Arts Advocacy

Why Study Music?
The Benefits of Chamber Music - Chamber Music America Newsletter V.10, No.1 November 1998
The Benefits of Small Ensembles: are they worth the Hassle? by Dr. Michael Bell, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio
Musical Pursuits Helps Students Achieve by Ruth DeGolia for The Plain Dealer, Wednesday, February 24, 1999
The Mozart Effect from the American Music Conference
Keeping Mozart in Mind by Gordon Shaw / Academic Press
Music Making and Wellness from the "Today Show" with Dr. Joyce Brothers
Americans Support Music Education
The Power of Music Education
Links to Music Advocacy Organizations

Musical Humor

Rules for Life by Charles Sykes, author of "Dumbing Down Our Kids"
A Stone to Cut and a Brick to Lay: by Robert Shaw
A Players Guide on How to Keep Conductors in Line by Donn Laurence Mills
Eugene Ormandy Quotes
How to Cook a Conductor


It is exact, specific, and it demands exact acoustics. A conductor's full score is a complex chart, a graph which indicates frequencies, intensities, volume changes, tempo changes, melody, harmony all at once and with the exact control and interpretation.

Music is rhythmically based on the busdivision of time into fractions whcih must be done instaneously, not worked out on paper.

Most of the terms are in Italian, German or French and the actual notation is certainly not English; but a highly developed type of shorthand communication that uses symbols to represent ideas and even emotions. The semantics of music are the most complete and universal language.

Music reflects the time and place of it's own creation as well as the belief systems of the composer, and therefore the greater society that they lived in.

It requires fantastic coordination of fingers, hands, arms, lips, cheeks, and facial muscles in addition to extraordinary control of the diaphramatic, back , stomach, and chest muscles for respiration. All of these physical needs must respond instantly to the sound that the ear hears and the mind can imagine.

Music is all of these things, but most of all, MUSIC IS ART...
It allows a human being to take all these dry, technically boring (but nonetheless quite difficult) techniques and use them to create emotion. That is one thing that science cannot duplicate: humanis, feeling, emotion, call it what you will.

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A recent study of preschoolers determined that children who received paino/keyboard training perfomred 34% higher on tests measuring spatial-temporal ability than the children receiving computer instruction.
-From Neurological Research, Feb 1997

Music lessons have been shown to improve a child's performance in school. After eight months of keyboard lessons, preschoolers tested showed a 46% boost in their spatial I.Q. which is crucial for higher brain functions such as complex mathematics.
-From presentation to the American Psychological Association, August 1994

Disadvantaged preschoolers display dramatic improvements in spatialreason ability after music training.
-Drs. Rauscher and Shaw, University of California, Irvine.

Parents are crucial in helping implment the National Standards for Arts Education by assessing the school's arts education program and teacher qualification; evaluating the community's cultural assets; and forming an arts education coalition.
-What Parents Can Do, Music Educators National Conference and the National PTA.

Today's music students are more self-motivated, interested in technology, and are better musicians than sudents two decades ago.
-1995 survey condcuted by the Music Teachers National Association

"The President's challenge to have all American students reading well by the end of the third grade and proficient in math, by the end of the eight grade, offers a further rationale to support music and arts education. Because if music education stimulates math, science and reading achievement, then the one would seem to lay the groundwork for the other"
-U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley.

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Everyone has some natural musical ability. How much may be limited by our genes, but it is our environment and experience that determine whether we reach that potential. It's never too late to start lessons. While experts recommend early exposure to music, new studies show that the brain is in a lifelong process of growth and renewal. Indeed, now might be a great time to take lessons yourself!

SPEAK RHYTHMICALLY: Just talking to a baby in a high-pitched, rhythmic, singsong speech-style ("baby talk") is making music with your child.
SING SONGS: to your baby throughout the day and end with an evening lullaby. Interact with her when you sing. Move her arms and legs to the rhythm.
LISTEN TO MUSIC: Put on Mozart or the like.
BUT DON'T OVERDO IT: Be aware of how much stimulation children can comfortably receive.

