Reference Site Map
500 General science, science museums
500.2 Physical sciences
503 Science - Encyclopedias, Science - Dictionaries
507 Science - Experiments, (Scientific experiments)
507.8 Science projects, (Science fair projects), (School science projects), (Science exhibition projects)
508 Natural history
509.2 Scientists, (Astronomers), (Biologists), (Chemists), (Geologists), (Mathematicians), (Naturalists), (Physicists)
510.7808 Microsoft PowerPoint (Computer file)
512 Algebra, Number theory, Group theory, (Fibonacci numbers)
513 Roman numerals, Writing of numerals
523 Solar system, Asteroids, Planets, Stars, Sun, Meteorites, (Moon)
527 Latitude, Longitude, Nautical astronomy
529 Time, Days, Night, Week, Months, Calendars, Chronology
530.8 Measurement, Weights and measures, Metric system, Volume (Cubic content), (Cubic measurement), (Conversions)
535 Optics, Light
538.768 Auroras, (Aurora borealis), (Northern lights)
539.7 Radioactivity, Atomic theory, (Radioactive substances), (Radiation)
540 Chemistry, Chemicals
540.1 Alchemy, (Hermetic art and philosophy), (Transmutation of metals), (Philosophers' stone)
546 Chemical elements
551.21 Volcanoes, (Eruptions)
551.22 Earthquakes, (Seismography), (Seismology)
551.46 Ocean, Oceanography, (Oceans), (Sea)
551.47 Tsunamis, Ocean waves, (Earthquake sea waves), (Seismic sea waves), (Tidal waves, Seismic)
551.55 Hurricanes, Cyclones, Storms, Tornadoes, Typhoons, (Winds), (Twisters)
551.6 Weather, Weather forecasting
553.8 Diamonds, Precious stones, (Gemstones), (Jewels)
560 Fossils, Prehistoric animals, Extinct animals, (Paleontology)
567.9 Dinosaurs, Fossil reptiles
570 Biology, Life sciences
572.8 Genetic code, Gene mapping, Recombinant DNA, (Genome mapping), (Genetics), (Genetic disorders)
574.5 Endangered species, (Rare animals), (Wildlife conservation)
574.87 Cells, DNA, Protoplasm, (D.N.A.), (Deoxyribonucleic acid), (Desoxyribonucleic acid)
576.8 Evolution, (Darwinism), (Origin of species), Mutation (Biology), Natural selection
580 Plants, Botany
582.13 Flowers, (Roses)
590.72 Aquariums, Aquarium fishes, Aquarium plants, Aquariums - Equipment and supplies
591.77 Marine animals (Aquatic animals), (Marine fauna), (Marine zoology), (Sea animals), (Water animals), (Marine mammals)
595.78 Butterflies, Moths
597 Fishes, Sharks, Rays (Fish)
597.8 Amphibians, Frogs, (Toads)
597.9 Reptiles, (Turtles), (Lizards), (Alligators), (Crocodiles), (Snakes)
599.9 Anthropology, Human origins, (Hominids), (Origin of man), (Human paleontology), Physical anthropology, (Biological anthropoloy)
101science.com. Science learning center. Topics include: Amateur Radio, Biology, Chemistry, DNA Tutorial, Electronics, Mathematics, Microscopy, Micro-Photos, Photography, Physics, Radio, Astronomy, Robots, Science News, Space-Astronomy, and Transistors.
Access Excellence from The National Health Museum. Site for Health and Bioscience Teachers and Learners. Categories include: What's New (Science Updates), About Biotech, Classrooms of the 21st Century, Resource Center (Visual Library, Science and Math, Just for Students, Health Headquarters, News, Activities), and more.
BrainPOP.com - Science: How the World Works. Pick a movie to watch. While waiting for the movie to load, play the quiz game. Movie topics include: Atmosphere, Atoms, Batteries, Big Bang, Crystals, Desert, Dinosaurs, Eclipse, Electricity, Food Chain, Fossil Fuels, Gravity, Heat, Hurricanes, Insects, Jupiter, Land Biomes, Light, Magnetism, Moon, Natural Selection, Ozone, Periodic Table, Photosynthesis, Plate Tectonics, Rainbow, Rainforest, Relativity, Rock Cycle, Saturn, Seasons, Solar System, Sound, Sun, Temperature, Thunderstorm, Tornadoes, Tundra, Volcano, Water Cycle, Waves, Wind, and more.
CBC Health and Science News.
Coalition on the Public Understanding of Science (COPUS): Year of Science 2009. From astronomy to zoology we are all here - ready to support public understanding of the process and nature of science in an exploration of "how we know what we know." Scientific Themes include: Process and Nature of Science, Communicating Science Evolution, Physics and Technology, Energy Resources, Sustainability and the Environment, Ocean and Water, Astronomy, Weather and Climate, Biodiversity and Conservation, Geosciences and Planet Earth, Chemistry, Science and health.
Discover - Science, Technology, and The Future. Current and recent issues of Discover magazine, archive, science news, feature story, web picks, ask Discover, brain works, gallery, search the site.
Do-It-Yourself Science from California Science Center with fun science experiments and activities. Visit also the Science Arcade with fun games to test your science skills.
Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy, Scientific Biography, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. ASTRONOMY includes Atmospheres, Calendars, Solar Systems, Stars, etc.; Search the BIOGRAPHY of a Scientist under Branch of Science, Gender/Minority Status, Historical Periods, Nationality, or Prize Winners; CHEMISTRY includes Chemical Reactions, Geology, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, etc.; MATHEMATICS include Algebra, Calculus, etc.' and PHYSICS includes Astrophysics, Electromagnetism, Experimental Physics, Mechanics, Optics, States of Matter, Thermodynamics, Wave Motion, etc.
Everyday Mysteries: Fun Science Facts from the Library of Congress. All of the questions presented on this Web site were asked by researchers and answered by librarians from the Library's Science Reference Services. In addition, you are introduced to the Library of Congress' rich collections in science and technology.
