Aircheck UK - Cornwall
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'Radio In Cornwall' is replicated from www.transdiffusion.org.
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Radio in Cornwall written by Ian Beaumont (This article is reproduced from www.transdiffusion.org under their terms and conditions - see link above.)
I was just two years old when local radio first arrived in Cornwall, and that radio station wasn't even targetted at the area.
Plymouth Sound first went to air on 19-May-1975, and although targetted exclusively at the city, the signal from the AM transmitter could be received far and wide, across most of the Eastern half of Cornwall, and along most of the south coast until you got to Lizard Point. Because it dealt mainly with Plymouth, very little of their output had anything to do with Cornwall, except perhaps an odd reference to the Torpoint Ferry. It would be almost 8 years before Cornwall got a station that it could truly call its own, from the BBC.
17-Jan-1983, is a very famous day in broadcasting history, as that is the day that the first regular national breakfast programming arrived on TV in the form of BBC Breakfast Time. I remember that very well, I was watching it that morning at 6.30, I was in our living room, and I remember the titles and music very well. But I didn't just have the TV on at that moment. I also had a radio with me, with headphones, so that I didn't disturb my parents, because just over half an hour earlier, I had put the radio on to listen to the launch of Cornwall's first dedicated local radio station, BBC Radio Cornwall.
I remember hearing the station theme for the first time, back then, and I wish now I'd had the foresight to record the launch and hold onto it. But I was a kid of 9 coming towards 10 years old, and all I really cared about was just enjoying the moment. The station theme was very memorable, and as I recall was in use for about the next 8 or 9 years after they launched, and I still remember it pretty well today, even after 8 or more years of disuse, and no recording of it to aid my memory either.
Prior to that, all of our local news had to come from newspapers, television, and a BBC Radio 4 opt-out of Today called Morning Sou'West. For less than an hour a day, during the Today programme the South West of England opted out of network Radio 4 to put on a local news and information service for the South West. Then from lunchtime, regional television picked up the baton, with 4 bulletins during the rest of the day, Lunchtime, Mid-Afternoon, Spotlight in the early evening just before Nationwide, and after the news at 9pm. And that was the South West's newsday in terms of radio and television prior to the arrival of both BBC Radio Cornwall and BBC Radio Devon on the 17th January 1983.
In those early years, BBC Radio Cornwall and BBC Radio Devon did share some programming, such as Afternoon Sou'West, Devon and Cornwall's debating forum, Saturday Sou'West, the home of the region's sports coverage, and later, Late Night Sou'West, which was completely seperate from the rest of the output, which aired between 6am and 7pm.
Imagine that, a radio station stopping transmission at 7pm. Of course in those days, like the rest of the BBC Local Radio network, BBC Radio Cornwall took Radio 2 when they weren't broadcasting. But unless you were in the South East of Cornwall, you had no choice in Local Radio. In the South East, you could pick up Plymouth Sound, but elsewhere, there was just Radio Cornwall as the only local station. If you were lucky, like me, you could actually pick up BBC Radio Devon too.
Thankfully, choice in your Local Radio listening was to come about. In 1991, the new Radio Authority decided to licence a commercial radio station for Cornwall. Eight consortia bid for the single licence. Most of the applicants proposed local programmes from 6am to 7pm, a sustaining service outside those hours and local news only at morning, lunch and afternoon drivetime slots, not hourly. Two applicants, though, attracted my attention, but both for very different reasons.
One consortium, calling themselves Cornwall Sound FM, caught my attention first. I wondered if they were anything to do with nearby Plymouth Sound, who at that time were co-owned by GWR and Capital Radio. As it turned out through reading the application document, they were. Now at the time, both Plymouth Sound and Devonair were co-owned by GWR and Capital Radio, with both stations linking together to provide a sustaining service. Under the Cornwall Sound FM plans, Cornwall Sound would broadcast locally produced programmes between 6am and 2pm, then linking up with Plymouth Sound until 7pm, with news and advert opt-outs.
Then it would join the sustaining service from 7pm, overnight. At the time, I felt this devalued the service to effectively the status of an opt-out. Radio in Tavistock provided a Breakfast opt-out, before linking back to Plymouth Sound. Similarly South West 103 was an opt-out of DevonAir at Breakfast, before linking up at 10am. So I felt, that this wouldn't be a good service for Cornwall.