INTRODUCE YOUR CHILD TO MUSICAL ACTIVITIES: These can be fun games, such as playing different rhythms and clapping your hands together with him. give him a sense of high and low, loud and soft.
START TO ACQUAINT: chilren with different instruments - recorders and drums, for example - and patiently listen to their experiences.
ASK CHILDREN TO EXPRESS THEIR FEELINGS: about what they hear by creating a drawing.

MUSIC LESSONS: Between the ages of 2 1/2 and 4, depending on your child's affinity and aptitude, you can start music lessons: piano and violin are the most popular. Ther are several ways to teach music to preschoolers like traditional lessons, Suzuki or Yamaha methods, as well as the systmes of the composer Zoltan Kodaly and Carl Orff.
INEXPENSIVE SUBSTITUTES: If you can't afford lessons, get a littel keyboard for around $30.
LET THEM HAVE FUN: "Don't put the child in a situation where he's being forced to learn something he's not enjoying," says Dr. John Grassi, a learning specialist. There must be a balance between the discipline required to play an instrument and the enjoyment he gets from the process of music-making.

GET INVOLVED: in your children's activities at school. If there is no music in the curriculum, take immediate action. Administrators listen to parents.

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American Music Conference International Service:

American Orff-Schulwerk Association:

Dalcroze Society of America:

Early Childhood News:

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education:

Idea Box: Early Childhood Education and Activity Resources:


MENC - The National Association for Music Education:

Music for Little Folks:


Organization of American Kodaly Educators:

National Association for the Education of Young Children:

National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education (US Department of Education):

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The School Music Program: A New Vision

Infants and very young children experience music by hearing it, by feeling it, and by experimenting with pitch and timbre in their vocalization. Children should experience music daily while receiving caring, physical contact. Adults can encourage the musical develoment of infants by:

1. Singing and chanting to them, using songs and rhymes representing a variety of meters and tonalities.

2. Imitating the sounds infants make.

3. Exposing them to a wide variety of vocal, body, instrumental, and environmental sounds.

4. Providing exposure to selected live and recorded music.

5. Rocking, patting, touching, and moving with the children to the beat, rhythm patterns, and melodic direction of the music they hear.

6. Providing safe toys that make musical sounds the children can control.

7. Talking about music and its relationship to expression and feeling.

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What does chamber music participation require of the musicians?

What are the by-products of chamber music participations?

What are the advantages of chamber music activity by students?

What are the advantages of chamber music presentations by professional ensembles?

Why is chamber music often a “tough sell” in schools? Chamber music often...

What are some solutions to these problems? All solutions are local; assume nothing. But in general: engage in partnerships, collaborations, ongoing relationships, and marketing of your program.

Flying Together - Chamber Music America Newsletter Volume 10, No.1 November 1998

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Dr. Michael Bell - Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

As string players, most orchestra teachers have played in their fair share of small ensembles. Such ensemble playing may start as early as middle school age, but almost certainly starts by college, and often continues through the professional career. It seems that many string players continue performing during their teaching career, and many string teachers are members of permanent ensembles that perform regularly. In a recent survey, 2/3 of orchestra teachers reported that they participate in some performing group reularly. If ensemble playing is such a big part of our musical lives, shouldn't we routinely offer it to your students?

A chamber ensemble program that is well developed, thoughtfully controlled by the teacher, and allows students to expand their musical experiences can be an exciting part of the string curriculum. It can strengthen the program in many ways and help keep the student motivation high. I am convinced that such ensemble experiences for the students can improve retention in the program, as well as increase the musical responsibility of all the players in the orchestra.