The Exploratorium. A museum of science, art, and human perception located in San Francisco, CA. Includes over 10,000 Web pages and hundreds of sound and video files. Focus is on investigating science.
Facts Encyclopedia: Science and Technology from refdesk.com. A-Z list of science resources on the Internet.
For Kids Only: Earth Science Enterprise. How NASA studies Air, Natural Hazards, Land, Water, People. Includes NASA Educational Links (Ask the Experts, Activities and Games, Resources) and Teacher Guides.
Glossary of Scientific Terms from Jefferson Lab, Science Education. See also:
Internet Public Library: Science and Technology. Selected resources on the natural and physical sciences and their practical applications.
LiveScience - Strange News.
News in Science from Australia. Contents: All Science News, Health & Medical, Environment & Nature, Space & Astronomy, Ancient Worlds, and Innovation & Technology.
Resources for the History of Physics & Allied Fields. Contents: History of Physics, People (Nobel Prizes in Physics, Notable Geophysicists, Contributions of Women, Physicists on the Money (banknote), Albert Einstein, Andrei Sakharov, etc.), History of Astronomy/Space Science/Geophysics, History of Institutions (mainly physics), Photo Archives, General History - General Physics, History of Science Links, History of Science Community, and Archival Resources (U.S., UK, Europe, Russia, Australia).
ScienceDaily. Science Daily Magazine provides news about the latest discoveries and hottest research projects in everything science from astrophysics to zoology. The Breaking News page is updated every 15 minutes. Browse News by Topics. Includes a number of science Encyclopedias.
Science & Nature from BBC. Contents include Animals, Prehistoric Life, Human Body & Mind, Genes, Space, Hot Topics, TV & Radio Follow-up.
Science Engineering and Technology Timeline from Intute - predecessor sites (EEVL, GEsource and PSIgate) together make up Intute.
Science.gov is a gateway to over 50 million pages of authoritative selected science information provided by U.S. government agencies.
Science News for Kids. Categories covered in Article Archive: Agriculture, Animals, Behavior, Chemistry and Materials, Computers, Dinosaurs and Fossils, Earth, Environment, Finding the Past, Food and Nutrition, Human Body, Mathematics, Physics, Plants, Space and Astronomy, Technology and Engineering, Transportation, and Weather.
Science Q & A from New York Times.
Scientific American. Each month, at least two major articles in their entirety are included in the current issue. Each week breaking news stories are tracked and links provided to related sites. Features: Interview (with scientists), Ask the Experts, Bookmarks, Explore! Past issues, Marketplace and more.
Scientific American: Science & Technology Web Awards 2005. 25 favorite sites selected by Scientific American editors. See also archives of best sci/tech sites from 2004, 2003, 2002, and 2001.
Try Science. Gateway to experience contemporary science and technology through interactivity with 400 science and technology centers worldwide.
Yahoo! Directory > Science.
Intute: Science, Engineering and Technology. A free online service providing access to the very best Web resources for education and research, evaluated and selected by a network of subject specialists. Covers physical sciences, engineering, computing, geography, mathematics and environmental science. Database currently contains 33203 records.
Physical science from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Contents include: Basic principles of the physical sciences: Basic principles of astronomy, Basic principles of chemistry, Basic principles of earth science, Basic principles of physics. Notable physical scientists.
The Physical Sciences Resource Center from American Association of Physics Teachers. Browse Resources by subject, grade, and/or type.
Dennis Kunkel Microscopy. Scientific Stock Photography Through the Microscope. Image gallery, most wanted bugs, about microscopy.
Electron Microscopy. What are Electron Microscopes? Where did Electron Microscopes Come From? How do Electron Microscopes Work? See also Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) from University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
How Do Microscopes Work? from Spike's Science Projects.
How Light Microscopes Work: The Basics, Image Quality, Types of Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy ... by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D. - from How Stuff Works.
The Microscope: A Bit of History. How It Works. Microscope Facts. From YES Mag: Canada's Science Magazine for Kids.
Microscope Lab. A microscope directory and microscope resource site.
Online Medical & Science Dictionaries from
MedBioWorld containing 25,000 links to journals, associations and databases.
I. General Dictionaries & Reference Tools
II. Medical Glossaries
III. Bioscience Glossaries
IV. Computer Science Glossaries.
Reeko's Mad Scientist Lab. Free science experiments for parents, teachers, and children K-12.
Science Experiments for Kids from A to Z Homes's Cool Homeschooling. Contents: Astronomy for Kids, Biology Experiments for Kids, Chemistry Experiments for Kids, Earth Science Experiments for Kids, and Physics Experiments for Kids.
Science Experiments You Can Do. Simple experiments include: making a lumia box, chemical volcano, slime, sound experiments, dry ice experiments, laser activities, animation devices, and others.
Science Made Simple. Science Projects for Children, Science Help for Parents: What is static electricity? Why is the sky blue? and other elementary school science projects and experiments.
Agricultural Ideas for Science Fair Projects. What Is a Science Project? More Agricultural Science Fair Project Ideas from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service.
Biology Science Fair Project Ideas: Animal Projects from About.com.
Crystal Clear Science Fair Projects. Contents include:
Projects from YES Mag - Canada's Science Magazine for Kids. Science projects include: Balloon Rockets, Crazy Chemical Pie, Dracula's Dinner, Leaning Tower of Pasta, Lightning in a Pan, Make Your Own Mummy, Marshmallow Madness, Volcano in a Bottle, and more.
Science Fair Central from DiscoverySchool.com. Includes Science Fair Project Ideas.
Science Fair Project Resource Guide from Internet Public Library, IPL Kidspace.
Science Fair Projects World. Illustrated Science Fair Ideas for Elementary, Middle & High School Projects. Categories: Biology (currently empty), Chemistry, Physics, Math, Technology, Human Body.
Super Science Fair Projects. Guide to projects, topics, experiments and ideas. Includes a Step-by-Step Outline and links.
