sparkle, shine

lah3: (see luh)

lah(4,5): verb, to drive off; to plunder, take away; to fling (away)

lahta: (see lahtanx)

lahtan(1,2): noun, beer vat

lahtanx: noun, a washing vessel (lah3, 'to wash' + tan2, 'to become clean')

lal: (see la2)

lal3: noun, honey; date-syrup

lal3-har: noun, mythological lake, pond ('honey; date syrup' + 'ring')

la(l)u(2,3,4,5,6,7): noun, debt, owed amount

lalla: noun, shortage, deficiency

lam: noun, abundance, luxuriance; almond tree; netherworld

1. lam2: noun, an awe-inspiring quality

2. lam2: noun, spouse

(UD)lama: (see lamma)

(UD)lamma: noun, a female spirit of good fortune; tutelary genius

(G[~]IŠ)li: noun, juniper/cedar tree

li2: noun, true measure; fine oil

libir: verb, to last long; to live long

libiš: noun, courage; anger; core, heart; family (from Akkadian libbu, 'heart' [?])

lidim: verb, to receive (in charity)

lil: noun, fool, moron

lil2: noun, breath; wind; infection; spirit (of a place)

lilib: verb, to steal

liliz: noun, a drum

lillan: noun, stalk with ripe ear of grain

lim: (see lima)

lim2: (see limmu(2,4,5))

lima: noun, thousand

limi: (see lima)

limmu(2,4,5): noun, 4 (see lam)

lipiš: (see libiš)

liri: (see lirum)

liru: (see lirum)

lirum: noun, physical strength

lu: noun, many, much; man, men, people; sheep

lu-ga: (see lug)

lu-gu2: verb, to twist

lu-ub2(SAR): noun, turnip

(KUŠ)lu-ub2: noun, leather bag ('abundant' + 'container')

lu2: noun, grown man; male; human being; someone; gentleman

lu2-erim2: noun, enemy ('man' + 'evil, hostile')

lu2-kal(-l): noun, dear one ('person' + 'precious')

lu2-kur2-ra: noun, enemy ('man' + 'strange, hostile')

lu2-ru-gu2-da: noun, ordeal (see ru-gu2)

lu2-su-a: noun, friend, acquaintance

LU2.ŠE: (see niga2)

lu2-šuku-ra-ke4-ne: noun, persons with allotted portions ('allotted portions' + genitive + plural)

lu2-u18(-lu): noun, mankind; human

lu2-u18-um: noun, name of a breed of small cattle (Semitic loanword [?])

lu3: verb, to disturb, agitate; to fluster, embarrass; to stir

lu5: noun, liar; lie

lud: noun, a small bowl; a pestle

lug: verb, to swarm (said of fish and birds)

lugud: noun, pus; serous fluid

lugud2: noun, short; short person (lu2, 'person' + gud8, 'short')

lug[~]2: noun, fault, error

lug[~]al: noun, king; owner, master (lu2, 'man' + g[~]al, 'big')

lug[~]ud (?): (see lugud)

luh: verb, to be clean; to clean; to wash; to sweep

lukur: noun, chaste priestess, nun

lul: (see lu5)

lulim: noun, stag, hart

lum: noun, fertilizer, manure; cloud

lum3: noun, a small pot

lumgi(2,3): (see ningi(2,3))

lunga(2,3): (see ningi(2,3))


1. ma: verb, to bind

2. ma(1,3): verb, to go

ma-da: noun, district (Akkadian loanword [?])

ma-la(-g): noun, friend (among females)

ma-mu2(-d): noun, dream

ma-na: noun, a unit of weight measure (Akkadian manű, 'to count')

(G[~]IŠ)ma-nu: noun, dwarf ash (?), cornel (?); firewood bundle

ma-sa2: noun, a basket

(G[~]IŠ)ma2: noun, boat

(LU2)ma2-DU-DU(-d): noun, barge captain ('boat' + ?)

(G[~]IŠ)ma2-gur8: a large boat; pot stand ('boat' + 'high, deep')

ma2-lah4: noun, sailor ('boat' + 'to drive along')

ma2-nisag[~]-g[~]a2: noun, boat with first-fruit offerings ('boat' + 'first-fruits' + genitive)

(G[~]IŠ)ma2-sag[~]-g[~]a2: prow of a boat ('boat' + 'point, head' + genitive)

ma2(-a)-si-ga: adj., describes products used to fill a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to fill' + genitive)

ma2-tun3[GIN2]: noun, asphalt specialist ('boat' + 'to bind, bandage')

ma3, pron., I (probably better reading for 1. (n)g[~]3a2)

ma4: verb, to leave, depart, go out

1. ma5: verb, to burn; to grind

2. ma5: (see mu3)

mabi(2,3): (see amagi(2,3))

madlu: (see mudla)

mah: verb, to be or make large

makkaš(1,2): noun, wailing; clamor

man: (see mana)

mana: noun, partner; companion; equal; two

mangaga: noun, palm fiber, bast

(G[~]IŠ / URUDU)mar: noun, spade; earthworm; wagon (from Akk. marru "hoe, spade" - Semitic root "to hoe, farm"[?])

mar-ru10[TU]: noun, flood (see mar-uru5)

mar-sa: noun, boat transport center ('to lock up' + 'to compensate')

(LU2)MAR-TU[KI]: noun, Amorite - Semitic nomad of the western desert ('wagon' + 'to be born')

mar-uru5[GUR8]: noun, heavy storm ('to immerse' + 'high, deep')

1. maš: noun, one-half

2. maš(1,2): noun, kid; he-goat

maš-da3: (see mašda)

maš-da-ra2-a: (see maš2-da-ri-a)

maš-šu-gid2-gid2: (see šu-maš-gid2-gid2)

3. maš(1,2): noun, interest (of a loan); rent; profit; yield (of a field)

maš-gana2: noun, settlement

maš2: noun, extispicy

maš2-anše: noun, animals ('goats' + 'equids')

maš2-da-ri-a: noun, offering ('goat kid' + 'driven [animal]')

1. mašda: noun, drawing; gazelle

2. mašda(1,2): noun, commoner; destitute

maškim: noun, inspector, monitor, sheriff (maš2, 'to inspect' + kig[~]2, 'work')

1. me: noun, ideal norm; office, responsibility, function; the phenomenal area of a deity's power; divine decree, oracle

(G[~]IŠ)me-dim2: noun, ship's railing (?)

me-en: phrase, one who is ('to be' + personal ending')

me-lam2: noun, splendor, light (myth.) ('area of power' + 'awe-inspiring quality')

me-li-e-a: noun, 'woe is me'.

me-te: noun, fitting thing; unique; ornament ('function' + 'to meet')

2. **mę: **my, our (probably better original form of first person possessive pronoun [singular and plural; but, for plural, see also **męn2], which developed into in analogy to second person possessive pronoun 2); currently read (n)g[~]3u10

me2: (see gi6)

me(3,6,7,9): noun, battle

me6: verb, to act, behave

1. mel3: noun, 'scorching' = heartburn (?)

2. mel3: (see g[~]ele3)

meli2: (see g[~]ele3)

men(1,4): noun, diadem, crown

1. men2: noun, both (see mana)

2. **męn2: **our (probably better reading of first person plural possessive pronoun); currently read me

3. men(2,3): phrase, who/which is

men5: (see mana)

mer(1,2): noun, storm wind; violent storm; north(wind); anger; belt, waistband; an encircling snake

mes: (see miš)

meš3: (see miš)

meze: noun, a type of drum

mi: (see gi6)

(G[~]IŠ)mi-ri2-tum: noun, a musical instrument (loanword [?])

mi2: noun, woman; female (see munus)

MI2-eden-na: noun, she-ass of the steppe ('female' + 'steppe' + genitive)

MI2-gir: noun, heifer, young cow ('female' + 'young heifer')

MI2-u8: noun, ewe lamb ('female' + 'ewe')

mi2-us2-sa2: noun, bride ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value')

middu(1,2): noun, mace (the weapon)

mig[~]ir(1,2): (see nig[~]ir(1,2))

min2: (see mana)

min(3,5,6): (see mina; mana)

mina3: (see mana)

mina(5,6): noun, 2

mir(1,2): (see mer(1,2))

miš: noun, young man; prince; son; elm (?) tree

mitum: (see middu)

1. mu: noun, name; word; year; line on a tablet

mu-gub: noun, assigned lines ('word, sentence' + 'to set down')

mu-lug[~]2al . . . pa3: (see mu-lug[~]2al . . . pad3)

mu-lug[~]2al . . . pad3: verb, to swear by the king's name ('name' + king + 'to call, swear')

(TUG2)mu-sir2-ra: noun, mourning garment

mu-tum2: noun, delivery ('name' + 'to bring')

2. mü: my (probably better reading of first person singular possessive pronoun, which developed from in analogy to second person possessive pronoun 2); currently read (n)g[~]3u10

1. mu2: verb, to sing

2. mu2: verb, to blow; to ignite, kindle; to make grow; to sprout, appear

mu3: noun, to mill, grind; to burn

mu4: (see mur10)

mu5: adj., well-formed, beautiful; plump, fattened

mu7: verb, to shout, scream, roar

mud: noun, heel; a right-angled tool

mud2: noun, blood

mud(3,4): noun, a large vat for beer

mud5: noun, exultation, jubilation

mud6: (see mu2)

mudla: noun, pole; stake (mud, 'a right-angled tool' + la2, 'to hang')

mudru2: noun, fuller; launderer

mudul: (see mudla)

1. mug: noun, chisel; poor quality wool; sty, eyesore

2. mug(1,2): noun, nakedness; pudenda

muhaldim [MU]: noun, baker, cook

muk: (see mug)

mul: noun, star; constellation; planet; meteor

mul3: noun, a destructive insect

mun: (see munu(1,3))

mun-du: noun, morning offering, delivery

mun-gazi: noun, spices; an industrial process of reducing the volume of goods by pulverizing until 'like salt'

mun4[ŠEŠ]: (see munux)

munsub3: noun, shepherd

munšub(1,2): noun, hair; hairy skin; pelt, hide; barber

munu(1,3): noun, salt

munu2: noun, a caustic salt

munu(4,6): noun, malt - soaked and germinated grain for use in brewing

munux: adj., alkaline, brackish

munus (Emesal): noun, female; woman

mur: noun, lungs

mur2: (see murub4)

mur(7,8): (see murgu(1,2))

mur10: verb, to clothe; to dress oneself

murgu: noun, dung (sheep)

murgu(1,2): noun, neck; back; shoulders

muru2: (see murub4)

muru(3,5): (see murum(5,11))

muru9: noun, fog, mist, haze

murux [GI.KID.MAH]: noun, reed mat

murub(1,2): noun, vulva; woman; sexual charm

murub4: noun, central, median area; waist, hips; in-between terrain; battle

murum(5,11): noun, brother-in-law

muš: noun, snake; reptile

muš(2,3): noun, diadem; a city's irrigated, cultivated territory; face, appearance, aspect

muš3 . . . de6: verb, to stop working; to cease

muš3 . . . tum2: verb, to stop working; to cease

muš4: noun, a biting insect

mušen: noun, bird (muš, 'reptile' + en, 'lord')

mušen-du3: noun, fowler

muššagana: noun, voracious hunger


1. na: noun, human being; incense

na-ag[~]2-gi4-in: noun, slavery ('human being' + 'to check, measure' + 'slave' [?])

na-gada: noun, herdsman

na-kab-tum: noun, cattle pen (Semitic loanword [?])