There are, of course, many different possibilities for the design and implementation of an ensemble program. I have, unfortunately, seen examples of students in an ensemble being treated unfairly, such as scheduling too many performances, or being used as the primary fund-raiser for the entire orchestra program. I also do not claim that an ensemble program will save students from bad teaching in the orchestra class, or that it is the only way to reach goals mentioned above. However, it is one way to help students develop autonomy and make choices that affect their musical lives. There are also many organizations (for instance, Chamber Music America and local, state, and national professional organizations) and individuals to which teachers may turn for information, suggestions, and guidance in creating an ensemble program.

In this article, I will offer some of the lessons I have learned through my years of teaching and directing a systematic ensemble program, plus some tricks I have learned from other teachers and insights I have gained from observing other programs. I will also offer some strong reasons for the inclusion of chamber music in the string curriculum. I hope that some of the ideas will make it easier for you to start, continue, or expand an ensemble program for all of your students.

First, let me describe such a chamber ensemble program. I believe that two very important characteristics are starting ensembles as soon as possible (during the second year at the latest) and encouraging (or requiring) all students to be involved in ensembles. It is a grave disservice to students to wait until late middle school or high school to start small ensembles. A common reason to postpone ensembles may be the belief that everage students just don't play well enough in middle, or certainly elementary school. However, if the teacher has a good selection of easy duet and trio music this argument loses much of its validity. Reasons for starting earlier are that a large number of students already may have dropped out of the orchestra program by eighth or ninth grade. also, many students by that time are heavily involved in other activities (sports, student government, academic clubs, etc.) and won't have time to practice additional music.

Ensemble playing was part of our string curriculum, and therefore was easy to justify to the students. Ensembles were introduced in class during the second year, or in or case, the sixth grade. Often a quartet or quintet of older students played, but sometimes a visiting group performed or a videotaped performance served as the formal instroduction. By this time the students had played enough rounds and multi-part literature that each student could succeed at holding a part to himself/herself if the rhythms weren't too complicated. Of course, this skill of independence was a major goal of instruction. The ensembles created a great deal of practice, and ultimately a test, of this ability for each student only one player was allowed per part.

Schools or adminisrators may have rules preventing a teacher from requiring outsdie activities, but teachers have many methods of encouraging student participation. My requirements were that all students had to be involved in at least one ensemble, they had to select the music they were to practice, and they had to play for me, in private, if they did not perform in public. The method that worked best for me as a middle school teacher was to announce a date for forming ensembles, with the students turning in their self-created groups by that date. Any student that was not in an ensemble was assigned to one, but rarely did I have to do this assignment task. Occasionally, however, I would ask students to be in a second ensemble with players that more closely matched their ability, if they had to choosen to play with their best friend who played at a drastically different level. It may have been my enthusiams for ensembles, but a much more common problem occurred the first time ensembles were formed. I had to convince students they shouldn't be in four or five groups; they should limit it to one, or two at the most, and perform better instead of more.

Once the groups had been formed, I would allow each ensemble a small amount of time during class to select music. I usually handed the players several books (there are many now available, some even correlated to method books) with proper instrumentation and on the correct level of difficulty for the group. Many time I would suggest several pieces that I thought fit the ensemble's strengths and personalities, but they were under no obligation to choose those pieces. Each ensemble was sent to a room (one or two groups per day) for about 15 minutes to play through pieces and chose one. It often took this first practice session for the studnets to learn they did not have time to fight about who sat where or argue about which peice they would play first, but this is an important and necessary lesson.

Although the students had been instructed that an efficient strategy was to play through severl pieces and then vote, some groups took several practice sessions to understand the group dynamics of an ensemble. If necessary, a second 15-20 minute session was granted during a class a few weeks later. This was the maximum amount of class time allowed, as the students were then expected to meet outside of class. I was almost always available before and after school for help. I also had instructed the students to choose ensemble partners that would be easy to work with, who lived relatively close by, and who had compatible schedules, if possible.