The Ultimate Science Fair Resource. Guide for students on how to do science fair projects. Includes: Project Steps, Hints, Scientific Method, Writing Reports, and Display Boards. Resources include: Idea Bank, Idea Board, and links to Science Research of the WWW.
Yahoo Kids! Directory: Science Fairs.
American Museum of Natural History. Numerous color photographs from research expeditions by scientists from AMNH. Explore show cases, visit fossil halls, mammal halls, biodiversity, bird halls, and other halls. View virtual diorama of Bison & Pronghorn. Includes an extensive search engine.
4000 Years of Women in Science Biography Listing in alphabetical order by last names. See also Listing by Century of Birth, and Listing by Discipline.
Biographies. The Scientists.
The Case Files. Presentation of The Franklin Institute's Case Files highlights individuals from the history of science and technology including: Herman Hollerith, Orville Wright, Henry Ford, Albert Einstein, Nikola Tesla, Marie Curie, Thomas A. Edison, and many others.
Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography. Scientists include: Astronomers, Biochemists, Biologists, Chemists, Engineers, Geneticists, Geologists, Mathematicians, Microbiologists, Physicians, Physicists, Physiologists, and others.
The Faces of Science Gallery.
Famous Physicists and Astronomers. Including: Nicolaus Copernicus, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Michael Faraday, Stephen Hawking, Edwin Powell Hubble, Sir Isaac Newton, Blaise Pascal, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, and others.
Newton's Castle. Explore this site to learn about Sir Isaac Newton's discoveries and secret life. Learn about color, optical illusions, observations from nature and fascinating facts about how cars roll up hill and why dogs chase cars. Try this short Quiz - Correct responses and explanations provided after you submit your test answers.
People and Discoveries: A Science Odyssey from PBS. Contents: Frederick Banting (developer of insulin), Christiaan Barnard (pioneering heart-transplant surgeon), Charles Best (co-developer of insulin), Niels Bohr (atomic physicist), Francis Crick (solver of the puzzle of DNA), Alexander Fleming (discoverer of penicillin), Abraham Maslow (theorist of humanistic psychology), Grace Murray Hopper (developer of computer language), Guglielmo Marconi (radio transmission pioneer), J. Robert Oppenheimer (atomic physicist and theoritician of astronomical phenomena), Ivan Pavlov (investigator of animal behavior), and others.
Scientific Identity: A Smithsonian Institution Libraries Digital Collection. Portraits of scientists from the Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology. Browse Alphabetically by Scientists' Last Names, Select a Specific Scientist, Keyword Search of Scientist Names, or Browse by Research Discipline: Aeronautics - Zoology.
AllMath.com. Site provides Math Tools (Flash Cards, Metric Converter), Math Games, Math Reference Pages (Biographies, Glossary, Multiplication Table), Resources, e.g. Career Exploration, Math Humor, Algebra, Calculus, Geometry, Trigonometry, Lesson Plans and Tutorial.
Ask Dr. Math. Have a K-12 math question? A Math Forum Project, Dr. Math is staffed by math students at Swarthmore College. A searchable archive of questions/answers is available by level, topic and summaries.
Biographies of Mathematicians - Full Alphabetical Index. Excellent resources from University of St. Andrews, Scotland. See also Indexes of Biographies - Alphabetical indexes and Chronological indexes (-500 AD to 1957), Female Mathematicians, and a Full Chronological Index.
Calculator Menu from WebCalc covering: Math - Algebra, Geometry, Trig, Statistics, plus Misc. Math (Calculator Alphabet, Factors, Fibonacci Sequence, Fractal Tree, Absolute Value, Divisibility Test, Percent of Change, and Loggarithm).
Cardinal, Ordinal, and Nominal Numbers from Fact Monster. A cardinal number tells "how many." Ordinal numbers tell the order of things in a set—first, second, third, etc. A nominal number names something—a telephone number, a player on a team.
CuriousMath.com: Math is an attitude. Site contains fun and fascinating math tricks and trivia.
EqWorld - The World of Mathematical Equations. Extensive information on algebraic, ordinary differential, partial differential (mathematical physics), integral, functional, and other mathematical equations. Outlines exact solutions and some methods for solving equations, includes interesting articles, links to math websites, useful handbooks, textbooks, journals, etc. Site contains over 1200 web pages.
Ethnomathematics Digital Library (EDL) - A program of Pacific Resources for Education and learning. A resource network and interactive learning community for ethnomathematics, with emphasis on the indigenous mathematics of the Pacific region. Browse database of over 500 items by subject, geographical area, cultural group, or language.
Flash Fabrica from Japan. Test your memory and find out how old is your brain. Click "START"; Wait for countdown 3, 2, 1; Memorize positions of numbers; Click circles from SMALLEST to BIGGEST number. Computer will tell you the age of your brain.
Fun with Figures: Is It Math or Magic? Vedic mathematics articles providing brilliant mental math short cuts that will amaze everyone.
History of Mathematics. Includes links to Euclid's Elements, Mathematical Problems of David Hilbert - 23 important mathematical problems, and Chronological List of Mathematicians.
King's List of On-line Math Activities. Web links compiled by Mrs. DeWitt: Beginning Math Activities, Basic Math Skills, Factors/Multiples, Fractions, Geometry, Graphing, Integers, Logic Puzzles, Mean/Mode/Median, Measurement, Metric, Place Value, Pre-Algebra, Probability, Rounding, Mind Bender Puzzles, Money, Problem Solving, Biographies, Big Chalk's Online Math Tests, and others.
The logic behind "arabic numbers". Discover why 1 means "one" and 2 means "two".
Look up: Math Dictionary from Babylon.com. This set of Mathematics Dictionaries includes relevant terms and definitions on a wide range mathematical fields, including: Electronic Statistics Textbook, Roman to Arabic Numerals, Common Concepts in Statistics.
Math.com: The World of Math Online. Basic Math, Everyday Math, Pre-Algebra, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Statistics, Calculus, and more.