2. na(1,4): noun, pebble, stone; token; hailstone; weight

na(1,4)-ru2-a: noun, stele, dedicatory stone ('stone' + 'to erect, plant' + nominalizer)

na(1,4)-šag4-tug2: noun, stone weight for cloak ('pebble, weight' + 'inside' + 'cloth garment')

[(G[~]IŠ)]na2: noun, bed, couch

(G[~]IŠ)na2-gi4-rin-na: noun, divine bed ('bed' + 'fruit, flower' + genitive)

na4-šag4-tug2: noun, stone weight for cloak ('pebble, weight' + 'inside' + 'cloth garment')

na5: noun, chest, box

na8: noun, drink

(G[~]IŠ)nad3: (see na2)

nag[~]: (see na8)

nag[~]-ensi2-ka: noun, city ruler beverage ('drink' + 'city ruler' + genitive)

nag[~]-TAR: noun, drinking water reservoir ('drink' + 'to separate')

1. nag[~]a: noun, soda, alkali, potash (used as soap); an alkaline plant; soapwort

nag[~]a-gaz: noun, crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda, alkali' + 'to crush, powder')

nag[~]a-kum: noun, crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda, alkali' + 'to crush, bruise')

nag[~]a-si-e3: noun, alkaline plant ('soapwort' + 'antennae' + 'to go forth' [?])

2. nag[~]a: (see nig[~]in5)

nag[~]a3,4: noun, pestle

nag[~]ar: noun, adze, wood-chisel; carpenter; craftsman

nag[~]g[~]a: noun, tin, pewter

nam: noun, (area of) responsibility; destiny, fate, lot, sign; office; governor; province; used as a prefix to form abstract nouns, such as nam-lugal, 'kingship' or nam-mah, 'greatness'

nam-a-zu: noun, medical arts (abstract prefix + 'liquids' + 'to know')

nam-dam: noun, marital status (abstract prefix + 'spouse')

nam-dugud: noun, heaviness; importance (abstract prefix + 'heavy')

nam-dumu: noun, childhood, youth (abstract prefix + 'child')

nam-en: noun, lordship (abstract prefix + 'lord')

nam-gur4: noun, pride; feeling of importance (abstract prefix + 'to feel big')

nam-kalag: noun, strength (abstract prefix + 'strong')

nam-erim2(-bi) . . . kud: verb, to swear, confirm by oath ('destiny' + 'hostile' ( + its) + 'to cut')

PN nam-kur2-re: phrase 'may PN not change it'

nam-lu2-u18-lu7: noun, people

nam-lu2-ulu3: (see nam-lu2-u18-lu7)

nam-lug[~]2al: noun, kingship (abstract prefix + 'king')

nam-ra-ag: noun, prisoner of war, used for work (abstract prefix + 'to impress with a seal {or brand}')

nam-RI-HU: noun, bird breeding (?) (abstract prefix + 'to tend' + 'bird')

nam-šub: noun, incantation, spell (abstract prefix + 'to cast')

nam-tar: noun, fate (abstract prefix + 'to determine, decide')

nam-ti: noun, life (abstract prefix + 'to live')

nam-uš2: noun, death (abstract prefix + 'to die')

nam2: noun, understanding

nanam: noun, true measure

nar: noun, singer; musician

ne: grammatical, inside, while (correctly for de3)

ne . . . su-ub: verb, to kiss

ne-mur: noun, fire

NE-ra: adj. mixed, mingled.

ne-sag[~]: (see nisag[~])

ne3: noun, strength, vigor, violence; forces, host

ne4: (see 2. ni2)

ner: (see 1. nir)

neš: (see niš)

ni: pronoun, he, she; that one

ni-dub: noun, granary, silo

ni-gi4-ib2: noun, a resin

ni-ik-tum: noun, a resin (loanword [?])

NI-KUŠ-NIG[~]IN2: noun, a vessel

1. ni2: noun, self; body

ni2-ba: noun, by itself ('self' + bi, 'its' + a, locative)

ni2-te-na: adj. alone

2. ni2: noun, fear; respect; frightfulness; awe

3. ni2: (see ne3)

ni2-gur3(-r): adj. imposing, awesome ('strength' + 'to be full')

ni3: (see nig[~]2)

ni5: grammatical, nominalizes a marű verbal form for clauses of intention or purpose (correctly for de3)

nib: noun, cheetah; leopard

nidba(1,2): (see nindaba(1,2))

nig: noun, bitch; lioness

nig2: (see nig[~]2)

niga(1,2): (see nigu)

nigu: adj., fattened (e.g. oxen or sheep) (nig[~]2 , 'thing' + gu7, 'to feed, eat')

nig[~]2: noun, thing; treasure, valuables, property, assets; used as a first element in a compound forming concrete nouns

nig[~]2-a-ru: noun, a consecrated gift ('thing' + 'to give as a votive gift')

nig[~]2-ba: noun, gift ('thing' + 'to give')

nig[~]2-ban3-da: noun, a measuring vessel ('thing' + 'junior')

(TUG2)nig[~]2-bar a3(g2): noun, bed spread ('thing' + 'stretched out')

nig[~]2-dab5: noun, something held or for which responsibility is assumed; wages ('thing' + 'to hold, hire, receive')

(LU2)nig[~]2-dab5[-ba]-ke4-ne: noun, warehouse keepers ('thing' + 'to hold, receive')

nig[~]2-dag[~]al: adj. teeming ('things' + 'copious')

nig[~]2-dim2-dim2-ma: noun, created creatures ('things' + 'to fashion, create' + genitive)

nig[~]2-diri: noun, supplement ('thing' + 'addition')

nig[~]2-DU: noun, a length measure

nig[~]2-du3-a: noun, a measure for fruit

nig[~]2-en-na: noun, 'gentlemen's possession' ('thing' + 'lord' + genitive)

nig[~]2-erim2: noun, evil ('thing' + 'hostile')

nig[~]2-gig: noun, evil; taboo ('thing' + 'illness')

(LU2)nig[~]2-g[~]a2-g[~]a2: noun, a temple servant ('things' + 'to measure, check')

nig[~]2-g[~]iš-tag-ga: noun, offering ('object' + 'to make a religious offering')

nig[~]2-gu7-a: adj., fattened ('thing' + 'to eat' + nominalizer suffix)

nig[~]2-gu7-da: noun, nourishment ('thing' + 'to eat' + iterative)

nig[~]2-gu7-de3 : adj. comestible ('thing' + 'to eat' + iterative + locative-terminative)

nig[~]2-gur11[GA]: noun, property; property owner ('thing' + 'piled up')

nig[~]2-ka-bi ba-ak: phrase account settled ('thing' + 'count' + 'its' + modal prefix + 'to make')

nig[~]2-ka9[ŠITA5]: noun, account ('thing' + 'to count'')

nig[~]2-ka9-ak: noun, balanced account ('thing' + 'count' + 'made')

(TUG2)nig[~]2-lam2: noun, a dress ('thing' + 'an awe-inspiring quality')

nig[~]2-sam2-ma(-še3): noun, (for) purchase ('thing' + 'to buy, sell' + nominalizer [ + terminative suffix])

nig[~]2-si-sa2: noun, equity ('thing' + 'straight')

nig[~]2-ša3-gar-ra: noun, famine ('thing' + 'hunger' + nominalizer)

nig[~]2-šu-taka4-a: noun, objects that will be given away ('object' + 'to send, abandon' + nominalizer)

nig[~]2-tug2: noun, blanket (for an animal) ('thing' + 'cloth')

nig[~]2-tuku: adj. rich ('thing' + 'to have')

nig[~]2-ur2-limmu: noun, four-legged creature ('thing' + 'legs' + '4')

nig[~]2-zu2-gub: noun, food ('thing' + 'teeth' + 'to set')

(LU2)nig[~]2-ZUM-DIM4: noun, a temple servant

nig[~]g[~]i [ANNA]: (see nag[~]g[~]a)

nig[~]in(1,2): noun, enclosure, circle; a large vessel; capacity; whole (see kilib)

nig[~]in(2,3): noun, vertigo (as a disease); faintness, dizziness

nig[~]in3: noun, premature or stillborn child; malformed child; monstrosity

nig[~]in5: noun, district, province

nig[~]ir(1,2): noun, a bride's male attendant; herald, night watchman, town crier (probable conflation of separate words

nim: noun, prince; flying insect; highland; east; morning, sparkle

(G[~]IŠ)nimbar: noun, date-palm

nimen: (see nig[~]in5)

nimgir(1,2): (see nig[~]ir(1,2))

nimin: noun, 40 (ni2, '20' + min, '2')

nimur: noun, kiln; potash

nin: noun, queen, mistress, proprietress, lady; lord (?)

nin-dig[~]ir: noun, high priestess ('lady' + 'gods')

(DIG[~]IR)nin-kilim: noun, mongoose ('divine proprietress' + 'herd of wild animals' [?])