Performances were optional. Each group decided if, or when, they would perform. I made the suggestion that when they were choosing players to work with they should try to match the performing wishes of all the members. This would save the group much time and reduce the arguments later. We had a wide variety of performance opportunities for the ensembles. Possible performances included, but were not limited to: 1.) playing during orchestra class; 2.) playing in the orchestra room at a PTA meeting for a small group of parents and string students; 3.) playing at school functions such as open house, back to school night, etc.; 4.) playing on an orchestra concert; and, 5.) playing for a judge at festival. Some ensembles, but usually just a few, chose not to perform publicly and played for me. The large majority chose to perform, and a few ensembles went beyond the requirements by playing in a school talent show or at church. Some arranged other performances without my help, but hopefully informed me so I could make suggestions about set-up and room acoustics and review their literature for its appropiateness.

I encouraged students to form duets or trios the first year, and gradually increase the complexity in later years as they gained experience. By the second year (seventh grade) many of the students made surprisingly wise choices in playing partners and music selection. By the third year (eight grade), the process worked very smoothly and the ensembles seemed as important to the students as full orchestra and private lessons. Many of these students continued ensemble playing in their high school years, with other orchestra teachers, even when there were no requirements and often little encouragement. I must say, however, that some of these later teachers pushed ensembles as much as I did (bravo!).

Undoubtly, a comprehensive ensemble program is extra work for the teacher. One must examine, select, and buy music; teach additional skills in class, and allow limited class time for ensemble practice; spend much more time outside of class coaching ensmbles and arranging performances in addition to all of one's other duties. However, there are many important reasons for including ensembles in the string curriculum.

When every student plays regularly in ensembles over several years, each student develops more sense of personal responsibility compared to only playing in a large orchestra. If they are the only one who can fix a problem in an ensemble (if they personally don't crescendo, the viola parts doesn't get any louder!), this sense can be transferred to orchestral situations easily.

The interest level of students may rise, as some students play music from their families' culture or ethnic background. Ensembles have been an impetus for many students practicing (and even performing) with parents, grandparents, or other family members. Such students, who are often not the class superstars, are much more likely to be playing when they become grandparents! Many students started taking private lessons or tried out for honors orchestras because of the success they achieved in small ensemble experiences. When students have a chance to choose their music they enjoy playing more and may even practice more.

The program as a whole may improve as fewer students drop out, and the students who remain in the program are happier and more successful. The literature chosen by the students allows the teacher to individualize instruction, and I sometimes assigned short pieces (always in addition to the chosen repertoire) to help correct specific technical problems for the players. The inclusion of small ensembles also allows many opportunities (often beyond those planned by the teacher) to expand the orchestra curriculum, as the nine national standards suggest. Students have arranged or composed pieces for ensembles to play too. Sometimes students will choose an ensemble composer or pieces as the topic for a project in history of english class. Many students became curious about the composer or culture of a piece they chose, and surfed the internet or looked in reference books to better understand the work or make appropiate stylistic decisions.

The teacher also received benefits from an ensemble program. The literature chosen by students often increases the teacher's interest level. I found that helping stufents with their ensemble music and coaching ensemble practices was an ideal way for me to get to know each individual student better, both for playing strengths and weaknesses and on a personal level. I think these will greatly reduce teacher burn-out and increases teacher satisfaction.

Finally, we know that orchestra teaching is a very special field. Recent research suggests that about 15% of schools nationwide offer a string program, but the number seems to be growing and we hope this trend continues. We have recognized, as a profession, that there will soon eb (although it already exists in some areas) a shortage of qualified orchestra teachers. We must each make a conscious effort to identify students with the potential to become master teachers, and give them an opportunity to fall in love with string playing and teaching. Presenting extra performances, conducting, learning about the theory and history of music, or coaching a younger ensemble may allow us to focus different - not more - attention on these potential teachers.

In short, a wider range of activities as well as unplanned, serendipitous learning may be the best reason for including a comprehensive small ensemble program in your orchestra curriculum.