Math for Everyone. Everyday Math (Figuring a Tip at a Restaurant, Sale Price, Wind Chill Factor Calculator, Count Coins, Lottery Odds Calculator), Personal Finance (Simple Interest Calculator, Compound Interest Calculator, Retirement, Amortization Schedule for Loan), Units Conversion (Length, Mass, Area, Volume, Speed, Power, Temperature Conversion: °F, °C, and K), Math @ Home (Cost of Electricity). Site also includes: General Math, K-8 Math, Algebra, Plots & Geometry, Trig. & Calculus.
Math for Morons Like Us. Learn: Pre-Algebra, Algebra, Geometry, Algebra II, Pre-Calculus, and Calculus. Site includes tutorials, sample problems, and quizzes. Interact section provides interactive resources e.g. Message Board, Formula Database, Quizzes, and Math Links.
Math Guide from High School Ace. Featured Sites include: Equivalent Fractions Game, High School Math Problems, Math A & B Regents Exam Review, Mr. Hoffman's Math Stuff, and Virtual Math Manipulatives. Online Math Tools include Free Scientific Calculator, and Math Reference Tables. Also covers Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, and Calculus.
Math Study Guides from SparkNotes.
A Mathematical Chronology. Timeline of mathematics. Site provides brief summaries of historical mathematical achievements from about 30000BC when Palaeolithic peoples in central Europe and France record numbers on bones to 2000 when "Mathematical Challenges of the 21st Century" were proposed.
Mathematics Biographies from AllRefer.com.
Millions and Billions and More (Oh My!). Counting from one thousand 10^3 or 1,000, to one vigintillion 10^63 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. Really Big Numbers at MrDowling.com.
Numbers from Fact Monster. Include: Integers, Even and Odd Numbers, Rational and Irrational Numbers, Decimal Places, Prime Numbers, Numerical Prefixes, Mean and Median, Rounding Numbers, First Thousand Digits of Pi, Roman Numerals, and others.
SparkNotes: Math Study Guides. Contents: Prealgebra, Algebra I & II, Precalculus, Calculus AB, Calculus BC I & II, Geometry I, II, & III, plus Trigonometry. Includes a Message Board.
A View from the Back of the Envelope is fundamentally about scale. Contents include: Counting by powers of ten, A million dots on one page, How to simplify a number, Why be approximate? Fermi Questions: Rough quantitative estimates, Scaling the universe to your desktop, Your Body Ruler: A User's Manual and much more. See also Angle Cards - A "business card" for measuring angle and How Big Are Things?
Webmath. Over 100 instant-answer, self-help, math solvers.
Bloomberg.com Currency Calculator
Calculator.com. Directories: Agricultural, Automobile, Brewing, Clothing, College, Computing, Converters, Cooking, Design, Distance, Engineering, Finance, Fun, Health, Manufacturing, Numeric, Personal, Photography, Pricing, Scientific, Sports, and Time.
Calculators. A wide variety of calculators from Digital Librarian: a librarian's choice of the best of the web.
CNN Money Calculators: Millionaire Calculator - When will you be a millionaire?
Finance Calculator by Paul Lutus, arachnoid.com. These equations solve problems that involve compound interest.
Google Guide: Calculator. Tables listing: Basic Arithmetic and Advanced Math: Operator, Function, Example. Units of Measure and Conversions: Types of Units, Examples. Physical Constants: Long Name, Shorthand Notation, Click the Link for the Approximate Value. Link to Soople's Calculator / Conversion Page.
Health Calculators from HealthStatus.com. Blood Alcohol Estimator, Body Fat Estimator, Body Mass Index (BMI), Calories Burned Estimator, Daily Energy Expenditure, Frame Size Calculator, Ideal Weight Calculator, Lose One Pound Calculator, Ovulation Estimator, Pregnancy Due Date Estimator, Cost of Smoking Cigarettes Calculator, Target Heart Rate Calculator, and more.
Martindale's Calculators On-Line Center. Excellent site containing over 19,855 calculators, covering thousands of subject areas. One of the best free sites on the Internet.
Metric-English Converter from Earth Observatory, NASA, Mission: Biomes. Temperature Conversion: °C - °F. Linear Measurement: millimeters (mm), centimeters (cm), meters (m), kilometers (km) - inches (in), feet (ft), yards (yd), miles (mi).
Paycheck Calculator. Include: Hourly Paycheck Calculator, Form W-4 Assistant, Gross Up Calculator, 401(k) Calculator, Bonus Pay - Percent, Bonus Pay - Aggregate, Stock Option Calculator, Defined Contribution Calculator, Savings Planner, Termination Calculator, and more. Free registration to use calculators.
Rona Calculators. Interactive calculators provided to help you plan your project. Results should be interpreted as an estimate based upon the measurements you entered. Topics covered: Air conditioning, Area, Basement framing, Carpet or linoleum, Ceramic tile, Concrete - Mortar and post, Concrete - Stair, Concrete - Surface or slab, Drywall, Heat, Insulation, Length, Liquid capacity, Moulding, Paint, Roofing, Seed, Soil, Ventilation, Volume, Wallpaper, Weight capacity.
The SmartStudent Guide to Financial Aid - Calculators. Tools will help you determine how much money you will need for a college education in the United States.
Statistics Calculators from UCLA Department of Statistics. For advanced students.
Unemployment Insurance - Weekly Benefit Amount (WBA) Calculator from Economic Policy Institute.
WebCalc. Site provides a wide variety of calculators. Math, Science, Financial, Converters, Alternative Energy, Storm Distance, Paint Calculator, BAC - Blood Alcohol Content, Room Size Calculator, World Population, Typing Test, and many more.
World Wide Metric: Conversion Calculators. Excellent instant conversion calculators. Length Conversion Calculator (Millimeters Inches Meter Feet Yards), Weight Conversion Calculator (Kilograms Pounds), Pressure Conversion Calculator (Bar Kg/cm Psi), Volume Conversion Calculator (Liters Fluid Ounces Quarts Gallons), Temperature Conversion Calculator (Celsius Fahrenheit).