Another consortium that was bidding for the license was Cornwall FM. They were the only consortium proposing hourly local news from 6am to 6pm, and local programmes until 10pm. The consortium went into a lot of detail about the tempo and format of each of their programmes and even presentation style. I still have some stuff I photocopied from that application.
Cornwall FM were just a group of local businessmen who had an idea for a radio station. And their application was, I felt, the best. It didn't devalue Cornwall for radio, something BBC Radio Cornwall hadn't done either. Neither was it, to my mind, too ambitious, unlike another consortium I remember which despite only offering local news at morning, lunch and afternoon drivetime slots, proposed 24 hour local programming with a multitude of presenters, something in the recessionary climate of the time I felt was quite desirable, but very impractical, especially for a brand new station.
In late October of 1991, the Radio Authority gave the go ahead to the Cornwall FM consortium and in less than 6 months, on April 3 1992, Pirate FM launched to the waiting world of Cornwall. They initially provided 18 hours of presenter led programming and 6 hours of computer driven programming all locally from its base in Pool, Redruth. These days, they still provide 24 hours of local programming most days, except for 5 hours on Sundays from 2pm to 7pm, which is up on their initial 3 hours a week on Sundays, but nowadays they have presenters for 20 of those 24 hours on weekdays.
It was around the time of Pirate FM's launch that Radio Cornwall decided that it was going to go after an older audience with talk based programming and very little music. This meant that Pirate FM was going after the 25-54 audience whilst Radio Cornwall were looking at the over 50's. You might think it was a bit of a cosy duopoly, neither station really looking to compete with the other for audience, just sticking to the audience that they could go for most easily.
But it wasn't quite that simple. Some people felt that Pirate FM wasn't commercial enough, not going for the 18-35 audience but a broader 25-54 audience, whilst others felt Pirate was too commercial. Some people felt Radio Cornwall was too boring, whilst others felt it really should be all-talk and no music. To some people, both stations felt like compromises.
I did expect that when laws were passed to allow Restricted Service Licence radio stations, that Cornwall would be one of the areas that suddenly and strongly benefited from it. The range of opinions and ideas about both BBC and commercial radio meant that surely some consortia were going to try for a licence down here to try to influence the current local stations. But for years, nothing. Not one single RSL station started up. I was expecting the first one in 1994, a couple of years after Pirate's launch, but again, nothing. In 1997, I was beginning to think that all the opinions I'd heard were just that, opinions, with nobody looking to put their money where their mouth was.
Thankfully in 1997, that changed with Live 105. Live 105 was Cornwall's first RSL station and nobody knew what to expect. What they got in Truro and "Central Cornwall" was a dance music based station with some top 40 stuff in the daytime, and a continuous dance mix every evening and through the night. The organisers considered the station a success but I don't quite see it that way.
Yes, I could see that to Cornwall's youth, a dance music station would appeal, but when it had such luminaries as an ex-Pirate FM presenter called Eliot Turner, who, unfortunately for him, had an awfully monotonal voice, presenting on the station, and presenters who were too personality minded to let the music do the talking sometimes, it was never really gonna work properly. But it did introduce RSL's to Cornwall. I personally felt that Newquay would have been a better area for Live 105, not Truro. But Live 105 was the first RSL in Cornwall and although I was disappointed with it, I felt that more would come and better would be heard.
Progress on the RSL front has been very slow. In 1998, we had our first event RSL, Tall Ships FM, which ran for 28 days around the time of the Tall Ships race start in Falmouth. I wasn't involved in the station but I was involved in the on-site Public Address for the event, and we quite heavily promoted the station. In 1999, Newquay got its first local RSL with Malibu Surf FM. A service very much aimed at both the tourists and the local people, Malibu Surf FM provided relevant local information, including Tide times, surf conditions and traffic news, and dance music, very much in keeping with a town who's success is based very much on the local nightclubs.
Indeed it was so successful that the station returned in 2000 and 2001. 2000 also saw a project based RSL, called Red Youth Radio in Redruth, but again it was the wrong type of station for the location. Also it was too much of a mixture of music to be a really viable station idea for Cornwall. In 2001, we have again had 2 RSL's. Malibu Surf FM in Newquay, and CK-FM in Falmouth. CK-FM was a trial service, playing what they called Pure Gold Music, but with a fair amount of talk as well, not unlike what BBC Radio Cornwall used to do in the 1980's. Local News was provided at 2 minutes to the hour with IRN on the hour.