(DIG[~]IR)nin-ninna2(MUŠEN): noun, owl ('divine proprietress' + 'owl')

nin5: (see nimin)

nin9: noun, sister

ninda: noun, bread; bakery good; food; a length measure = 12 kuš3 = 180 še = 6 meters

ninda-bar-si: noun, a type of bread made with bar-si emmer wheat flour

ninda-durun-durun-na: noun, long-lasting (?) bread ('bread' + 'to dwell' + nominalizer)

ninda-gu: noun, a type of bread ('bread' + 'net' [?])

ninda-g[~]iri2: noun, a type of bread ('bread' + 'hemp = rope')

ninda-KA-gu7: noun, a type of bread ('bread' + 'mouth' + 'to eat')

ninda-kum4[UD]-ma: noun, a type of bread ('bread' + 'hot' [?] + nominalizer)

ninda-siki2[UD]: noun, a type of bread.

ninda-SILA2: noun, a type of bread ('bread' + 'liter')

ninda2: noun, flower; funnel; seeding apparatus of the seeder plow; bushel; breeding bull; fish roe; milt

nindaba(1,2): noun, food offering (ninda, 'food' + ba, 'to give')

nindu: (see ninindu)

ningi(2,3): noun, brewer

ninindu: noun, oven; stove (see immindu)

(MUŠEN)ninna2: noun, nocturnal bird - owl

ninni5: noun, a rush used in basketry

ninnu: noun, fifty (nimin/nin5, '40' + u, '10')

ninu: (see ninnu)

1. nir: noun, frog; omen

nir-pad(KU6): noun, a fish (?) ('frog' + 'bite, small repast')

2. nir: noun, prince, lord.

nir-g[~]al2: noun, noble ('raised high' + 'to be')

nir-gam(-m): noun, vault ('raised high' + 'to curve')

nisa(n)g[~]3(1,2): noun, governor; first fruits (offering)

nisi: (see nisig)

nisig: noun, greens, vegetables (ni3, 'something' + sig7, 'green, yellow')

nissa: (see nisig)

niš: noun, 20 (ni2, 'self, body' + , '1')

nita(1,2): (see nitah(1,2))

nita3[MUNUS-UŠ]-dam: noun, husband ('male' + 'spouse')

nitadam: noun, wife

nit(a)lam(2,3,4): noun, lover; honeymooner; first husband; spouse (nita(1,2), 'male, man' + lam2, 'spouse')

nitah(1,2): noun, male; man

NITAH-dun-gi: noun, a type of jackass ('male' + 'yoke' [?])

nitalam: (see nitadam)

nu: noun, image, likeness, picture, figurine, statue

nu-banda(3,5): noun, supervisor of works

nu-gig: noun, temple prostitute

nu-(G[~]IŠ)kiri6: noun, gardener

nu-me-a: phrase, which is not . . .; without ('not' + 'to be' + nominalizer; with -da)

nu-mu-un-su: noun, widow ('she has not replaced [her husband]')

nu-ra: adj. not stamped with a seal ('not' + 'to stamp')

nu-sig2: noun, orphan ('no' + 'wool [garment/blanket?]')

nu-zu: adj. ignorant ('not' + 'to know')

nu2: (see na2)

nu11: noun, light; fire, lamp

(G[~]IŠ)nud: (see na2)

nug: noun, a perfume plant

nug[~]un(?): (see numun)

numun: noun, seed; sowing; cornfield; offspring, progeny

(G[~]IŠ)numun-g[~]ar-GUL: noun, a part of the seeder plow ('seed' + 'to place' + 'to obstruct')

NUMUN-g[~]isal: noun, a tool ('seed' + 'rudder')

numun-sum-gaz: noun, crushed onion seed ('seed' + 'onion' + 'crushed')

(U2)numun2: noun, a type of grass (halfâ), rushes

nun: noun, prince, noble, master.

nundum: noun, lip (reduplicated tun3, 'lip')

nundun: (see nundum)

nunus (Emesal): (see munus)

nunus: (see nunuz)

nunuz: noun, egg(s); offspring; female (reduplicated nuz, 'egg')

nus: (see nuz)

nuz: noun, egg (see nunuz)


(G[~]IŠ)pa: noun, leaf, bud, sprout; branch; wing; feather

PA+DUG-um: noun, an allowance, payment

pa-e3 . . . ak: (see pa . . . e3)

pa-sa-lal-a: noun, a bundle of brushwood ('branch' + 'bundle' + 'to lift, carry; to bind' + nominalizer)

pa-TAR: noun, cut-off branches/twigs ('branch' + 'to cut off')

PA+USAN: noun, a shepherd (IE loanword [*pa:uson-, 'divine name', Indic Pu:SáN-, 'protector and increaser of herds'])

pa3: (see pad3)

pa3-da: noun, an occupation ('to find; to declare [for pad3-da]' + nominalizer)

1. pa4: noun, father; brother; man; leader

2. pa(4,5,6): noun, irrigation ditch, small canal

pa10: verb, to speak (loudly)

pab: (see pa4)

pad: noun, bite, small repast (regularly followed by ra2) (see bur, buru2)

pad3: verb, to seek; to find; to show, reveal; to choose, call, declare; to swear, take an oath; to choose out of (with ablative prefix)

pag: verb, to cage, confine (birds)

pal: verb, to curse

pala(2,3): noun, vestments, clothing (of gods and rulers)

palil(1,2): noun, advance troops, shock troops

pan: (see pana)

pana: noun, bow

pap: (see pa4)

**par2-ra: grammatical, prohibitive (exclusionary) modal prefix (see ba-ra above)

par3: (see bara3)

para3: (see bara3)

parim: noun, arid land; dry land (as opposed to marsh land or water)

pe-el: (see pil(1,2))

1. peš: noun, womb; palm frond; three

2. peš(1,7): noun, child; son

peš2: (see piš2)

(G[~]IŠ)peš3: noun, fig; fig tree

(G[~]IŠ)peš3-duru5: noun, fresh figs ('figs' + 'fresh')

(G[~]IŠ)peš3-had2: noun, dried figs ('figs' + 'dried')

peš(4,13): noun, river pebble

peš(5,6): noun, combed wool, fluff

pešx [KI.A]: (see piš10)

(G[~]IŠ)PI-apin: noun, a part of the seeder plow (barig, '36 liters in Old Sumerian period' + 'plow')

pi-il: (see pil(1,2))

**pi5: around (see bi2 above)

pil(1,2): verb, to be/make obscure; to be/make dirty, defiled.

piri(n)g[~](3): noun, lion (poetic); light

piri(n)g[~]2: adj., bright

pisag[~](2,3): noun, (open) basket; box, chest

pisan(1,2,3): (see pisag[~](2/3))

pisan-dub: noun, container for clay tablets (see g[~]adub; (LU2)ša13-dub-ba) ('box' + 'clay tablet')

piš2: noun, a type of edible mouse

piš10: noun, shore, bank

pu-uh2-ru-um: noun, assembly (Akk. puhru 'assembly'; see unkin)

pu2: noun, well, cistern, pool

pu2(G[~]IŠ)kiri6: noun, irrigated orchard ('well, cistern' + 'orchard')

puš2: noun, pain; tightness; difficult circumstances


qan(a)2: verb, to act justly; to stabilize, strengthen; to confirm; to establish something as the property of someone (dative).


ra: noun, inundation

ra-ah: verb, to strike [with a hoe]

ra(1,2)-gaba: noun, rider; courier (from Akkadian râkibu [?])

1. ra2: (see ri6)

2. ra2: (see ara4)

ra3: (see ara4)

rab: noun, fetter, shackle; stock; pillory

rag: (see ra)

rah: (see ra)

rap: (see rab)

re7: (see ri6)

1. ri: (see rig)

(G[~]IŠ)ri-gi4-bil-lu2: noun, a tool

RI-HU: noun, bird breeder (?) ('to tend' + 'birds')

2. ri: (see rig5)

ri6: verb, to accompany, lead; to bear; to go; to drive along or away; to stir, mix (see du, g[~]2in, sub2)

rib: verb, to be higher in rank; to go away

rig: verb, to bring; to tend; to pull; to glean

rig3: noun, mace, weapon

1. rig5: verb, to throw, cast; to place, pour, put into; to place upon or against (with -ši-); to touch; to moor a boat; to break open; to expel, remove, throw away, sweep away (with -ta-); to beget; to blow (said of a storm); to inundate; to exchange; to take; to gather, glean; to plan something

2. rig(5,7): noun, list; temple ward, slave

rim(1,3): (see erim2)

rim4: (see kaš4)

1. rin2: verb, to be/make bright

2. rin2: (see erin2)

ru: noun, present, gift

ru-gu2: verb, to withstand, to oppose (see lu2-ru-gu2-da)

ru2: (see du3)

ru3: verb, to be equal in size or rank

ru5: verb, to send forth shoots, buds, or blossoms; to butt; to gore

rug2 [{ NAM.}SU]: verb, to restore; to replace; to pay back


1. sa: noun, sinew, tendon; cord; net; mat; bundle; a string instrument

(G[~]IŠ)sa-bi2-tum: noun, a musical instrument (Akkadian Sabîtu 'gazelle' [?])

sa-gaz: (see sa(n)g[~]3-gaz)

(G[~]IŠ)sa-du8(-a): noun, a tool

sa-še3 . . . DU: verb, to roast

sa-ZI-ZI-a: noun, a trawling (?) net

sa-ZI-ZI-ŠE3: (see sa-ZI-ZI-a)

2. sa: verb, to fill up; to fill with (with -da-); to survey a field; to inundate; to be full; to be sufficient; to increase; to compensate, repay, replace; to grow weak (see sum, sug6, rug2, sig)

sa2: noun, advice

sa2-du(n)g[~]34 : noun, a capacity measure; regular offerings important to the temple economy

sa2-nig[~]in(1,2): noun, part of a harness (?)

sa2-pa: noun, part of a harness (?) = cheekpieces [?] ('guidance' + 'branch; wing')

sa4: verb, to name; to call by name

1. sa5: noun, red ocher

2. sa5: (see 2. sa)

sa6: (see šag5)

1. sa7: adj., well-formed

2. sa7(-g): (see sig7)

sa10: (see sam2)

sa11: (see su4)

sa12-su5[SAG[~]-KU]: noun, recorder

sabad(2,3): noun, hips, loins; middle

sad(2,3,4): (see sabad(2,3))

sag: (see sa(n)g[~]3)

sag(2,3): (see sig(3,11))

sagi [ SILA3.ŠUDU8]: noun, cupbearer

sag[~]2: adj., scattered

sa(n)g[~]3: noun, head; point; present, gift; slave; human, individual

sa(n)g[~]3-apin(-na): noun, plow guide ('head' + 'plow' [+ genitive])

sa(n)g[~]3-du: noun, skull ('head' + 'heap' [for du6])

sa(n)g[~]3-dun3: noun, land register manager ('head' + 'to set the warp' [?])

