Rizwi S. Faizer Ph.D. McGill
rfaizer@sympatico.cat

 
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^^From Abu Bakr to the Umayyads^^
Time Line 632 A. D. - 750 A. D.
632 A.D./11 A.H. Recognition given to Abu Bakr as the representative of the Prophet Muhammad, i.e. Khalîfatur Rasûl Allah by the community at the Saqîfa Banî Sâ`ida.
633/12 Wars of the Ridda fought by the Muslims against the Bedouin tribes. -Battle of Yamâma at al-`Aqrabâ'.
634/13 Muslim invasion of Iraq and Syria.
--Abu Bakr dies and is succeeded by `Umar.
636/15 Battle of Yarmuk: Muslim victory in Syria.
636 or 637 Sophronius, the Christian patriarch, hands over Jerusalem to the caliph `Umar b. al-Khattâb.
16 Battle of al-Qâdisiyya: Muslim victory in Iraq.
638/17 Council of Jâbiya: `Umar establishes a pension-register or dîwân, with priority given to those who were closer to the Prophet, such as his wives.
Conquered land which had previously been shared as booty by the military is retained by the Khalîfa as fay'.
639/18 Invasion of Egypt by `Amr b. al-`Âs.
642/21 Battle of Nihâwand, and Muslim victory in Iran.
644/23 26 of Dhu al-Hijja (3 Nov.) Murder of `Umar, who had, however, named a group of men (a shûra) who were to choose `Umar's successor from among themselves.
`Uthmân is chosen Khalîfa.
654/34 Revolt in Kûfa. 656/35 Egyptian rebels seige Dhu Khushub and then Medina.
.      18 Dhu al-Hijja (17 June) Murder of `Uthmân.
      Next day the pledge of allegiance is given to `Alî b. Abi Tâlib.
36 Battle of the camel, when `Â'isha, the widow of the Prophet leads the battle against `Alî on her favorite camel al-`Asker. She is supported by Zubayr and Talha `Alî is victorious near Basra.
657/37 Battle of Siffîn followed by arbitration.
658/37 Recognition of Mu`âwiya as khalîfa in Syria.
659/38 Meeting of arbitrators at Adruh.
`Alî's mediator is Abû Mûsâ al-Ash`arî, govenor of Kûfa. Mu`âwiya's mediator is `Amr b. al`Âs, conqueror of Egypt.
Party of Khârijî split from `Alî's faction. Battle of Nahrawan sees defeat of Khacirc;rijîs.
660 Mu`âwiya proclaimed caliph in Jerusalem.
661/40 Murder of `Alî by the Khârijite Ibn Muljam.
-- Following the surrender of Hasan, the son of `Alî the Sufyânid Mu`awiya proclaimed caliph in Damascus.
669 Death of Hasan.
676 Nomination of Yazid as successor to his father Mu`âwiya.
680 Death of Mu`âwiya. Succeeded by Yazid, his son.
--Death of al-Husayn at Karbalâ'.
681/60 Revolt of `Abd Allah b. Zubayr in Mecca and Medina.
683/63 Battle of al-Harra. Medina is subdued by Syrian forces.
683/64 Death of Yazîd. Succeeded by young son Mu`ˆwiya 11 who dies soon after.
684 Battle of Marj Râhit leads to succession of Marwân.
. Tawwâbûn Shi`îs of Kûfa attack Syrians in revenge for Husayn.
685/65 Death of Marwân. `Abd al-Malik succeeds him. Mukhtârasserts rule of `Alî's son Ibn al-Hanafiyya at K7Ucirc;fa.
687 Mus`ab b. al-Zubayr (brother of the caliph), governor of Basra, puts down Mukhtâr.
691 Mus`ab is defeated by the Syrians.
694 Hajjâj b. Yûsuf(694-714) appointed `Abd al-Malik's lieutenant.
696 Arabic coinage established by `Abd al-Malik.
The Dome of the Rock or Qubbat al-Sakhrâ(also called the Mosque of `Umar) is built in Jerusalem.
692 Ibn al-Zubayr is defeated and killed by Syrians under Hajjâj at Mecca.
705 Walid 1, eldest son of `Abd al-Malik succeeds his father. Sees the conquest of Spain, and Sind and Transoxania. Known for building the Masjid al-Aqsâ, and rebuilding the Mosque of Medina.
715 Succeeded by Sulaymân, the second son of `Abd al-Malik.
717 Succeeded by `Umar b. `Abd al-`Azîz, nephew of `Abd al-Malik. Insists on treating the Mawali as equals. Applies discriminatory laws against Jews and Christians more rigidly.
720 Yazîd 11, third son of `Abd al-Malik becomes caliph.
724 Hishâm, the last great Syrian Umayyad.
from whom the Spanish Umayyads are descended.
743 Walîd 11, son of Yazîd 11, becomes caliph.
744 Yazîd 111, son of Walîd 1, becomes caliph.
744 Ibrâhim, son of al-Walîd, the eldest son of `Abd al-Malik, is appointed caliph.
744 Succeeded by Marwân 11, the last of the Umayyads.
750 `Abbâsid Revolution sees the end of the Umayyad caliphate.

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