PowerPoint in the Classroom. Tutorial on how to use PowerPoint, a software tool used to present information in a slide show format. Text, charts, graphs, sound effects and video may be incorporated into presentations. Print version of PowerPoint tutorial available free for non-profit use. Teacher's Guide included.
PowerPoint FAQ. Answers to questions on how to use PowerPoint: Drawing, Pictures & Other Imported Files, Animation and Slide Show, Sound & Video, Printing, Formatting, Saving, Using, Editing & Opening Presentation Files.
Fibonacci (c.1175 - c.1240) - mathematician. The Fibonacci sequence and biography of Leonardo Fibonacci. Includes photo of Fibonacci's statue in Pisa.
Fibonacci Numbers and the Pascal Triangle. Links selected by Radoslav Jovanovic from Lajkovac (near Belgrade), Serbia, Yugoslavia.
Who was Fibonacci? Full name: Leonardo of Pisa, or Leonardo Pisano in Italian. A brief biographical sketch of Fibonacci, his life, times and mathematical achievements.
Arabic Numbers & Roman Numerals. Date Conversion with Roman Calculator & Roman Numerals Test. Enter a number or a Roman numeral to convert between Arabic numbers and Roman numerals, and vice versa.
Roman Numerals from Fact Monster. Includes Roman Numeral Challenge. The Challenge: Convert Arabic numbers to Roman numerals or vice versa. Choose your level of difficulty. Answers provided.
Roman Numerals and Calendar. Here you can do the conversion by hand and understand how and why Roman numerals and dates are as they are. Includes a Roman Numerals Quiz.
The Abacus: The Art of Calculating with Beads. Includes History of the abacus from ancient times, Instructions on how to add, substract, multiply and divide on the Lee abacus, 1946 contest held in Tokyo of The Abacus vs.The Electric Calculator (winner: the abacus), Resources for Teachers, FAQ, and more.
Astronomy for Kids! From KidsAstronomy.com. Outer Space, Solar System, Deep Space, Space Exploration, Civilian Space Travel, How Big Is the Universe? Astonomy News, Astronomy Dictionary, Free Astronomy Classes Online: Course 1 for Ages 7-11, Course 2 for Ages 12-18.
Eyes on the Sky, Feet on the Ground: Hands on Astronomy Activities for Kids. Fully illustrated online astronomy activities with detailed, step-by-step instructions. Contains the complete text and graphics of the book along with related links, an explanation of how to use this book, and email links to the authors. Table of contents: Earth's Rotation, Earth's Orbit, Time and Calendars, Maps and Mapping, Solar System, and Moon.
Look up: General Astronomy from Babylon.com. Astronomy Dictionaries consist of a collection of terms and notions explaining various aspects of astronomical phenomena. Include: U.F.O. Related Terminology and Acronyms, ASTRONOMY UNBOUND, The Columbus Optical SETI Observatory- Glossary of Terms, Astronomy and Physics Terms by ExploreSpace.com.
Is Pluto a Planet? What makes a planet? By Jean-Luc Margot, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. The International Astronomical Union (IAU), an organization of over 9,000 professional astronomers, is the community of experts that is best suited to provide the definition that we need for "planet".
Mars from CBC News. In Depth: Space: Mars - Planet profile. Includes Canadians in Space.
Mr. Eclipse.com. The Ultimate Resource for Eclipse Photography. Color photos of eclipses of the sun and the moon. Also includes: Solar eclipses and lunar eclipses for beginners, guide to watching eclipses, and links to other eclipse sites.
Planetary Sciences from National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Planetary Fact Sheets on the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Near Earth Object, Mars, Asteroid, Jupiter, Jovian Satellite, Galilean Satellite, Jovian Rings, Saturn, Saturnian Satellite & Rings, Uranus, Uranian Satellite & Rings, Neptune, Neptunian Satellite & Rings, Pluto, Comet, and Chiron.
Solar System Exploration: Planets from NASA. Contents: Our Solar System Overview - Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Earth's Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Meteoroids, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Comets, Kuiper Belt, Beyond Our Solar System, and more.
Views of the Solar System. Multimedia adventure. Splendid views of the sun, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and more.
Welcome to the Planets. Collection of images from NASA's planetary exploration program. Includes: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Small Bodies, Links to Explorers: Mariner 10, Viking 1 & 2, Voyager 1 & 2, Magellan, Galileo, Hubble, Space Shuttle, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, and Cassini, plus a Glossary.
All about Earth. Simple, brightly illustrated, fast facts about planet Earth for young children.
Center for Earth Observation - CEO Data Archive from Yale University. View selected satellite images from North America, South America, Europe, South West Asia, North/Central Asia, South East Asia, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Global Datasets.
Earth Fact Sheet. Bulk parameters, Orbital parameters, Earth Mean Orbital Elements, Terrestrial Magnetosphere, Terrestrial Atmosphere, Images of Earth, Photo Gallery of Earth, Destination: Earth, plus More Earth Science Data from National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC).
Earth facts from One World - Nations Online. Dry facts about Earth, Terre, Erde, Chikyu, Tierra, Terra, Gaia, or Mother Earth, its location, shape, size, weight, age, satellites, orbital data, rotation, velocity, surface, atmosphere, highest point on surface, symbol, map, life, population, continents, plus statistics for top 50 of the world's most populated cities.
Earth From Space:
Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum
by Andrew K. Johnston
Earth from Space: Online Exhibition. See the earth from the perspective of an orbiting satellite. Developed by the Smithsonian Institution, this website complements the national traveling exhibition.
Earth Guide. Awesome site from Japan Science and Technology (JST) Agency, Virtual Science Center. Flash player 8 or higher is necessary as a plug-in. How much do we understand about the planet we call home? Where is the earth located in the Milky Way Galaxy? Question Map, Keyword Map, Sound available.