sa(n)g[~]3-gaz: noun, highway robber ('head' + 'to smash')

sa(n)g[~]3-gi6(-ga): noun, black-headed people; Sumerians ('head' + 'black')

sa(n)g[~]3-(n)g[~]3x . . . ak: verb, to pay attention (with -ši-) ('head' + 'toward' + 'to do', cf. g[~]izzal . . . ak)

sa(n)g[~]3-(n)g[~]3iš . . . ra: verb, to kill ('head' + 'toward' + 'to strike')

sa(n)g[~]3-kal(-l): noun, foremost; leader ('head' + 'excellent')

sa(n)g[~]3-ki: noun, forehead, face

(G[~]IŠ)sa(n)g[~]3-kul: noun, lock ('head' + 'thick')

(KU6)sa(n)g[~]3-kur2[PAP]: noun, a fish ('head' + 'strange')

sa(n)g[~]3-mi2: noun, female slave ('head; slave' + 'female')

sa(n)g[~]3-nig[~]2-gur11[GA]-ra(-ak): noun, capital on hand ('in front, at first' + 'what' + 'piled up' [ + genitive])

sa(n)g[~]3-nitah: noun, male slave ('head; slave' + 'male')

sa(n)g[~]3-sum-sikil: noun, bulb of garlic ('head' + 'garlic')

sa(n)g[~]3 u2-a . . . šub: verb, to hide ('head' + 'in the grass' + 'to drop')

sa(n)g[~]3-ur-sa(n)g[~]3: noun, eunuch; royal attendant ('head or slave' + 'warrior')

sa(n)g[~]3-us2: adj. constant ('point' + 'to be moored to')

sa(n)g[~]3šu: noun, cap, headdress (sa(n)g[~]3, 'head' + šu2, 'to cover')

sa(n)g[~]3tag: noun, pillow (?); wedge; triangle (sa(n)g[~]3, 'head' + tag, 'to hold')

sa(n)g[~]3a(2,3,4): noun, a sprinkler, used for ritual cleaning; a cultic functionary, priest; economic director of a temple

(G[~]IŠ)sahab(1,2): noun, bar, bolt (of a door)

sahar: noun, dust, sand, earth, mud, loam; rubbish; sediment (sa5, 'red-brown' + hara, 'crushed, pulverized')

(DUG)sahar2 [SAR]: noun, clay pot

sal: noun, uterus; vulva (see sila3)

sam2: noun, (barter), exchange; sale price; merchandise

samag(3,4,5): (see sumug(3,4,5))

saman(2,3): noun, yoke or rope (for an ox)

santak(2,3,4): (see sa(n)g[~]3tag)

santana: noun, herbalist, horticulturist

sar: noun, a surface measure of one square ninda = 36 meters2

sar-KA.SAR-KA.SAR: noun, a vegetable

sar2: (see šar2)

1. se3: (see sig(3,11))

2. se(g/k9)3: verb, to apply, put, place; to make flat, even; to sweep along; to do, cause; to surround; to compare (see sig3)

3. se3(g10): (see sig10)

se12(-g): (see sig7)

sed: (see še(4,5))

serim2: (see šerim(1,2))

ses: (see 2. šeš)

1. si: noun, horn(s); antenna(e); ray(s); light; plowland

si(g): (see si-ig)

si-ga: noun, silence (see sig5)

(G[~]IŠ)si-gar: noun, bolt

si-i3-tum: noun, balance owing carried forward from an earlier account (from Akkadian šiâtum, 'to leave behind', šittu, 'remainder, deficit' [?]) (see la2-ia3[NI])

si-ig: verb, to lower, place into the ground

si-il: verb, to split; to tear apart; to go away, absent oneself (see sila)

si-im-si-im . . . ak: verb, to sniff (see šim-im, 'an aromatic substance')

si-muš3: noun, shining horns ('horns' + 'to glisten, shine')

si-šuš-nu: noun, a sea creature

2. si: (see 2. sa)

3. si: (see sig9)

1. si3; (see se(-g/k10)3)

2. si3: (see sig(3,11))

3. si3: (see sum)

si4: (see su4)

si4-lum: noun, a garden plant ('reddish' + 'to grow luxuriantly')

si14: noun, a small pot

sibad: (see sipad)

sibir: (see šibir)

sidug: noun, ravine; pit; trap

sig: adj., low; late; small; weak

1. sig2: (see siki)

sig2-ba: noun, wool allotment, ration ('hair; wool' + 'share, rations')

sig2-babbar: noun, white wool ('hair; wool' + 'white')

sig2-ud5: noun, goat's hair ('hair' + 'she-goat')

2. sig2: noun, hair (of head, beard, body); wool; fur, hide

sig(3,11): noun, stroke, blow

sig4: noun, sun-dried brick; brickwork; wall(s)

sig4-ba: noun, turtle shell (?) ('brick; wall' + 'turtle')

sig5: verb, to be mild, sweet, good; of fine quality

sig(5,9): noun, silence

sig6: (see šag5)

sig7: verb, to live; to dwell; to let live; to create; to complete; to be/make pleasant or beautiful; to garden, pull out weeds; to tear out; to complain

sig7-bar-ra: noun, knot (?)

sig9: verb, to be narrow

sig10: verb, to subject, subdue

sig14: noun, wild mountain boar (see šah, šenbar)

sig17[GI]: noun, the color of the setting sun = reddish yellow or gold (see sig)

sigga: (see sig14)

si-il: (see sila)

sikil: verb, to be/make clean, pure

1. sil: verb, to praise; to recline

2. sil(1,2): (see sila)

sil(5,6): noun, pleasure, joy, bliss

1. sila: verb, to cut into; to divide

2. sila(1,3): noun, street; path; trail; road; market place

sila3: noun, measure of capacity = .0842 liter in the Neo-Sumerian period; measuring pot (si14, 'a small pot' + la2, 'to weigh')

sila3-ban3-da: noun, small vessel ('liter' + 'junior')

sila4: noun, lamb

sila4-ga-sub-ba: noun, milk suckling lamb ('lamb' + 'milk' + 'to suck' + nominalizer)

sila4-nim: noun, early spring lamb ('lamb' + 'early')

sila4-nitah: noun, lamb buck ('lamb' + 'male')

sila11: (see silag)

silag: noun, to knead (dough or clay)

silig: (see šilig)

silig2: noun, hand

silig(3,4): noun, sin

silim: noun, to be/make good, healthy (possibly Akkadian loanword)

sim: verb, to strain, filter; to sift (flour); to see through

sim2: (see sum)

simug: noun, metal-sculptor, smith

sin2: (sim)

sin2: (see sim).

sipa: (see sipad)

sipad: noun, shepherd; keeper

sipad-ama[-ŠA]-GAN: noun, shepherd of mother animals ('shepherd' + 'mother' + 'to bring forth')

sipad-amar-ru-ga: noun, shepherd of retrieved animals (?) ('shepherd' + 'young ones' + rug2, 'to restore' + genitive)

sipad-udu-siki-ka: noun, shepherd of wool sheep ('shepherd' + 'sheep' + 'wool' + double genitive)

sir2: noun, density

sir4: (see 1. šir)

sir5: (see zar5)

sisi (ANŠE.KUR): noun, horse (reduplicated si, 'to stand upright')

siskur(1,2): noun, offering, sacrifice with entreaties, prayers

1. su: (see 2. sa)

2. su: noun, body; flesh (see si, sug6, rug2)

su(1,3)-he2[GAN]: noun, a type of copper; slag; borax (?) powder

su-ub: (see sub)

su-zi . . . ri: verb, to scare ('gooseflesh' + 'to put into')

su-zig3 . . . ri: verb, to scare ('gooseflesh' + 'to put into')

(LU2)3. SU: noun, Subarian

3. su: (see sug4)

4. su(1,3): (see sud, sug4)

5. su(1,3): verb, to be/make remote, lasting; to stretch; to wag (a tail); to rejoice, feel delight; to sip; to sprinkle (liquids); to immerse; to sink; to drown

su2: (see zu)

1. su4: verb, to grow; to multiply

2. su4: adj., red

su5: grammatical, so, it follows that . . . (see ši)

su6: (see sul3)

1. su7: (see sug8)

(GI)su7-su7: noun, a basket (reduplicated 'threshing floor')

2. su7: (see sul4)

su8: (see sub2, sug2)

su9: noun, red ocher

su11: (see zu2)

su13: (see sud4)

sux[TAG]: verb, to spread (see sud)

sub: verb, to suck; to suckle; to bless; to pray

sub(2,3): (see sipad)

sub2: verb, to lead out; to stand; to travel (see du, g[~]2in, re7)

subar: noun, slave; Northerner (su, 'body' + bar6, 'bright, white')

sud: (see su(1,3))

SUD-la: noun, a quality of the ground ('to sprinkle, immerse' + 'freshness')

sud2: noun, to pound, crush; to gnash (the teeth)

sud4: verb, to prolong, lengthen; to give, present

sug: noun, swamp; flood basin; fertile land

sug-zag-gi4 . . . ku2: verb, to destroy ('swamp' + 'territory' + 'to surround' + 'to finish off')

sug2: (see sub2)

sug2: verb, to stand (see gub, sub2)

sug4: verb, to strip naked, lay bare; to empty

sug6: verb, to replace, return (a loan, etc.) (see rug2)

sug8: noun, threshing floor

sug[~]in: noun, rot, decay; past

suh(2,3,5): noun, confusion, disorder; encircling wall (see (G[~]IŠ)u3-suh5)

suhub(1,2) [MUL]: (see (KUŠ)šuhub(1,2))

suhub(3,4): (see (G[~]IŠ)sahab(1,2))

suhur: noun, hair, scalp; tree top; crest (see suhuš)

suhur(KU6): noun, giant carp, barbel

suhuš: noun, roots; support, foundation; to lift; support (see suhur)

sukkal: noun, messenger, courier, envoy, representative; minister, vizier

sukkal-mah: noun, vizier ('minister' + 'grand')

suku5: verb, to measure, distribute; to flare up, shine brightly

sukud: noun, height; depth

sul3: noun, beard

sul4: noun, threshing floor; grain pile

1. sum: verb, to give, lend (with dative)

sum-din: (see din)

sum-GUD: noun, a type of onion ('onion' + 'bull')

sum-sikil: noun, garlic ('onion' + 'pure')

sum-šag5: noun, a type of onion ('onion' + 'good, pleasing')

sum-tab-ba: noun, doubly bound sheaf ('to give' + 'double' + nominalizer)

sum-za-ha-ti: (see za-ha-ti)

