Separatist and Regionalist Movements

by Michael Ruby

Here you'll find links to movements and articles that support or give information on creating new nations out of old (sometimes old nations out of new); getting independence or recognition for a certain group of people in a nation.
I do not necessarily support all of these, as some advocate violence, but most are peaceful separatist movements.

As some of these are in languages other than English, you may find this translating web page useful.
It translates pages from French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese.

Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia

Bougainville The Bougainville Freedom Movement wants independence of this Melanesian island from Papua New Guinea. There are interim governments for Bougainville based in Australia and the Solomon Islands.

Hawai'i 100 years ago, in 1898, Hawai'i was illegally annexed by the United States. Today there are some that want independence again. The Hawai'ian Independence Homepage has a lot of information. Here are two sites wanting to restore the Kingdom of Hawai'i. 1. Kingdom of Hawai'i 2. Kingdom of Hawai'i.

Kanak Nation Here is a declaration of sovereignty and recognition of culture of the native people of New Caledonia. New Caledonia is presently ruled from France. Here is a statement on New Caledonia by Eloi Machoro.

Loro Sae Loro Sae or East Timor, was invaded by Indonesia in 1975. Since then 200,000-300,000 East Timorese people have been killed or starved by the occupying army. Many more have been tortured. See the East Timor Freedom Page, Loro Sae - Timor Home Page, East Timor International Support Centre and the East Timor Information Pages for more information.

Maluku Republik Maluku's objective is to regain independence from Indonesia for the Moluccan Islands. There has been a government in exile in the Netherlands since 1992. See article here for information about the Republic of the Moluccas. More information about the Moluccas is in this article. Here is Maluku Online in Dutch.

Polynesia Tahiti's main independence party, Tavini Huiraatira (Polynesian Liberation Front), wants independence for French Polynesia from France. The party has made huge gains because of France refusing to halt nuclear tests in French Polynesian waters.

West Papua The Free Papua Movement (OPM) wants independence for this western half of New Guinea from Indonesia. Here is a statement by OPM of the self-determination of the people of West Papua. Here is a statement to the United Nations by OPM.

East Asia

Karen The Karen National Union wants self-determination and autonomy (not independence) for the people of the Karen province of Myanmar. See the article from the KNU here.

Okinawa This area was taken by Japan and became a prefecture in 1879. However, Okinawa is not part of Japan, and could possibly be set up with other islands as the Republic of the Ryukyus. This web site has information on that fact.

Southern Mongolia This area was taken over by the People's Republic of China in 1947 and its independence is promoted by the Southern Mongolian Freedom Federation, found on the Free Inner Mongolia Page.

Tibet China invaded Tibet in 1950, killed many people and destroyed many things of Tibetan culture. There are many movements to free Tibet, one of the most well known and popular independence movements. Here is one from CACCP, here is the International Tibet Independence Movement, and here is the official web page of the Tibetan government in exile.

Uyghuristan (Eastern Turkistan) (Xinjiang) This is a region in the northwest of China forcibly taken over by the People's Republic. A web page for its freedom is Free Eastern Turkestan. There was a CNN News article on 12 January, 1998 on Uyghur fighters.

Former Soviet Union

Abkhazia was placed under Georgian control by the Soviet Union. However, Georgia declared all Soviet laws invalid, and the Abkhazians wanted independence, declaring in on July 23, 1992. To regain control, Georgia invaded. The Abkhazians won the war but still have not been recognized by Georgia or any other nation. Here is more information at the Abkhazia Homepage.

Chechnya This is the official web site of the Chechen Republic. Chechnya seceded from Russia in 1992. After a several year war of independence, and a Russian withdrawal, still no one has recognized Chechnya. In its last elections, Chechnya elected a pro independence government.

Dniestr Moldovan Republic Moldova is a Romanian majority nation. Some there want to join Romania. Some Slavic people in the east though have established a Dniestr Republic based in Tiraspol. They see it possibly as joining the Russo-Belorussian union in the future. Here is an article on the Dniestr president and an article about separatism in Moldova.

Western and Central Europe

Ausonia Lega Sud wants the independence of the southern part of Italy from the north, which they believe is draining the nation's economic resources. They want an independent south, with some autonomy for the member regions (Abruzzi, Molìse, Campania, Puglia, Basilicata, Calabria, Sicilia, Sardegna) of Ausonia.

Açores [Azores (EN)] This island group in the Atlantic Ocean has an independence group called the Azores Liberation Front that wishes the islands to be independent from the Portuguese Republic. Stephane Dowet's Information on Açores

Aragón This northern Spanish region has a regionalist/independence movement called the Aragonese Party. Stephane Dowet's Information on Aragón

Asturias This region on the northern coast of Spain has a regionalist web page called Andecha Astur. If you can read the Asturian/Spanish/Whatever It Is, then visit it. Here is a similar page on Asturias that is on a server in Spain. Stephane Dowet's Information on Asturias

Bayern [Bavaria (EN)] The separatist Bavaria Party is seeking sovereignty and eventual independence for the Southern German state of Bavaria, the largest German State. Bavarian politicians believe that the trend in Europe is shifting governmental power to regional and local levels as national borders are erased while the economy of Europe becomes united.

Breizh [Bretagne (FR), Brittany (EN)] This French region has an independence organization called Parti pour l'Organisation d'une Bretagne Libre. Stephane Dowet's Information on Breizh

Catalunya [Catalonia (EN)] The Convèrgencia Democràtica Catalunya (Democratic Convergence of Catalonia) promotes the direct participation of Catalunya in the building of a Europe of peoples. Joves d'Esquerra Nacionalista is for the independence of Catalunya from Spain.