There was also a programme called the 7 o'clock Session to provide local bands a chance to have their music played on the radio. Whilst some of the ideas were great, others weren't and the presentation was at times just a little too relaxed and not professional enough, but all in all, the station actually doesn't sound bad, and just might get another RSL licence before the Radio Authority would consider applications for a "community" licence in Falmouth. So Falmouth, Truro, Redruth and Newquay have all seen RSL's since 1997.
A total of 7 licences have been issued since 1997. Considering the mixture of opinions I have heard since Pirate came on air, only 7 short term stations is in fact a little bit disappointing, considering the opportunities that have regularly presented themselves as being suitable for an RSL, and locations such as Truro and Redruth, that would benefit from the right station for the right audience. Falmouth and Newquay seem to have found their niches in my view, Truro, Redruth and other towns need still to find theirs.
Overall, when it comes to Local Radio, Cornwall has in my view faired relatively poorly compared to other places where there have been RSL's for many more years and plenty of stations that have come about from them. In the south west, both South Hams Radio, and Quay West Radio were originally RSLs, and there are plenty more nationwide.
Also, Cornwall has yet to benefit from DAB, and the increase in stations that brings, although having seen DAB licences awarded in other areas, I do not hold out much hope for a real extension of choice. Cornwall, like the rest of the South West has also yet to benefit from a regional service, unlike our Severn Estuary cousins, who have Galaxy 101.
I also note that at the last check there were no plans for regional DAB for the South West. I do feel that Cornwall and the South West would benefit from regional services. But plans for such services are not forthcoming. I'm afraid that as far as Local Radio in Cornwall goes, overall, it's a poor C- bordering on a D+. Could definitely do better
Text © Ian Beaumont
Compilation © Transdiffusion Broadcasting System. Used with permission.
Since this article was written, Galaxy 101 has now been sold to GWR who re-branded and re-launched the station as Vibe 101 in partnership with Scottish Radio Holdings. Following the intervention of the Competition Commission, GWR were forced to sell their interest and the station is now wholly owned by SRH. Aircheck Editor.
BBC LOCAL RADIO: BBC
Radio Cornwall (103.9 (West) & 95.2 (East) & 96 FM (Scilly Isles)
launched 17th January 1983, at 6:00am, just 30 minutes before BBC1 television
launched Breakfast Time. The first voice on air on
was presenter Chris Blount
with the breakfast programme Coast to Coast. Chris was already known to
some listeners from the Home Serviceís Morning Souí West. And he's
still very much part of the station today, presenting the Afternoon programme.
Other familiar voices in the early days included Tim Hubbard who is still
with the station on the breakfast show.
Over the years Radio Cornwall has won a host of awards and community and specialist honours including being one of the most popular radio stations in the country. There are news operations and studios dotted around the county, including Liskeard, Penzance and the Isles of Scilly. The station's Truro facility is also the county base for the BBC's regional TV news team.
BBC Radio Cornwall and BBC Radio Devon launched on that same day 17th January 1983. Radio Cornwall really did have the monopoly on local radio in the area. When Pirate FM launched in 1992, (see below), BBC Radio Cornwall went for a distinctly older sound, targeting listeners over 50 with barrowfulls of speech, and only a fraction of music, a policy replicated by BBC stations across the country, as dictated by London HQ. If you tune in to the station at the wrong time, and don't know any local dialect, you'll be confused. The station broadcasts for five minutes a week in Cornish, in the programme Ad Newodhow. www.bbc.co.uk/england/radiocornwall
COMMERCIAL: LOCAL (ILR)
PIRATE FM / PIRATE FM 102: Late October 1991: Cornwall FM's cautious but clever application had beaten the other applicant, the GWR boys hands-down. On-air, from April 3rd 1992, they would be known as Pirate FM, from studios at Pool, near Redruth. Critics felt that the new commercial station wasn't commercial enough, appealing to a wide demographic of 25-54 years olds rather than the younger element - but with the lack of a competitive nature to the local radio scene, others saw this as a valuable service to the majority. The set-up of Pirate FM 102 was the first task of the newly formed Infinity Radio Ltd, an investment and radio consultancy company. Following Pirate's successful launch, the subsequent merger between Pirate FM Ltd and UK Radio Holdings Ltd, on 30th September 1994, to form UKRD Group Limited cemented a relationship between a group of individuals who had, by then, been working together directly or indirectly for several years.
Today, 24 hour programming features except for 5
hours of programming from 2:00pm every Sunday. Only four hours of weekdays
are computer-led. It is then, clearly the first station for UKRD.