2. sum: (see 1. šum2)

sum4: (see sun4)

sumaš: noun, a common marine fish

sumug(3,4,5): noun, mole; birthmark

sumun: (see sug[~]in)

sun: (see sug[~]in).

sun2: noun, aurochs cow; beerwort

sun4: noun, chin

sun5: verb, to enter (see kur9)

1. sur: (see zar5)

2. sur: noun, rushes

3. sur: (see šur)

sur2: (see šur2)

sur3: noun, ditch; drain

sur5: (see suru5)

sur(6,7): noun, height; depth; foundation pit

sur8: (see zar)

suru5: verb, to hang, suspend; to hover

susbu: adj., clean, bathed

suš: verb, to sit down; to reside (see tuš)

suš(2,3): verb, to rub, anoint (with oil)

su-ub: (see sub)

S (emphatic {dotted} S)

Sa: pron., you (singular and plural); probable better reading for za, properly **Su, which developed into Sa in analogy to first person pronoun ma

**Su2: pron.., you (singular and plural); probable better reading for za, which is properly **Su2

2: adj., your (singular); probable better reading for zu

2-nę-nę: adj., your (plural); probable better reading for zu-ne-ne


ša: verb, to dry up

ša-ga-ru: noun, a kind of copper

ša-ra-ab-du: (see šar2-ra-ab-du)

ša3: (see šag4)

(KU6)ša3-bar: noun, cleaned fish ('intestines' + 'to cut open, remove')

ša3-bi-ta: noun, therefrom; deducted from the state-bestowed capital debt (usually precedes account of credit transactions followed by zi-ga[-am3]) ('contents' + 'its' + 'from')

ša3-dub-didli: noun, recorded on an individual tablet ('contents' + 'tablet' + 'separate, individual')

ša3-dug3: noun, a term for young animals ('heart' + 'sweet')

ša3-ga-du3: noun, belt ('stomach' + nominalizer + 'to mould, shape')

ša3-gada-lal: adj. linen-clad ('midst' + 'linen' + 'to drape')

ša3-g[~]2al: noun, food, fodder ('stomach' + 'enlarge')

ša3-še3 . . . gid2: verb, to bear in mind ('heart' + 'concerning' + 'to pull')

ša3-g[~]ar: noun, hunger ('stomach' + 'to deposit', cf. šag[~]ar)

ša3-hul . . . dim2: verb, to grieve ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to make')

ša3-hul2-la: noun, delight ('heart' + 'to rejoice' + nominalizer)

ša3-ka-tab: noun, hunger ('stomach' + 'mouth' + 'to tremble; to make haste')

ša3-su-ga: noun, dry river bed ('river bed' + sug4, 'to lay bare, empty' + nominalizer)

ša3-zu: noun, midwife ('womb' + 'to know')

ša4:(see su9)

ša5: verb, to cut, break (reeds)

ša6: (see šag5)

(LU2)ša13[G[~]A2]-dub-ba: noun, archivist (see g[~]adub; pisan-dub)

1. šab: verb, to subtract, deduct; to snip out, chip out; to fall out, disappear; to apportion (lots); to gather up

2. šab: (see sabad(2,3))

šabra: noun, temple administrator

šag4: noun, intestines; gut; heart; stomach; abdomen; entrails; womb; midst, inside; bed of a river

1. šag5: verb, to slaughter

2. šag5: noun, good fortune; (divine) grace

šagan: (see šakan)

šag[~]ar: noun, hunger (see ša3-g[~]ar)

ša(n)g[~]3a: noun, captive

ša(n)g[~]3(n)g[~]3in: (see ša(n)g[~]3(n)g[~]3ina)

ša(n)g[~]3(n)g[~]3ina: noun, military governor

ša(n)g[~]3ina: (see ša(n)g[~]3(n)g[~]3ina)

šah: noun, domestic pig

šah-u2: noun, pasture grazing pig ('pig' + 'plants, grass')

šakan: noun, a large jar for oil

šakan-keš2: noun, basket weaver (?) ('large jar for oil' + 'to bind, wrap')

šakan2: noun, official in charge of expenditures - comptroller (see šaggina)

šakar: noun, milk jug

(DUG)1. šakir(1,3): noun, butter tub, churn; churning; pitcher

(U2)2. šakir: noun, henbane

šakira(1,2): noun, henbane (?)

šal: (see sal)

šal2: (see sila3)

šam2: (see sam2)

šandan: (see santana)

šapra [PA,AL]: (see šabra)

šar: (see sar)

1. šar2: noun, totality; world; horizon

(LU2)2. šar2: noun, a military officer

šar2-ra-ab-du: noun, a temple official (from Akkadian šarru, 'king' + abdu, 'slave' [?])

šar3-ra-us2-sa: noun, body guard (from Akkadian šarru, 'king' + 'to follow' + nominalizer) (see a2g[~]a-us2, 'policeman')

šar8 [NI]: verb, to interpret, explain

šaran: noun, tick, bedbug

šarin: (see šaran)

še: noun, barley; grain; a small length measure = 3.33 centimeter; 1/180 of a gin2 or shekel of silver (see še-ga/ge)

še-ba: noun, barley rations ('barley' + 'portion, rations')

še-ba: verb, to be careless, negligent (see šub; šab, 'to fall, disappear')

še-bal: noun, barley lost in processing; grain tax ('barley' + 'to demolish')

še-bi: phrase, value-equivalence in barley (used as a standard) ('barley' + 'its')

(G[~]IŠ)še-dug3: noun, 'sweet corn tree' = licorice tree (?) ('kernel' + 'sweet')

še-er-gu: noun, a long string of dried fruit

še-er-ka-an . . . du11: verb, to cover with; to adorn (with -ni-)

še-er-ka-an . . . du(n)g[~]34 : verb, to cover with; to adorn (with -ni-)

še-ga: verb, to be obedient; to obey; to agree (with -ši-) (see se3(g), sig10)

še-GAZ: noun, crushed barley ('barley' + 'to crush')

še-ge: verb, to be obedient; to obey; to agree (with -ši-) (see se3(g), sig10)

še-gibil: noun, new grain ('grains' + 'new, fresh')

še-gu-nu: noun, fine grains, good (bountiful) crops ('grains' + gunu, 'load' [?])

še-gub-ba: noun, barley deposit ('barley' + 'to stand, set' + nominalizer)

še-GUD: noun, einkorn wheat ('grain' + 'bull')

še-gur10-ku5: noun, harvest ('grain' + 'sickle' + 'to cut')

še-g[~]ar: noun, barley delivery ('barley' + 'to deliver, deposit')

še-li: noun, pine or juniper seeds ('grain corn' + 'juniper')

še-LU2: noun, coriander ('grain corn' + 'many')

še-muš: noun, bitter grain ('grain' + 'bitter')

še-numun: noun, seed ('grain' + 'seed')

še-ri-ga: noun, gleaned grain ('grain' + 'to bring')

še-sa: noun, roasted barley ('barley' + 'to roast')

še2: noun, portion

še3: grammatical, so, it follows that . . . (see su5)

še3 . . . g[~]ar: verb, to be/place in the hand ('hand' + 'to deliver')

ŠE3 -ba-an: noun, a measure for fish ('portion' + 'a measure'; cf. ba-an)

še(4,5): noun, cold water; coolness

še6:(see šeg[~]6)

1. še7: (see šeg[~]3)

2. še7: (see šeg[~](3,7))

še8: (see šeš2)

še10: noun, excrement, dung

še13:(see su9)

še(25,26) . . . gi4: (see sig4 . . . gi4)

1. šed: (see šid)

2. šed: (see šita5)

šed(7,11): (see še(4,5))

šedur: noun, caterpillar cocoon

šeg[~](3,7): verb, to rain

šeg[~]4: noun, frost; cold shudder, chills

šeg5: (see sig(5,9))

šeg[~]6: verb, to heat, cook, boil; to be hot

1. šeg[~](8,9): noun, snow; ice

2. šeg[~](8,9): (see sig14)

šeg[~]9: (see sigga)

šem: (see šim)

šem(3,5)(ZABAR): noun, tambourine

šembi: noun, kohl; antimony (as makeup)

šen: noun, a copper pan or dish; mirror (?)

šen-šen: noun, combat, strife (reduplicated 'mirror' or 'shield' [?])

šen2: noun, verdigris

šenbar: noun, a type of wild boar (šeg[~]9, 'boar' + bar, 'foreign' [?])

šer2: verb, to shine brightly

šer3: noun, decision

šerim(1,2): noun, a part of the loom - either the harness or the heddle

šerimsur: noun, caterpillar cocoon

šerin: (see šerim(1,2))

šes: (see 1. šeš)

1. šeš: noun, brother

2. šeš: noun, myrrh

1. šeš(2,4): verb, to anoint; to rub; to erase; to be dense

2. šeš(2,3,4): verb, to weep, cry; to mourn; to wail

ši: grammatical, so, it follows that . . . (see su5)

šib: noun, exorcism

šibir: noun, shepherd's staff; scepter

šid: (see šita5)

šid(3,4,5): (see 2. šita(1,4))

šidi: (see šidim)

šidim: noun, architect, mason (šid(3,4,5), 'to bind' + dim3, 'to build, make')

šika: noun, potsherd; shell; rind

šikin(2,3): noun, a jar for body oil, ointment, salve

šilam: noun, milk-producing mother cow

šilig: verb, to cease; to lay aside one's work

šim: noun, herb; aromatic wood; resin; spice; fragrance, perfume

šim-gam-gam(-ma): noun, an aromatic substance - turpentine (?) ('aromatic resin' + reduplicated 'to bend; to shrivel')

šim-gig: noun, frankincense - used in making medicinal plasters ('aromatic resin' + 'to be sick')

šim-im: noun, an aromatic substance ('aromatic substance' + 'wind'; cf. si-im-si-im. . .ak, 'to sniff')

ŠIM.KUŠU2: noun, ambergris ('aromatic substance' + 'turtle; whale [?]')