Earth's Seasons, Equinoxes, Solstices, Perihelion, and Aphelion 1992-2020. Note: In the tables, d, h, m indicate day, hour, minute, respectively, of Universal Time. Chart displays 28 years of data beginning in 1992 and runs through 2020, from U.S. Naval Observatory, Astronomical Applications Department.
Exploring the Planets: Earth from National Air and Space Museum. Contents: One-page Earth facts, Realms of Earth: atmosphere, lithosphere (rocks), hydrosphere (water), biosphere (living things), and magnetosphere (magnetic fields), Exploring Earth from orbit, Mission to Planet Earth, plus an Earth Imagery Index covering images of the Earth from NASA. Also check out: 1301 Florescent Bulbs Lit Solely by Magnetic Fields.
Google Earth lets you fly anywhere on Earth to view satellite imagery, maps, terrain, 3D buildings and even explore galaxies in the Sky.
TerraServer - USA. TerraServer-USA Web site is one of the world's largest online databases, providing free public access to a vast data store of maps and aerial photographs of the United States. The first three fields, Street, City, and State, enable you to search for an address or a place name in the U.S. only. If you want to search for data in Canada or Mexico, click on the Advanced Find button found in the Top section of each page. You can view TerraServer-USA imagery in 3D at the World Wind site below.
World Wind. Developed at NASA Ames Research Center, World Wind lets you zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth. Amazing software provides latitude, longitude and altitude of your chosen location. Free download. Check download requirements of World Wind, e.g. 256 MB of RAM, 3D Graphics Card, 2 GB of disk space, and more.
Astrodienst. Find Geographic Locations with information on their latitudes and longitudes. Enter at least the first few letters of the name of the city (not country) to search for. Answer includes city, province or state, country, latitude and longitude, plus time zone, as well as the exact date and local time where city is located at time of information access, all in relation to Bahji, of course.
Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names Online (TGN). Latitude and longitude given in most records, minimum record for each place includes a name (English name, vernacular or local-language name), a place type (city, island, etc.), and a position in the hierarchy that shows its parent places - nation (country name, e.g. United States).
Great Circle Calculator. Once you know the Latitude and Longitude of two places (search in Astrodienst above), you can calculate the distance between any two places in the world as the crow flies, i.e. the straight line distance between the two points. Distances are given in both miles and kilometers.
How Far Is It? Search distance FROM one location TO another as the crow flies. Results will show not only the distance (in miles, kilometers, and nautical miles) between the two points, but the longitudes and latitudes of the places as well, plus County, Population, and Elevation if it is a place in the U.S.
Latitude and Longitude. Illustrated explanation by Dr. David P. Stern.
Latitude and Longitude Search - United States. Look up the exact location of millions of places in the U.S.
U.S. Gazetteer. Type in the name of a city, borough, or county in the United States and get its location in longitude and lattitude, as well as its population, zip code, and map.
View Above Earth. Enter the latitude and longitude of a place you would like to view, then add the altitude in kilometres to indicate the distance you wish to view it from above the earth. If you don't know the latitude or longitude of a place, you can choose a city from Cities around the World. You get a better view if you choose a place that is currently in daylight hours rather than at night time.
Calendar Zone. Calendar related information or types of calendars include: Celestial, Cultural (Aztec, Chinese, Islamic, etc.), Daily, Event, Geographic, Historic, Holidays, Interactive, Millennium, Misc., Reference, Reform, Religious, Software, Traditional, Web, Women, and Y2K. Plus Calendar Quotes & Poetry, Century Prayer (1901), New Calendars, and Calzone Recipes.
Calendars through the Ages. Topics covered: Our 7-day week (origin and meaning of names of days of the week), Our year, Calendars (Christian, Jewish, Islamic, Chinese, Mayan, etc.) plus other unusual and interesting subjects relating to time and calendars.
Clocks and Time. Some 400 Web pages of information dealing with clocks and time. Contents include: Museums, Books, Magazines & Journals, Ezines, Newsgroups & Mailing Lists, Buying & Selling, Organizations & Agencies, Clockmaking & Watchmaking, Education Software, Sundials, History, Time Standards & Setting, and more.
Clockworks: From Sundials to the Atomic Second. Measuring Time from Britannica.com. An amazing site. Provides animated illustrations, history, description, other interesting information, and movie (choice of normal speed or rapid speed movie where applicable) of each time measuring device: Sundial, Clepsydra, Astrolabe, Candle Clock, Sandglass, Weight-Driven Clock, Spring-Driven Clock, Pendulum Clock, Quartz Watch, and a Cesium Atomic Clock. Text version available for those unable to access the graphics version (Shockwave required).
Free Printable Calendar Templates. Create free printable calendars that are formatted for Microsoft Word ®.
Free Printable Calendars. Free calendars from Printfree.com. Print monthly or yearly calendars.
Local Times Around the World. Select a continent or region: Africa, America, Antarctica, Asia, Atlantic, Australia, Europe, or Pacific. Choose a country and a location to view details, e.g. Geographical Location: (40° 42' N, 74° 0' W), Current Local Time, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), and Local Time Zone.
On Time: An Exhibition at the National Museum of American History. Explores the changing ways Americans have measured, used, and thought about time from 1700 to now. Requires Macromedia Flash 4 and a fast computer.
Printable Calendars. Printable-Calendar.com is a free service that provides unlimited printable calendar templates in two different formats (Word and PDF). Print calendars for 2004, 2005 or 2006, monthly or yearly.
Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Find the Official United States Time. You can set your computer clock to the correct time right now by using the Internet or the Telephone.
Time Travel. Everything you always wanted to know about time travel: Time and the Universe, How to build a time machine, Does time exist? Wormholes, Einstein Connection, Wormhole Engineering, Ultimate Proof, and more.
Time Zone Converter. Apart from allowing you to convert time zones in current time, site also allows you to specify a given date and time to convert past or future times. Select a location "From Time Zone" and convert "To Time Zone" of another location.