The original UK Radio
Developments was formed on 22nd August 1990 as a vehicle to invest in new
radio licences. Its first (initially minority) investment was in Cornwall's Pirate
FM 102. From small acorns, mighty oak trees grow. Pirate
FM102 is a music-led radio station, playing a mixture of contemporary and
classic hits and the usual news and information service you would expect from a
local radio station. It broadcasts on two frequencies; 102.2 (East
Cornwall) & 102.8 (West Cornwall & The Scilly Isles) from Carn Brea
Studios, Wilson Way, Redruth, Cornwall. it covers the whole area of
Cornwall, Plymouth and West Devon, an area of
3,000 square miles. Ex-Orchard FM presenter Bob McCreadie is
the Programme Controller. The station has retained it's familiar purple
& yellow logo, often seen with the station's parrot..well, every Pirate has
Pirate FM won the SONY Station of the Year' award in 2003 in the 300,000 to 1,000,000 adult listener sector at the ceremony stated at London's Grosvenor House Hotel. Station Manager Beverley Warne & Programe Director Bob McCreadie were on hand to receive the accolade. The station was praised for it's local focus and community involvement and it's professional attitude to it's job. That very same day, RAJAR figures released showed that the station had hit record audience figures for the second successive quarter. www.piratefm102.co.uk
RSL: See the article written by Ian Beaumont for details on the county's RSL activity. To supply further information, e-mail Thanks!
DIGITAL: The 46th digital radio licence has been advertised and awarded by the Radio Authority. Designed to cover around 650,000 adults, the licence is for Plymouth and most of Cornwall and, on launch, will run for 12 years. There are two separate frequencies allocated for this new network - 223.936MHz for Plymouth (VHF band 3 block 12A centre) and 218.640 (11B centre) for Cornwall. This licence was the last the RA will issue before handing over control to new communications regulator - OFCOM - the Office of Communcations. The winning applicant must, under the terms of the 1996 Broadcasting Act, provide access for local BBC stations, Devon & Cornwall, but otherwise, commercial stations must negotiate carriage with the licence holder. Bids had to be in by Tuesday 16th September with a decision expected by the end of 2003. In the early stages, groups planning a joint bid included both GWR and UKRD, who formed a consortium called 'South West Digital Radio Limited'. (GWR own 67% and UKRD the remaining 33%)
By the closing date, it was just the one previously declared interested party who were in the running. They propose to carry BBC Radio Devon on the Plymouth part of the multiplex, and BBC Radio Cornwall on the other part, Pirate FM (UKRD), Plymouth Sound (GWR), Classic Gold (UBC/GWR), Kiss (EMAP), The Storm (GWR), and an Access Channel featuring a selection of stations including student programming from 7:00pm to midnight courtesy of SBN. Two additional channels are planned for introduction during the licence term plus other Access elements.
On 6th November 2003, the RA awarded the licence to the sole applicant. Authority Chief Operating Officer David Vick said "We are extremely pleased to have completed the programme of local digital radio licensing which we embarked upon back in 1998, on schedule and with no loss of momentum. This has been due to the enthusiastic support given by the commercial radio industry, as multiplex operators and digital programme service providers, to this technology, which will transform radio listening in the years ahead. The UK is acknowledged to be the world-leader in the development of Digital Audio Broadcasting, and I am proud of the role which the Authority has been able to play in facilitating this." The service will launch in the Summer of 2004 using three transmitters at Plympton, Redruth and Caradon Hill, which should initially provide noise-limited outdoor coverage to 72.6% of the adult population of the main broadcast target area.
HOSPITAL RADIO: No details known
THE FUTURE: CORNWALL: In September 2004, OFCOM advertised a new licence for as much of the southern most UK country as possible considering technical statistics, with a potential audience of 410,000 adults aged 15 or over. Coverage again depends on transmitter site selected by the successful applicant. Two FM frequencies are being made available here - on a par with Pirate FM who operate on 102.2 & 102.8FM. The frequencies allocated are 105.1 & 107.0 - international approval is being sought for output from Caradon Hill, owned by NTL, at 8.0kw split across vertical and horizontal planes, 369m above ordnance data and and 167m above ground level, using 105.1. The other site is at Redruth, owned by Crown Castle, to use 107.0 at 20.0kw across both planes, 229m above Ordnance data and 132m above ground level. Limited overspill will fall into parts of Plymouth although the licence is not designed to serve Plymouth, and OFCOM will not approve any plans which refer to a service partially targeted at this area through high signal strengths. The closing date is also Wednesday 8th December at 5:00pm, and £5,000 is the application fee in this case also. The closing date was also Wednesday 8th December at 5:00pm, and £5,000 was required from each of the eight applicants.