(LU2)šim-nag[~]: noun, spice drinkers (?) ('spice' + 'to drink')

šim-PI-PI: noun, an aromatic substance

šim-su-SA2: noun, cologne, perfume (?) ('aromatic substance' + 'body' + 'to equal, compete with')

(G[~]IŠ)šinig: noun, tamarisk

šip: (see šib)

šir2: (see šer2)

šir3: noun, song; lament

šir4: noun, testicles

šit: (see šita5)

1. šita: adj., clean; bathed

2. šita(1,4): noun, band; bond, tie

šita2: noun, mace

šita3: noun, channel, small canal

šita5: noun, measure; number

šita6: noun, a type of vessel

šiten: noun, course of march; passage

šitim: (see šidim)

šu: noun, hand; share, portion, bundle; strength

šu-a . . . g[~]ar: verb, to be/place in the hand ('hand' + 'to deliver')

šu-a . . . taka4: verb, to leave (something) to (someone) ('hand' + locative + 'to push')

šu-a-gi-na: adj. regular, daily offering ('hand' + genitive + 'steady' + nominalizer)

šu-bal . . . ak: verb, to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change' + 'to do')

šu-gana2: noun, agricultural tool ('hand' + 'field')

šu-gi4: adj. old(-fashioned) ('hand' + 'to return')

šu-gid2: noun, dues; general obligation ('hand' + 'to reach out; to measure out')

šu-ha: noun, fisherman ('hand' + 'fish')

(LU2)šu-i: noun, barber

šu-ki-in-dar: adj. full of cracks ('handful' + 'crevices')

šu-kig[~]2 . . . dab(1,5): verb, to perform a service ('hand' + 'order, task' + 'to hold/seize')

šu-la2-a: adj. entrusted ('hand' + 'to hold' + nominalizer)

šu-lil2-la2 . . . du(n)g[~]34: verb, to be haunted ('hand' + 'spirit of a place' + 'to order')

šu-luh: noun, ritual cleansing ('hand' + 'to clean')

(LU2)šu-luh-ha: noun, purification ritual man ('ritual cleansing' + nominalizer)

šu-maš-gid2-gid2: noun, diviner ('hand' + 'goat kid' + reduplicated 'to reach out')

ŠU-ME-EREN: noun, cypress resin

ŠU.NIG[~]IN: noun, grand total ('hand' + 'circle, whole')

ŠU+NIG[~]IN2: noun, subtotal ('hand' + 'circle, whole')

(G[~]IŠ)šu-nir: noun, emblem; totemic device ('hand' + 'to raise high')

šu-pi-il5-la2 . . . du(n)g[~]34: verb, to defile; to be defiled ('hand' + pil, 'to be/make dirty, defiled' + genitive + 'to order')

šu-ri-a: noun, ˝ ('hand' + 'to take, remove' + nominalizer)

šu-si: noun, finger ('hand' + 'horn, ray, antenna')

šu-suh3-a . . . du(n)g[~]34: verb, to be confused ('hand' + 'in confusion' + 'to order')

šu-še3 . . . la2: verb, to hold in the hand ('hand' + 'to bind, hold')

šu-še3 . . . lal: (see šu-še3 . . . la2)

šu-še3 . . . si: verb, to hand over; to deliver ('hand' + 'into' + 'to fill')

šu-tag . . . du(n)g[~]34: verb, to adorn; to decorate (with -ni-) ('hand' + 'to weave, decorate' + 'to order')

šu-ur2-me: noun, a resin from the cypress or Persian oak

šu-ur3-ra: noun, scraping or grinding by hand ('hand' + 'to drag over' + nominalizer)

šu(2,4): (see šuš(1,2))

grammatical, so, it follows that . . . (see su5)

2. šu(5,6): (see šuš(5,6))

šu12: (see šude3)

šub: verb, to cast, throw; to be cast; (with -da-) to drop, let fall; to fall (upon); to fell a tree; (with -ta-) to throw out, remove

šub-lug[~]2al: noun, subordinate of the king ('to delegate' + 'king')

šub7: (see šuba)

1. šuba: noun, a precious stone; a priest (see sipad)

2. šuba: (see sipad)

šubun: (see g[~]išbun)

šubur: noun, earth

šud3: (see šude3)

šude3: noun, prayer, blessing

šudu3: (see šude3)

šudug(1,2): noun, a reed hut for purification rites

(G[~]IŠ)šudul(2,3,4,5): (see (G[~]IŠ)šudun(2,3,4,5))

(G[~]IŠ)šudun(2,3,4,5): noun, yoke, crosspiece

šug: (see šuku)

(KUŠ)šuhub(1,2): noun, boots

šuku: noun, allotted food portion, ration, provision; allotted field plot (regularly followed by ra2) (šu, 'portion' + kud, 'to separate')

(LU2)šuku-dab5-ba: noun, person assigned to pick up allotted rations ('rations' + 'to hold' + nominalizer)

šukur: noun, spear, lance

(GI)šukur: noun, fence

šul: noun, young man; warrior.

šum: verb, to slaughter, butcher

1. šum2: noun, garlic; onion

2. šum2: (see sum)

šum4: (see sug[~]in)

šun2: noun, star

šur: (see šěr)

šur: verb, to rain; to produce a liquid; to flow, drip; to extract seed oil; to process wine and juices; to flash, gleam

šur2: noun, fierceness

šur2-du3(MUŠEN): noun, (trained) falcon ('fierce' + 'to work')

šurim: (see šurun)

šurin(4,5): (see šurun(4,5))

šurun: noun, animal excrement; stable

šurun(4,5): noun, cockroach; cricket

šuš(1,2): verb, to overthrow; to throw down; to go down; to set, become dark, be overcast (said of the sun); to cover (with -da-)

šuš4: verb, to fell trees; to chop away

šuš(5,6): noun, bedding, litter (for animals); feed, fodder (scattered for animals)

šušana: noun, sixth (part)

šušur(1,2): noun, stove grill

šutug(1,2): (see šudug(1,2))


1. ta: noun, nature, character

2. ta(1,5): (see )

ta6: (see taka4)

tab: noun, sting; fever; companion; pair

tabira: noun, metalworker

tag: verb, to hold, handle, touch; to weave; to decorate, adorn; to strike, hit, push; to start a fire; to fish, hunt, catch

tag4: (see taka4)

tah: (see tuh2)

tak4: (see taka4)

taka4: noun, to abandon; to disregard, neglect; to divorce; to leave with a person, entrust; to open (ta, 'to, from', + ge4, 'turn from, restore')

tal: noun, large jug

tal2: noun, understanding.

tal(3,4,5): (see til(4,5,6))

taltal: noun, knowledge, experience, wisdom (reduplicated tal2, 'understanding')

tam: adj., polished, shiny, reflective

tam2-še-lum: noun, a resin, perhaps from the boxwood

tan2: verb, to become clean, clear, light, free

tar: verb, to cut; to decide; to determine; to inquire; to smoke; to break, destroy

1. te: noun, cheek, chin

te-en: (see ten)

te-eš . . . du(n)g[~]34: verb, to put together (?)

te-g[~]e26(-d): verb, to approach, meet (someone: dative); to attack, assault; to be frightened (see te)

2. te: (see dig[~]2x)

te3: noun, an alkaline plant (?); soapwort (?); cardamon (see nag[~]a)

te8: noun, bearded vulture

te-en: (see ten)

temen: noun, perimeter; foundations; foundation-charter; foundation platform

ten: noun, cold, coolness

teš2: noun, sexuality, sex; shame, modesty

teš2-bi: adj., together ('to come together' + 'its')

tešlug: noun, small young animal, fledgling

1. ti: noun, side, rib; arrow (see dih, til3)

(DUG)ti-lim-da: noun, a vessel

(G[~]IŠ)ti-zu2: noun, barbed arrow ('arrow' + 'teeth; flint')

(G[~]IŠ)2. ti: noun, strut, brace, rib ('rib')

3. ti: (see dig[~]2x)

tibir: noun, carving knife

tibir(2,3,4,5): noun, hand; palm

tibira: (see tabira)

tibira2: noun, merchant, tradesman

tigi [BALAG[~].NAR]: noun, harp

tigi2 [ NAR.BALAG[~]]: (see tigi [BALAG[~].NAR])

tik2: (see dig)

til: verb, to be ripe, complete; to pluck; to put an end to, finish; to cease, perish

til3: noun, life

til(4,5,6): noun, cry, shout, scream

tilhar: noun, cloud

tilla2: noun, market place; crossroads

tilmun: adj., distinguished, respectful

tin: noun, life

tir: noun, forest, grove, thicket

titab(1,2): noun, beer mash = bappir mixed with munu4 and allowed to ferment

1. tu: verb, to interfere (see tud, tur5)

tu-lu: verb, to be/make loose or limp

2. tu: (see tud)

3. tu(MUŠEN): (see tur5(MUŠEN))

tu(2,3): (see tumu(2,3))

tu(5,17): noun,bath

tu6: noun, exorcism; exorcistic formula

tu7: noun, soup; soup pitcher

tu9: (see tug2)

1. tu10: (see 2. tun(1,3))

2. tu(10,11): (see dun)

tu12: (see tuku)

tu15: (see tumu)


tubx: (see tun)

tud: noun, to bear, give birth to; to be begotten; to be born; to make, fashion, create

tud-sum: noun, onion or garlic bulb for planting ('to beget' + 'onion')

tud2: verb, to spank; to cane

tug: (see tuku)

tug2: noun, cloth; cloth garment

TUG2-DU8: noun, textile fuller

tug2-gu2-lal: noun, blanket (for an animal) ('cloth' + 'back of neck' + 'to drape')

tug2-ib2-du3: noun, a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'waist, hips' + 'to mould')

tug2-nig[~]2-dun3-du3: noun, a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bring low' + 'to mould')

tug2-nig[~]2-lal: noun, a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to drape')

tug2-nig[~]2-lam2: noun, a festive garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'an awe-inspiring quality')

tug2-nig[~]2-sal-la: noun, a woolen garment

tug2-ša3-ga-du3: noun, cloth belt or woolen belted garment (?) ('cloth' + 'stomach' + genitive + 'to mould, shape')