A Walk through Time. The Evolution of Time Measurement. Topics covered: Ancient Calendars, Early Clocks, Revolution in Timekeeping, The "Atomic Age", World Time, Scales, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Time Calibration.
World Time - 36 time zones at a glance. See also Countries and Time Zones and Astronomical Background. Available in German and English.
World Time Server.com. Find current time and date anywhere in the world. Search a location by country or by major city.
www.timeanddate.com. Topics covered: Time (World Clock, Search for City, Meeting Planner), Date (Calendar), Counters (countdown to any date of your choice from current date and time), 3rd Millennium, Latest updates.
Albert Einstein and the World Year of Physics 2005 from Arts & Sciences Libraries, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York. Links to websites on Albert Einstein (1879-1955).
Look up: Basic Physics from Babylon.com. Physics Dictionaries and Glossaries provide definitions in a wide range of technical fields, including Fiber Optics, Optical Networking Terms, Glossary of Wireless, RF (Radio Frequency) and Microwave Terms, Glossary of liquid chromatographic terms, Gravity/Magnetic Glossary, Solar Physics Glossary.
The Physics Encyclopedia: Physics Internet Resources. Unfortunately, this site is no longer updated.
The Particle Adventure. An award-winning site that allows you to explore the world of fundamental particles and forces and then to investigate the experimental evidence and techniques. Includes links to other physics sites.
The Physics Factbook: An Encyclopedia of Scientific Essays edited by Glenn Elert, written by high school students. Topic Index: acceleration, angular-velocity, area, density, electric-current, electric-field, electric-voltage, electrical-resistivity, energy, force, frequency, friction, length, magnetic-field, mass, money, number, power, pressure, refraction, temperature, time, velocity, volume.
Science Guide - Physics from High School Ace. Links to 101 Physics Facts, Regents Physics Exam Review, High School Physics Tutorials, Physics Animations, Units Conversion Calculator.
Physics News. Links to News and Information related to Physics. Includes Past News Headlines.
PhysicsWeb. Web link resources on physics around the world.
SparkNotes: Physics Study Guides. Contents: Vectors, Kinematics, Dynamics, Work, Energy and Power, Linear Momentum, Rotational Motion, Oscillations, Gravitation, Thermodynamics, Magnetic Forces and Fields, Optics, and Special Relativity.
What is Physics? from Canadian Association of Physicists (CAP) Education Pages. See also Physics Careers with profiles of real physicists and audio files.
AskNumbers.com. Online conversions between different metrics of length, weight, temperature, pressure, energy, frequency and more.
Celsius to Fahrenheit - Temperature
Conversion from Celsius to Fahrenheit. How to calculate manually: Multiply the Celsius temperature by 9/5,
then add 32°, e.g. Convert 37° C to Fahrenheit: 37 * 9/5 = 333/5 = 66.6, then: 66.6 + 32 = 98.6° F.
Fahrenheit to Celsius - Temperature Conversion from Fahrenheit to Celsius. How to calculate manually: Subtract 32° to adjust for the offset in the Fahrenheit scale. Multiply the result by 5/9, e.g. Convert 98.6° Fahrenheit to Celsius: 98.6 - 32 = 66.6, then: 66.6 * 5/9 = 333/9 = 37° C. Site also provides a mental math method to approximate the Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion, and vice versa.
See also Measurements from AAA Math - Each page has an explanation, interactive practice and challenge games about measurements.
Conversion Maestro. Conversion Tables: Length (feet, meters), Area (square feet, square meters), Mass and Weight (ounces,grams), Liquid Volume (pints, liters), and Temperature (Fahrenheit, Celsius).
Conversions from Abbreviations.com. Enter you conversion query, or Select conversion type: Measurements, Number Systems, Time Zones. Weight: Angles, Area, Cooking, Energy, Force, Length, Power, Data, Storage, Time, Temperature, Velocity, Volume. Select What would you like to convert? carat, dram, grain, gram, kilogram, lb, long ton, metric ton, milligram, ounce, pennyweight, pruta, scruple, short ton, stone ton. Enter the Amount you wish to convert to get immediate results.
Convert.net is an online conversions calculator for a wide variety of unit measurements. Example: Enter your natural language conversion query: "Convert 1 cup to teaspoons", click Submit, instant result below will show: 1 cup = 48 teaspoons. Or you can Select conversion type: Measurements, Number Systems, Time Zones and choose your conversion factors.
Dictionary of Units, Cleave Books: Dictionary of Units, A Dictionary of Units of Measurement, FAQ and Other Measures, and Specialist Calculators.
How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement by Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Interactive Units Converter. Measurements available for conversions include: Weight and Mass, Distance and Length, Capacity and Volume, Area, Speed, Temperature, Time, Pressure, Energy and Work, Circular Measure, and Computer Storage. Plus links to other resources on units conversion such as: Yahoo! list of Online Converters, A Dictionary of Units, Conversion & Calculation Center, Online Conversions, and Maribi.Com Conversion Tables.
Martindale's Calculators On-Line Center contains over 19,000 Calculators, including many Science and Math Calculators.
Measure 4 Measure. A collection of interactive sites that estimates, calculates, evaluates, and translates. The do-it-all-for-you sites are divided into 4 categories: Science/Math, Health, Finance, and A Measure of Everything Else.
Measurement Conversions. View Tables of Unit Conversion Factors with over 800 conversion factors, Temperature Conversion (Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin), and Copper Wire Gauge.
MegaConverter 2. Excellent site for Unit Conversions and Calculations. Quickly convert practically everything related to numbers. Links to other existing conversion sites in chemistry, computer, cooking, currency, dress size, engineering, finance, geology, lighting, maps, master clock, Morse code, oceans, ring size, and even shoe size.
metric conversions . org. Online conversion calculators, conversion tables and metric formulas. Temperature conversions, Celsius conversion, Celcius conversion (and other common misspellings), Celsius to Fahrenheit, Measurement conversions, Converting kilometers to miles, Centimeters to inches, Weight conversions, Acre conversion.
