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Tropical Rain Forest
Tropical Desert


Hydrological
Characteristics

~ large discharge
~ little annual variation in discharge

1. Large runoff causes mass movement on upper/ steep slopes and soil erosion
--> silting & flooding
--> more frequent flooding in the lower course.

2. Heavy rain often washes roads and railways away.

3. Swamps and marshes are common.


~ few permanent streams
~ highly variable discharge
~ high annaual variation in discharge

1. NOT suitable for navigation, fishing/ boating

2. Farming take forms in Oasis farming, irrigated farming and marginal farming.

3. Flooding only occurs in form of flash flood after highly sporadic and loacalized heavy rainfall.

i.e TRF has a larger discharge and permanent streams while TD doesn't.
And TRF has a more stable discharge than TD.
Thus, flooding is more common in TRF than in TD.