TUG2-TAG: verb, to fill or pile cloth (?) ('cloth' + 'to weave; to strike')

tug2-TAR: noun, short-cut robe (?) ('cloth' + 'to cut')

tug2-ZI-ZI-a: noun, magnificent (?) robe ('cloth' + 'to spend' + nominilizer)

tug4: (see tuku4)

tugul: noun, hip, thigh

tuh2: noun, substitute, replacement

tuk: (see tuku)

tuk4: (see tuku4)

tuku: noun, creditor

tuku4: verb, to tremble; to be angry

(G[~]IŠ)tukul: noun, mace (thigh bone [?]); weapon

tukum: conj., if, in case;

tukumbi: noun, if, in case; please; certainly (usually followed by hamtu verb form)

tukumbi . . . nu: conj. except ('if' + 'not')

tukun: (see tukum)

tukur2: verb, to gnaw, nibble; silence

tul2: noun, public fountain; well; lowland; canal; cellar; worm

tum(1,2,3): (see tumu(2,3))

tum9: (see tumu)

tuma: verb, to break wind, emit flatus

tumu: noun, wind; cardinal point, direction

tumu-mer: noun, north, north wind ('wind' + 'anger')

tumu(2,3): verb, to bring; to carry away; to obtain; to be suitable; to prepare (see de6, lah4)

1. tun: (see dun)

2. tun(1,3): verb, to constrict; to defeat; to massacre; to break up, smash (see dun)

tun3: noun, wrap, bandage; pouch, case; stomach; lip

tur: noun, child; young (of herd animals)

tur-tur: noun, little ones (reduplicated 'little')

tur(3,5): noun, birth-hut; sheepfold; stable

tur5(MUŠEN): noun, bird of the pigeon and dove family

tur5[TU]-gur4(MUŠEN): noun, turtle (?) dove ('dove, pigeon' + 'plump, big')

tuš: noun, home


1. u: (see ha3)

2. u: noun, ten (see ha3)

u2: noun, plant; vegetable; grass; food; bread; pasture; load

u2-a: noun, caretaker, provider ('food' + nominalizer)

u2-du(-l): (see udul)

u2-durun-durun-na: noun, hay or dry brushwood ('grasses' + 'to dry out' + nominalizer)

u2-gid2-da: noun, long grasses ('grasses' + 'long' + nominalizer)

u2-gu(1,3) . . . de2: verb, to lose; to disappear; to be lost

u2-še3 . . . g[~]in / gub: verb, to go to fetch food ('food' + terminative + 'to go/to stand')

u2-lal3: noun, sweet plants ('plant' + 'honey')

U2-NINNI5 [TIR / TIR]: noun, a resin measured by volume

u2-rum: noun, private, personal (property) (see uru3[-m], 'to watch, guard, protect')

u2-sal . . . na2: verb, to lie down peacefully

u2-šim: noun, grass; pasture ('plants' + 'fragrant')

U2-TIR: noun, a spice or seed measured by weight

u2-tul: (see udul)

u3: noun, sleep

u3-gul . . . g[~]a2-g[~]a2: verb, to pray to; to entreat (with dative)

u3-gul . . . g[~]ar: verb, to pray to; to entreat (with dative)

u3-ma: noun, triumph

u3-na: (see u3-ma)

u3-sa2: noun, sleep

(G[~]IŠ)u3-suh5: noun, fir tree or wood

u3-tu(d): verb, to give birth ('to lie down' + 'to create'; cf. tud)

u3-ur5-re: noun, all this

u(3,4,8): noun, an expression of protest; cries, screams; the grunting, panting of battle; fight dispute

2. u4: (see ud)

u4-šu2-uš: adj. daily ('daylight' + 'to go down/become dark [šuš(1,2)])

u5: noun, male bird, cock; totality

u5-a: noun, lullaby

u6: verb, to be impressed (see ug6)

u6-du(n)g[~]34: verb, to admire ('to be impressed' + 'to speak')

u6[IG[~]2I.E2]-di: noun, admiration ('to be impressed' + 'to judge')

1. u8: noun, sheep, ewe

2. u8: (see us5)

u18 [G[~]IŠGAL]: adj., huge

u18 [GIŠG[~]2AL]-lu: noun, southwind [with classifier (IM), storm]

u18[GIŠG[~]2AL]-ru: noun, mighty storm (?) (see uru(2,5,18))

ua: noun, mother ewe, adult female sheep

ub: noun, corner, angle, nook; room

ub-ba . . . gub: verb, to deposit in the corner ('corner' + locative + 'to set')

ub-šu-ukkin-na: noun, assembly

(KUŠ)ub(3,5): noun, drum

ub4: noun, cavity, hole; pitfall

(LU2)ub5-kug-ga: noun, keeper of the sacred drum ('drum' + 'pure, holy' + genitive)

ubara: noun, patronage, protection

ubi(KU6): noun, a marine and fluvial fish

ubilla(1,2): noun, soot

ubur: noun, female breast, teat

ud: noun, sun; light; day; time; weather; storm (demon)

ud5: (see uz3)

udu: noun, sheep; small cattle; ram, wether

udu-dub: noun, tablet-recorded sheep ('sheep' + 'tablet')

udu-nig[~]2-gu7-a: noun, fattened sheep ('sheep' + 'fattened')

udu-nitah: noun, male sheep ('sheep' + 'male')

udu-sar: noun, a vegetable (?)

udu-siki: noun, wool sheep ('sheep' + 'wool')

udu-šag5-ga: noun, slaughtered sheep ('sheep' + 'to slaughter' + nominalizer)

udu-še-gu7-a: noun, (wool from) barley-fed sheep ('sheep' + 'barley' + 'to eat' + nominalizer)

udug: noun, pitfall; a demonic being

udul: noun, herdsman (udu, 'sheep' + lu2, 'man')

udun: noun, kiln (for pottery and bricks)

ug(1,2): noun, lion; anger, fury; storm

ug(5,7,8): noun, death; dead person

ug6: verb, to look at; to stare at, gaze

uga: noun, raven

ug[~]a3: noun, people

ugar: (see agar(2,3))

ugnim: noun, crowd; army; troops; work-gang; campaign

ugra: noun, reed bundle

1. ugu: noun, skull; top of the head; top side; upper part

2. ugu(1,4): (see ugun3)

ugu2 [A.KA]: noun, debits part of account tablet

ugu2 . . . ba-a-g[~]ar: phrase, to place in a person's debit account (see gu2-a . . . g[~]ar)

ugula [PA]: noun, overseer; captain; foreman (loan from Akkadian waklu [?] )

ugula-aga3-us2: noun, overseer of vassals ('overseer' + 'crown' + 'to follow')

ugula-ila2: noun, foreman of the porters ('overseer' + 'to carry')

ugula-uru: noun, captain of the city ('overseer' + 'city')

ugun(1,2): (see ugunu(1,2))

ugun3: noun, progenitor

ugunu(1,2): noun, decoration

ug[~]3: (see ug[~]a3)

ug[~]a3: noun, people

1. uh: noun, lice; insect, parasite, vermin

2. uh: (see lah)

uh2: noun, saliva, spittle

uhhur(2,3): noun, foam

ukkin: (see unkin)

uku(2,5): (see ukur(3,4))

uku3: (see ug[~]a3)

ukum: noun, dust (devil)

ukur2: noun, butcher (1. u8, 'sheep', + kur5, 'cut off')

ukur(3,4): noun, poor man; poverty

ukuš2: noun, cucumber

ul: noun, bud; flower; ornament; joy, pleasure, satisfaction; a unit of measurement

ul4: verb, to be quick; to hurry, hasten

ulul(1,2): noun, binding; harness; leash, chain

ulušin: noun, emmer beer

ulutin2: adj., attractive, attention-getting

um: (see umu)

um-ma: noun, elderly lady; witch

um-me-da: (see ummeda)

umah: noun, marsh, swamp (u, 'plant' + mah, 'high')

umbin: noun, nail; claw; talon; hoof; nail impression (on a clay tablet); hair pin; wheel (of a chariot, wagon)

umbisag[~]: noun, scribe (umbin, 'nail impression [on a tablet]' + sa(n)g[~]3, 'individual human')

ummeda(1,2): noun, wet-nurse; mammy

ummu3: (see (KUŠ)ummud)

(KUŠ)ummud: noun, (goatskin) water bag

umu: noun, old woman; nurse; wise or skillful teacher

umum: (see umun2)

umun: noun, title of respect (um, 'old woman' + un, 'people')

umun2: noun, mold; raw form or material; idea; knowledge; scholarship

umun(5,6,11): noun, (stagnant) pool; swamp; a swamp plant

umuš: noun, discernment; intelligence; reflection, consideration

un: (see ug[~]a3)

un-ga6-me: noun, menials

un-il2-me: noun, menials

un sa(n)g[~]3-g[~]i6: noun, black-headed people = Sumerians ('people' + 'heads' + 'black')

unkin: noun, communal assembly, folkmoot

unu(1,2): (see 1. unug(1,2))

unu2: ( see unug2)

unu(2,6)-g[~]2al: noun, great dining hall ('elevated shrine, fortress' + 'great')

unu6: (see 2. unug)

unu3: noun, feast; chief cowherd

1. unug(1,2): noun, dwelling; fortress; jewelry, adornment; cheek

2. unug [TEMEN.EŠ3]: noun, elevated shrine, temple

ur: noun, dog; carnivorous beast; servant; young man, warrior; enemy

ur-bi: noun, by itself

ur-gir15[KU]: noun, dog ('beast' + 'noble' ?)

ur-bi . . . gu7: noun, gather together to finish off ('by itself' + 'to eat')

ur-mah: noun, lion ('carnivorous beast' + 'mighty')

ur-sa(n)g[~]3: noun, hero, warrior ('young man' + 'first, in front')

ur-ur-a . . . g[~]ar: verb, to assemble a list, schedule, or plan ('servants' + locative + 'to set')

ur(2,3,4): verb, to surround; to flood; to drag (over the ground); often with -ni-); to shear (emphatic reduplication); (see gur10)

ur2: noun, floor; base; lap, loins; thighs, legs; root; trunk of a tree

ur3: noun, roof; entrance; mountain pass; beam, rafter (see ur(2,3,4))

ur4:(see gur(10,14))

ur5: noun, cry (see 2. har)

ur5 . . . aka: verb, to gasp

ur5 . . . ša4: verb, to roar, bellow (see še . . . ša4)

ur5-še3 : noun, debt with interest ('loan' + 'portion')

ur7: (see urum)

ur11(-ru): (see uru4)

urdu(1,2): (see arad(1,2))

urgu2: noun, ferocity, rage (ur, 'dog' + gu3, 'voice')

uri(2,5): (see urim(2,5))

uri3: (see urin)

urim(2,5): noun, doorpost (see uru3(m))

urin: noun, eagle; standard, emblem, banner; blood

urrub(1,2): (see zurzub(1,2))

ursub(1,2): (see zurzub(1,2))

uru(1,2)(KI): noun, city, town, village

uru(KI): noun, the city

uru-bar-ra: noun, outside the city, the countryside ('city' + 'outside' + nominalizer)