Online Calculators, Conversion Tools, Measurements & Weights. From Western Washington University. Links to Calculation & Conversion Tools (e.g. Cost of Living Comparator, Roman Numeral Conversion Tool & Data Table, Time Zone Converter, Unit Converter, etc.) plus Tide Charts for Washington State, and A Dictionary of Weights, Units & Measures.
OnlineConversion.com. Convert just about anything to anything else. Over 5,000 units, and 50,000 conversions including Length / Distance, Temperature, Speed, Volume, Weight / Mass, Computer (Binary Digit Conversion), Date / Time, Cooking, Angles, Area, Power, Energy, Density, Force, Pressure, Astronomical, Numbers, Finance, Miscellaneous, Fun Stuff, Clothing, Light, Torque, Vicosity, Frequency, Flow Rate, and Acceleration.
Roman Numeral and Date Conversion with Roman Calculator & Roman Numerals Test. Enter a number or a Roman numeral to convert between Arabic numbers and Roman numerals and vice versa.
Roman Numerals and Calendar. Here you can do the conversion by hand and understand how and why Roman numerals and dates are as they are. Includes a Roman Numerals Quiz.
Runner's Web Kilometer / Mile Distance Converter. Widget Distance Converter. Enter miles or kilometers and click on "Calculate" button.
Atmospheric Optics. Light playing on water drops, dust or ice crystals in the atmosphere produces a host of visual spectacles - rainbows, halos, glories, coronas and many more. Includes Links and Resources.
A Brief History of Optics. Timeline from before 300 B.C. to 1990 A.D.
Causes of Color. "Why are things colored? There are three causes. ... Light is made in the yellow glow of a candle. Light is lost when sunlight filters through stained glass. Light is moved when sky turns crimson sunset. ... all the colors in the universe originate from ... fifteen fundamental physical causes."
Discovering Light. From ThinkQuest. Contents: Physics of Light (nature & behavior of light), Light in Technology (human use of light), Light in Nature, Light in Culture (use of light in religion, literature, and art), and Interact (index of virtual experiments, demonstrations and labs).
Light & Optics. From Arizona State University. Contents: Light, Reflection and Refraction, Lenses, Mirrors and Prisms, Color and the Spectrum, Optics in Nature, Supplementary Modules (Fresnel Lens, Hologram, Optical Fiber, and Polarizers), and an extensive Glossary.
Optics for Kids. Quick answers to questions about light and optics. Topics include: Light Basics, Controlling Light, Lenses, Magnifying Glass: A simple optical device, White Light and Laser Light, and others.
Science, Optics & You. Excellent site from Florida State University. Activities are designed for students to learn about light, color, and optics. Contents include: Timeline in Optics, Pioneers in Optics, Light and Color, Museum of Microscopy, Optics Resources on the Web, Interactive Java Tutorials, e.g. Optical Illusions, Primary Colors, the amazing Powers of 10, Photo Gallery, Olympus MIC-D Digital Microscope, Teacher Resources, Student Activities, and much more.
Aurora Borealis. Images and time lapse movie.
The Aurora Page. Information, links and images about the Northern Lights from Michigan Technological University, Department of Geological/Mining Engineering & Sciences.
Auroras: Paintings in the Sky from Exploratorium. Take a Self-Guided Tour to find out What are auroras? What do they look like? What makes them happen? Where can you see them? Why are they different colors? Includes Aurora links, resources, and a teacher's page.
Nordlys - Northern Lights. Terminologies: Aurora Borealis - Northern Lights - Nordlys (in Norwegian); Aurora Australis - Southern Lights - Sørlys (in Norwegian); and Aurora Polaris - Polar lights - Polarlys (in Norwegian) meaning both northern and southern lights. Contents: What are Northern Lights? Aurora in science, Realtime Measurements, Auroral Mythology, Aurora in Arts, Travelling to see the aurora - Web links to Norway, Sweden, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Alaska (USA) and Canada, plus the Northern Lights Photo Contest.
The Discovery of Radioactivity: The Dawn of the Nuclear Age by Slowiczek and Peters. See also Radioactivity: Historical Figures: Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845-1923), Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Pierre Curie (1859-1906), Marie Curie (1867-1934), and Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937). "During the investigation of radioactivity he [Ernest Rutherford] coined the terms alpha and beta in 1899 to describe the two distinct types of radiation emitted by thorium and uranium." Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium by Nanny Fröman.
Historical Instrumentation Collection from Oak Ridge Associated Universities. Contains color photos and images of over 1000 objects: Atomic Movie Posters, Electrometers, Radiation Warning Signs, Electroscopes, Radioactive Quack Cures, Geiger Mueller Detectors, Radioactive Sources, Health Physics Posters, Reactors, Hiroshima and Trinity, Shoe Fitting Fluoroscope, Ionization Chambers, X-ray and Gas Discharge Tubes, and others.
Marie Curie from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Marie Curie Biography - Marie Curie: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903. Madame Curie. Introduction to Madame Marie Curie, from Madame Curie: A Biography by Eve Curie, Translated by Vincent Sheean.
Natural Radioactivity. Fact sheet. See also Radioactivity in Nature.
Radiation and Radioactivity from Idaho State University. Contents: Radiation and Radioactivity, The Atom, Alpha Radiation, Beta Radiation, Gamma Radiation, X-ray Radiation, Properties of Radiation, Half-Life, Measures of Radiation and Radioactivity, Measurement of Radiation, Gas Filled Detector, Measurement of Radiation, Sodium Iodide Detector, plus Glossary, Radiation and Risk, Radiation and Us.
Radioactivity from ThinkQuest. Alpha (α) Decay, Beta (ß)- Decay, ß+ Decay, Electron Capture, Internal Conversion, Gamma Radiation, Half Life, Decay Chains, Biological Effects of Radiation, Units of Radioactivity, plus Quizzes with Answers.