Cornwall Mebyon Kernow wants self-government for Cornwall within the United Kingdom and European Union with decisions made as locally as possible.

Corsica the Corsican National Liberation Front is a violent group wanting independence from France. There is another group with a web site called Corsica-Nazione.

Euskadi (Basque Country) The land of the Basque has several separatist movements including ETA and the Basque National Party. Learn about Euskadi by visiting the Euskal Herria Journal, and

Galicia The Galician Nationalist Coalition wants independence for the northwesternmost region of Spain. Stephane Dowet's Information on Galicia

Gymru [Wales (EN)] The Plaid Cymru want independence for Wales, and membership in the European Union and in the United Nations.

León Conceyu Xoven (Young Council) wants self-government for León from Spain and recognition of Leónese language.

Occitania Parti Nacional Occitan wants independence of the southern Provençal-speaking part of France, including Aquitaine, Midi-Pyrenees, Languedoc-Roussillon, Provence-Alpes-Cote-d'Azur, and parts of Rhone-Alpes, Auvergne, and Limousin. Stephane Dowet's Information on Occitania

Padania Lega Nord wants independence of the northern part of Italy from the southern part, which they believe is draining the North's economic superiority and sending all the money into the hands of Southern bureaucrats.

Savoie The Savoisian League wants independence for the Savoy area, with the borders of Lake Geneva to the North, the highest points of the Alps (Mont-Blanc) to the East, the Dauphiné region to the South, and the rivers Rhône and Guiers to the West. This sovereign area was annexed by France following the treaty of Turin in 1860.

Scotland The Scottish National Party is campaigning for eventual Scottish independence within the EU. They have succeded in gaining a parliament in Edinburgh in which they will most likely hold a large amount of the seats.

Ulster Ulster-Nation believes that Northern Ireland should be its own nation, independent of both the United Kingdom and Ireland.

Vlaanderen [Flanders (EN)] Vlaams-Blok wants Belgium to be separated into Flanders and Wallonia, respectively Dutch and French speaking.

Wallonie [Wallonia (EN)] Information on Wallonia, the French-speaking region of Belgium. Also found here is an idea for the division of Belgium and what is to be done about Brussels.


Alaska The Alaskan Independence Party wants a referendum for Alaska like the one that they were entitled to in 1958. This time the referendum would have the option of Alaska becoming an independent nation. The party wants independence for the U.S. state of Alaska under a minimal government.

Algonquin Nation This article says if Québec secedes from Canada, the Algonquin Nation has the right to secede from Québec either staying with Canada or forming an independent nation.

Nevis In the Caribbean nation of St. Kitts and Nevis, the Island of Nevis is renewing its call for secession. Attempts by the Premier of Nevis in 1990 to forge ahead with secession was derailed. If successful this time, Nevis would become the smallest nation on earth at just 35 square miles (100 square km).

New England The movement started by Paul Eno's web page is growing. The concept of a transition to eventual independence of the six New England states has a surprising amount of support. The New England Confederation now has chapters in three states.

Northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota The North Star Republic site advocates secession of this area from the United States.

Nuevo León This site advocates creation of the independent Republic of Nuevo León from Mexico with its capital at Monterrey.

Ontario This site believes that Ontario will be its own nation after the secession of Québec, Western Canada, and the Maritimes, so we might as well think about independence now.

Republic of Pampas Secession of the southernmost states from Brazil (article in bottom right of page in Portuguese).

Puerto Rico This newspaper advocates independence of Puerto Rico from the United States.

Québec Parti de Québécois proposes an independent Québec from Canada.

Southern United States The Southern League wants peaceful secession of the southern United States. It is not a racist movement as far as I know.

Texas This site advocates the creation of a free, small-government Republic of Texas (not associated with Richard McLaren's militia group in 1997 news).

Western Canada the Western Canada Concept advocates secession of the western four provinces of Canada and the northern territories.

Middle East and South Asia

Kashmir - independence of Muslim Kashmir from Indiia.

Khalistan - a Sikh homeland in Punjab, formed out of India.

North-Eastern India - CNN article about separatism in this region by dozens of ethnic groups.

Kurdistan - a homeland for the Kurds now living in IIraq, Turkey, Iran and Syria

Palestine - Palestinian National Authority

Tamil Eelam - Tamil homeland in northern Sri Lanka

Africa and Indian Ocean

Anjouan In the Islamic Republic of The Comoros, off the southeastern coast of Africa, the island of Anjouan declared its independence on August 3, 1997, after months of protests and clashes with security forces. On October 25, 1997, a referrendum on the island overwhelmingly approved secession, but the government refuses to recognize it. Unemployment on Anjouan is nearly 90%.

Boer Nation BoereData has information on a Boer-Afrikaner republic in South Africa.

Puntland CNN article containing idea of secession of Puntland, the relatively prosperous northeast region of Somalia.

Sahrawi Republic Western Sahara has been occupied by Morocco for 23 years and will finally hold a referendum on its independence in 1998.

Saya de Malha - an independent atoll in the Indian Ocean

Unification Movements

European Federation - Stephane Dowet's iidea of a Federal Europe.

Khilafah - one state for all Muslims, end of seculaar and separate Islamic nations, based on Quran scripture.

Other sites and essays about the future of the nation-state

Stalking the Wild Taboo: Secession and the Modern State

The Coming Anarchy

Fourth World Documentation Project


Ethnologue: Languages of the World

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization

Nation Planet

Contra Mundum


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