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Creating, Funding, Nurturing
OMEA 2000, Cleveland, OH / Sheraton Ritz Hotel
Friday, January 28, 2000 / 3:30-5:00PM Ritz Room

1. Instills love for chamber music.
a. It promotes involvement with another body of great musical literature.
b. As adult musicians, our students are just as likely, if not more likely, to be able to play in a smaller ensemble than a larger one.
c. Playing chamber music promotes the development of life skills and creates an outlet for future musical enjoyment.
2. Builds musical skills. One-on-a-part playing demands greater responsibility of each individual musician. It develops a heightened sense of pitch awareness, rhythmic stability and balance. It helps students develop listening, rehearsal, communication, social and business skills. 3. Benefits large ensembles. Basically, it helps students learn how to play music better, together. The musical skills learned in chamber music playing transfer directly into musical improvements in band or orchestra. Imagine having the entire orchestra¹s brass section involved in weekly brass choir rehearsals; or your principal string players in a string quartet; or principal orchestral woodwinds and brass in quintets; or your flutes or clarinets or saxophones, trumpets or horns or low brass in homogenous wind choirs; or your drum line in a percussion ensemble. They return from chamber ensembles to large ensembles with augmented music making skills that not only improve their playing and attitude, but also positively effect their peers around them. Symphony (HHS) has winds/brass/percussion 5 days/week. Brass Choir members are pulled out of HHS one day/week and do not receive CE Independent study credit since their commitment occurs during the class period. 4. Expands involvement of the school with the community. Imagining a school music program at the center of a community (and they often are), there are several arenas that are impacted by the presence of an active chamber music program. a. School administrators enjoy having music at ceremonies, meetings and receptions for which CE are well suited. b. Community and business organizations often request CE to play for their events. c. Community musicians enjoy instructing and working with younger musicians and are willing coaches. B. WHAT RESOURCES AND SUPPORT ARE NEEDED?
1. Money ­ from BOE, booster organizations, donations and grants. Repeat after me: "I LOVE MONEY!" 2. Coaches ­ active, freelance and retired music professionals and educators, college & conservatory students. 3. Sheet music and the CE library become a valuable and cherished resource. Start with the OMEA Solo & Ensemble list and add onto your library as coaches suggest and gigs demand. Local music stores, Shar and Luck¹s (string music), King (brass), Steve Weiss (percussion), Eble (woodwind) Many thanks to the students who compiled, organized and catalogued our chamber music library so that you could have a copy today. A copy of our CE library is in your packet 4. Rehearsal Space and Rehearsal Time ­ You should be present or available during rehearsals at your school. Serve as facilitator for the coach by making sure rooms are available, set-up, and parts are ready for rehearsal. There always seem to be "ideal days¹ for many groups to either practice on their own or with their coach. Maintain good rapport with your academic colleagues so that, if necessary, a CE can use a classroom for rehearsal. 5. Willing musicians seem to always be in abundance. The trick is to get them in the right combinations both in terms of instrumentation and matched abilities. Musicians are among the busiest students in the school. Be empathetic and creative when arranging rehearsals, however, the ultimate responsibility for the sound of the group rests with the CE performers. TEN STEP PLAN
1. Acquiring Financial Support ­ Remember, money and coaches are inexorably linked. More than 85% of the CE budget is used to pay coaches; the remainder is spent on sheet music and miscellaneous. Each coach receives an honorarium per service and typically one coach works with only one group. a. Sources of coaching money may come from any philanthropic source. Start with in-house grants from booster club, PTA, or administrative fund. This will become the "seed money" that will grow the funds to support the program. DON¹T EXPECT ALL OF THE MONEY TO COME FROM A SINGLE SOURCE. By broadening the funding base you also broaden the friendly support network so that more entities share ownership in the program. Initially five granting agencies funded the CE program at Heights for its first three years. A copy of a successful grant application is contained in your packet b. Establishing a funded line item in your BOE music budget takes time, perseverance, seizing opportunities and establishing goodwill. It can be and should be done. c. Donations can create "endowed" coaching positions and also help defray coaching costs. "Brass coaching is provided by generous donation from the parents of Jane Doe (¹92) in memory of her grandfather, Johnny Doe, Sr." d. Booster clubs and PTA¹s are important sources of funding. 