The Applicants are (in alphabetical order):
ATLANTIC FM: (Atlantic Broadcasting Ltd): A full service station for Cornwall with broadly-targeted daytime music and locally-focused speech, with a range of off-peak programmes to appeal to more specific tastes and interests.
CKFM: (CKFM Kernow Ltd): A music-based adult-melodic station serving Cornwall only, targeted mainly but not exclusively at mature listeners aged 40-59, playing a mix of easy-to-listen-to tracks from many eras with an accent on the '60s and '70s combined with intelligent speech focusing on the issues that matter to Cornwall's people.
CORNWALL'S 105-107 ITCHY FM: (IMD Radio Cornwall Ltd): A distinctive, relevant and lively local radio station for Cornwall 's Under 35 audience, playing popular youth targeted music predominantly from the last 10 years, plus specialist programming providing a credible, alternative with news, lifestyle, issues and events bringing together the local tastes and preferences that define young Cornwall today.
A radio group and a youth media and marketing group have formed this consortium to bid for the new licence across Cornwall and the South West, EMAP Performance and IMD (Interactive Media Developments) Group have formed Radio South West Ltd. The latter have long campaigned for a local station just for the area, and, now into their 5th year of operation, they have their chance to win a licence, especially with the previous short-term licence for Plymouth - Eclipse 106FM - and the many local campaign meetings which have generated significant levels of support.
The new Cornish licence is one of nine originally proposed by OFCOM's predecessor The Radio Authority, as far back as 2002 - OFCOM are now in consultations with the radio industry with a view to broaden the overall availability of a licence in the South West, something which the intended applicant welcomes and which it is determined to make a commercially viable service. It is expected the Radio South West bid will target a distinctly youth-based audience, notably the under-30s.
Sarah Adams, IMD Radio's Local Partnership Manager feels that the decision to advertise a licence for the area was of key importance: "The decision provides the clarity required to know exactly what we can commit to with local organisations and businesses as we plan for a socially inclusive youth radio station. It gives us with the foundation for a strong, local bid to build an exciting new music station here in Cornwall, as well as achieving our aim of supporting Cornwall's regeneration through creating a new and effective communication channel to reach the county's youth." IMD have already carried out considerable levels of research - stemming back two years, and the results show a ready-made set of listeners currently stated to be underserved by existing services, with the youth of the region finding no comfort with commercial local radio at all, and instead, choosing Radio 1. OFCOM's research into the matter of how appropriate a licence for the area was, showed 76% of the areas's 16-24 year olds taking interest in a new commercial radio station and that the age group were, as a majority, pretty dissatisfied with the services currently available.
IMD have spent much time pressing OFCOM to formally advertise the licence, to enable them to begin work on it's final licence application. You can find out more about IMD's plans at www.imdradio.co.uk
EXTREME RADIO: (Extreme Radio Limited): A vibrant, upfront voice for young people in Cornwall - playing an upbeat mix of urban dance, R&B, and rock - with news, information and entertainment that addresses their priorities.
KERNOW FM: (Kernow FM Ltd): An independent, locally produced and dedicated Cornwall service for those in the 35 plus age group. Classic tracks from the last 5 decades, combined with comprehensive local news and information. Kernow FM will reflect Cornwall 's passion for its heritage and will champion the county's new sense of cultural and economic revival.
ST. PIRAN FM: (St. Piran FM Limited): A locally focused music led Cornish station targeted at adults aged 35+ with a blend of classic adult contemporary music with regular, high-quality local news coverage, comprehensive traffic and travel reports and a rich range of information and speech features designed to be both distinctive and relevant to our target audience.
SOUWEST FM: (Cornwall Local Radio Limited): A distinctive new radio station for Cornwall , with a mix of good conversation, useful information and quality music designed mainly for the enjoyment of listeners aged 45 and over.
TIME FM: (Time FM Cornwall Limited): A full local service of classic and contemporary music, news, information and features aimed at and relevant to people in the County of Cornwall over 40 years old, in particular those aged 45-64. This is understood to be an extension of the existing Time FM services around Middlesex - the brand is run by Sunrise Radio.
Again, a decision on who the successful applicant is, is expected in the New Year.