2. uru(2,5,18): noun, devastating flood; thunderstorm

uru3(mx): noun, watch fire; light; glow, luminous object

uru4: verb to plow, till, cultivate

uru6: (see urum)

uru7: (see urum2)

uru9: noun, stanchion, support

uru16: adj. huge

urudu: noun, copper; metal (uru3, 'glow' + du6, 'lump')

urudu-A-EN-da: noun, a type of copper

urug[~]2al: noun, the netherworld (uru, 'city' + g[~]2al, 'big')

1. urum: noun, spawn, fry

2. urum: (see murum(5,11))

urum2: noun, relatives, kin

us: noun, domestic goose or duck

us-ga: noun, a type of priest

1. us2: (see )

2. us2: noun, side, edge; distance; in geometry: length; height; vertical; perpendicular

us5: noun, mother ewe, adult female sheep

usan(1,2): noun, evening

usan3: noun, whip

usan3-mar: noun, wagon whip (?) ('whip' + 'wagon')

usar: (see ušar(2,3,4))

usu: noun, skill; strength

usug: (see uzug)

ussu(2,3): noun eight

1. uš: (see g[~]iš(2,3))

uš-bar: (see ušbar)

2. uš: (see g[~]eš(2,3,4))

3. uš: noun, foundation (see g[~]22)

2: noun, blood; blood vessel; death

3: noun, placental membrane, afterbirth

4: (see umuš)

8: noun foundation place, base

11: noun, venom, poison; spittle, slaver; moistening; spell, charm

ušar(2,3,4): noun, (female) companion

1. ušbar: noun, weaver

2. ušbar(1,3): noun, father-in-law; mother-in-law

ušera: noun, reed bundle (u2, 'plant' + šar2, 'to be many')

ušu: noun, a crop-devouring insect

ušu3: noun, 30 (5, '3' + u, '10').

ušu: (see ušum)

ušub: noun, basket

ušum: noun, dragon, composite creature

ušumg[~]2al: noun, lord of all, sovereign; solitary; monster of composite powers, dragon (ušum, 'dragon' + g[~]2al, 'great')

ut5: (see uz3)

utah: noun, dried, powdered milk

uttuku: (see nig[~]2-ka9)

utu: (see ud)

(DIG[~]IR)utu-e3: noun, sunrise ('sun' + 'to rise; to become visible')

1. utu2: noun a dish prepared with milk

2. utu2: (see utah)

utua(1,2): noun, breed ram; breed bull (udu, 'sheep' + a, 'semen; father')

utug: (see udug)

utul(2,7): noun, pot

utul(3,4,5,6,10): (see udul)

uz: (see us)

uz-tur: noun, duck ('goose' + 'small')

uz3: noun, she-goat

uzu: noun, flesh; cut of meat; omen

uzu2: (see a-zu)

uzu5: noun, evening, sunset

uzug: noun, tithe, tenth-part set aside

uzug(2,3,4,5): noun, menstruating woman; woman isolated after birth; person under a taboo


1. za: pron., you (singular)

2. za: verb, to make noise (occurs only as the verb in compounds with repetitive, onomatopoeic syllables symbolizing a repeated monotonous noise).

za-pa-ag[~]2: noun, sound; breath

3. za(1,2): noun, stone, rock; precious or semiprecious stone; hailstone; pit; kernel

za-ba-lum: noun, a variety of juniper (resin)

za-dim2: noun, stone cutter ('[precious] stone' + 'to fashion')

(NA4)za-gin3: noun, lapis lazuli; precious stone (in general) ('stone' + 'colorful')

za-gin3: adj. clean ('precious stone')

za-ha-din: noun, a type of onion

za-ha-ti: (see za-ha-din)

za-za-ga: noun, marjoram or oregano (?)

za3: (see zag)

za3-mi2: noun, praise

(G[~]IŠ)za3-mi2: noun, musical instrument

zabar: noun, bronze (za, 'stone' + bar6, 'bright, white')

zadim: noun, stone cutter (see za-dim3)

zag: noun, boundary, border, limit, side; territory, district; sanctuary; percentage; a measure for fish; shoulder; right (side); alongside

zag-bar: noun, (metal) quantity left over by cutting ('percentage' + 'to pare away')

zag-du8: noun, threshold ('boundary' + 'heap [for du6]')

zag-gu-la: noun, a type of chair (armchair [?]) ('side, shoulder' + 'large')

zag-g[~]2al-la: (see zag-gu-la)

zag-še(1,3): noun, strength

zah: verb, to be calm, tranquil

zah(2,3): verb, to flee; to hide; to abandon; to be lost; to perish (describes workers/slaves who have fled state control)

1. zal: noun, supply

2. zal: (see zalag(1,2))

zalag(1,2): noun, light, brightness

zanbur: adj., prowling, roaming; foraging (said of animals)

zapah: noun, span (a length-measure)

zar: verb, to tap, pour; to spout, flow; to exude; to spin (a cocoon) (see the graphically similar sign, sug8)

zar-re-eš . . . du8: verb, to pile up ('to flow' + 'toward' + 'to open, untie; residue')

zar-re-eš . . . sal: verb, to spread; to heap up ('to flow' + 'toward' + 'to be wide')

zar5: verb, to spin, twine (yarn or thread)

ze2: verb, to cut; to shear (see zil; ze2-er)

ze2-eb: noun, gladness (Emesal) (see dug3)

ze2-em3: verb, to give, lend (with dative) (Emesal) (see 1. sum)

ze2-er: verb, to tear out; to remove; to break (often with -ta-)

(G[~]IŠ)ze2-na: noun, palm frond ('to be cut, sheared' + 'individualizer')

zeh [SAL.AŠ2.GAR3]: noun, female goat-kid.

zeh-gaba: noun, sexually mature female goat kid ('female goat kid' + 'breasts')

1. zi: (see zid)

zi-ba-tum: noun, an aromatic seed (?)

2. zi: (see zig3)

zi-ga(-am3): adj., torn out, extracted, deducted; risen up ('to tear out; to rise up' + 'it is')

zi-re: (see ze2-er)

3. zi: noun, breathing; breath (of life); throat; soul (see zid, zig3)

zi-ša3 . . . g[~]al2: verb, to provide (someone: -ši-) with life ('breath' + 'inside' + 'to place')

zi-ša3-g[~]al2: adj. alive ('breath' + 'inside' + 'to be available')

4. zi: (see zil)

zi2: noun, stench; bile; bitter

zi3: (see zid2)

zib(1,2): noun, distinguishing mark; stamp, brand; color

zibin(1,2): noun, chrysalis, pupa; caterpillar

zid: noun, legitimacy, sanction; faith, confidence

zid2: noun, flour, meal

zid2-bar-si: noun, a type of emmer wheat flour

zid2-dub-dub: noun, flour for the best ritual actions ('flour' + 'to strew')

zid2-gu: noun, a type of barley flour

zid2-gu2-g[~]2al: noun, chick pea flour ('flour' + 'chick pea')

zid2-kum4[UD]-ma: noun, a type of barley flour ('flour' + 'hot' ? + nominalizer)

zid2-sig15[KAL]: noun, cracked barley mixed with wheat flour (?) ('flour' + 'pleasing; valuable')

ZID2-ŠE: (see dabin)

zid2-še-sa: noun, flour from roasted barley ('flour' + 'roasted barley')

zig3: noun, wall, partition.

1. zil: verb, to undress; to peel off; to pare, cut; to shell

2. zil: (see sila)

zil3: verb, to make beautiful, pleasing; to be loving, gentle, affectionate; to caress

ziz: noun, moth

ziz2: noun, emmer wheat

ziz2-AN: (see imgaga)

ziz2-babbar: noun, white emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'white')

ziz2-bal: noun, emmer wheat lost in processing ('emmer wheat' + 'to demolish')

ziz2-GU2-NUNUZ: noun, a form of emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'chick pea' + 'eggs')

ziz3: noun, a crop-devouring insect

zizna: noun, fish roe; abnormal growths on a fetus

zu: noun, wisdom

zu-ne-ne: adj., your (plural); probable better reading is 2-nę-nî5; see there

zu-a: noun, acquaintance ('to know' + nominalizer)

zu2: noun, tooth, teeth; ivory; flint, chert; obsidian; natural glass

zu2-lum(-ma): noun, date fruit

zubi: (see zubu)

zubu: sickle (zu2, 'flint; tooth' + bu(3,6), 'to pull, draw, cut off')

zubud: (see zugud)

1. zugud: noun, a kind of club; a fish

2. zugud: (see sukud)

zuh: verb, to steal, rob

zukum: verb, to trample; to walk on; to step on

zum: verb, to leak, seep, overflow

zur: noun, offering, sacrifice; prayer

zur-re-eš . . . du8: (see zar-re-eš . . . du8)

zurzub(1,2): noun, a container provided with teat-shaped protuberances

zur-zur: noun, (animal) nurse (reduplicated 'to tend, furnish, provide')

go to first 35+ root cognates (1-35) ?


(not included under lexical headings)

press here to see

For an INDEX(by entry number) of the Proto-Language, Indo-European, and Sumerian words discussed in these essays, press here.

to investigate these phonological correspondences in detail, see the



For an explanation of the Proto-Language and Indo-European notational conventions used in these essays, press here.

Combinatory Modifications

for modifications of the vowels and consonants in combination, see the

Table of Modifications

Summary of Phonological Changes

from Proto-Language to Sumerian


In order for readers to judge the semantic plausibility of the analysis of Proto-Language(PL) compounds suggested here, I am including access to a table of Proto-Language monosyllables and the meanings I have provisionally assigned.

Most assignments can be exhaustively supported by data from actually attested forms but a few animates are very doubtful; and this list does not represent the "final" solution of these questions, which will only be approached when other scholars assist in refining it.

Patrick C. Ryan

Summer 1998



the latest revision of this document can be found at

Patrick C. Ryan * 9115 West 34th Street - Little Rock, AR 72204-4441 * (501)227-9947

1. For additional detail on Sumerian verbs and some possible extra-Sumerian linguistic comparisons, see Sumerian Verbs.

2. This glossary has been compiled from many sources, some of which are probably antedatedly inaccurate. I welcome the new input from students of Sumerology and established Sumerologists to help make this glossary an online asset to Sumerology.