2. Coaches form the backbone of the CE program. Use an interlocking, ever expanding network to contact, recruit and meet coaches. Sometimes coaches will suggest colleagues for you to contact. It¹s impossible to have too many potential coaches. Often the IMD becomes a hub where coaches meet each other for the first time, or renew acquaintances as they network among themselves. When recruiting coaches, conduct a face-to-face interview at the location where coaching will occur, if you plan to hire them. Keep résumés of local musicians on file. As program director, you may have to fill in when coaches are absent, but work with coaches to find short-term substitutes. Make it the coaches responsibility to find someone to fill-in, then the coach pays the sub. Each ensemble has a weekly rehearsal with their coach and in most cases, one additional weekly rehearsal on their own. a. Even coaches who say they want to volunteer should get paid anyway. That establishes a link between the coach and their responsibilities to the program. Maintain a "Service Invoice" [sample is in your packet] for each coach and keep service records up to date. Payments can be made monthly or after a completed rehearsal cycle, or at mutually agreed upon times. If possible, pay all coaches at the same time. There is additional paperwork involved in directing a CE program. Primarily, getting coaches paid and also with communications. b. Using school district music employees works, but compensating them is tricky (honorarium must pay into items from their negotiated agreement; also, see "Union Concerns", below). c. Use retired professional musicians and retired music educators. They are very experienced and willing to assist. Although they have flexible time schedules, be aware that retirees may have extensive vacation schedules, too. Be ready to fill-in when they are not available. d. Freelance musicians have tight schedules but make good coaches because of their current active role in the musical community. For some freelancers the honorarium may not be enough money. [When working with coaches, I never quibble or negotiate regarding money. Axiom1: Artist/coaches place a value on their time. Respect the monetary value that they set. To ask a coach to work for less often means they will withhold their best efforts and energy from the project. Our students deserve the best. Axiom2: as CE director I can only pay a specific amount per service, and all coaches receive the same dollar amount per service. If I cannot afford a coach I will tell them and ask them to recommend someone else.] e. Using college or conservatory students expands the function of the CE program to that of a training ground for coaches. 1) Often college students will use the ensembles they coach as a springboard for portfolio and résumé references in forthcoming job applications. 2) Make sure that college student coaches have dependable transportation. 3) Check their semester schedule to find out where the collegiate/public school schedule doesn¹t fit and plan to fill-in during those weeks. 4) College students rarely complain about the amount of the honorarium. Grad students are usually more reliable and more experienced than undergrads. f. It is the coach¹s responsibility to find someone to fill-in if they are absent; then the coach pays the substitute. 3. Union concerns occur when there is a perception that "outside" instructors are teaching students in the building that is a Œclosed shop¹. If your union is sensitive to this topic negotiate with the union president to work out details to everyone¹s satisfaction. Discuss an acceptable honorarium amount to pay coaches. At CHHS it is the hourly rate paid to substitute teachers, $17.50/hour. 4. Forming groups a. Have all students interested in an ensemble sign up; if specific students want to form an ensemble together, ask them to sign up as a group. With this list of interested students you can start to form groups that have standard instrumentation and fill-in with non-standard groups where necessary. b. DISPARITY SPELLS DISASTER. Create ensembles with musicians of roughly equal skill level. Avoid "I want to be in a group with my friend". Wait until initial seating auditions have been completed or have students play a placement audition. Do you have fall seating auditions? c. LOOK FOR THE TSUNAMI EFFECT ENSEMBLE: an ensemble that only occurs when the right combination of players happens along at the same time. d. Each group should pick a name for their ensemble that meets your approval. e. String ensembles can start in the early fall as soon as groups are formed (after fall seating auditions) and coaches can be secured. A continuing string quartet can get you through fall gigs as you await the end of marching season. f. Wind, brass and percussion ensembles begin as soon after marching band as possible. Typically wind and percussion groups start the week immediately following the end of marching band; since they are used to after-school rehearsals this keeps them on a similar, but lighter schedule. Get coaches lined up well in advance so that once marching season is over they begin the next week. 5. Once groups have been established and a coach assigned to each group the real work begins: scheduling rehearsals and getting ensembles up-and-running. a. The ensemble and the coach must meet to find a common meeting time and the ensemble must find an additional rehearsal time to work together on their own. Use the beginning or end of large ensemble rehearsal for these brief scheduling meetings. b. As a rule, pullouts from large ensemble rehearsals are not the best idea. Ensembles and coaches have used lunch periods, before/after school times, rehearsing at school or at an ensemble member¹s home (instant social environment with food). c. Provide coaches and ensemble members with each other¹s phone numbers. Attendance is crucial and so is communication. It¹s everyone¹s responsibility to stay informed when situations arise that prevent a full rehearsal. d. Finding adequate rehearsal space can become a problem when many groups are formed and have the same preferred practice day. Use colleagues¹ classrooms, closets, out-of-the-way rooms once music area rooms are filled. Make sure ensembles clear their area after their rehearsal is over. e. Allow each CE member to fulfill an infrastructure job: librarian, contact person, set-up, snack organizer, social director, musicologist/researcher, phone tree, to name a few of the jobs. Each CE has its own unique needs and ways of organizing themselves.

6. Selecting music is made easier thanks to the OMEA Solo & Ensemble list. This is a superb starting point for music selection although not the end-all/be-all. [A copy of the IMD CE library is in your packet.] I¹d like to recognize several students who helped organize, compile and catalogue almost 300 titles for you today. Symphony secretary Danielle Trent. Stephanie Yohn, Jeremy and Molly Murray, Robert Greene and Anders Goldman. Also, Emily, our IMD groupie and school newspaper reporter. Thank You ALL.] a. Experienced coaches can often suggest the right pieces at the right time, but they may also depend upon your expertise as an educator who knows the ensemble members. b. Keep coaches and ensemble members informed of the performance schedule and what is expected at each. Each ensemble learns both serious and lighter musical selections. That way you have the right music for the right occasion. c. NEVER DISTRIBUTE ORIGINAL COPIES. NEVER ALLOW AN ORIGINAL COPY TO LEAVE THE REHEARSAL. Keep originals on file and have students rehearse from copies. Originals are mandatory at Solo & Ensemble Contest. d. Ensembles may choose to use 3-ring binders to organize their parts. Manila envelopes may work better than oversized Œconcert¹ folders (because Xeroxed copies are being used). Because the venues are often quite different, try to keep chamber music separated from large ensemble music by using some form of alternative music organizer. This avoids a myriad of problems: having wrong music; music being left, unique to ID and keep up with. e. Every ensemble member also needs a copy of the score. Students are asked to do "score homework" by marking cues in their part from what they observe in the score. Although it takes time initially to train students how to read the score and mark their parts with cues, this makes rehearsals much more effective and meaningful. Let me show you how this works. Score of Haydn.

7. Venues are numerous and varied a. Solo and Ensemble Contest is a given. As it turns out, our winter concert and the pre-concert recital has coincided with S/E. b. CE also perform at pre-concert recitals which precede each of the five major IMD performances. All pre-concert and in-school recitals are videotaped for future perusal. Videotape review is an important part of the learning process in CE. Some of the large chamber ensembles (brass choir, percussion ensemble, chamber strings) may perform on stage during concerts. c. Occasionally, students organize informal recitals in class. These are also video taped. d. There are invitations to participate in workshops and competitions. One of our guest coaches, Marcia Ferrito has created chamber music workshops for HS students in this area at Kent State. Also the Cavani String Quartet in residence at CIM does the same. e. There are requests for performances at assemblies, ceremonies and receptions. In-school performances are the bread-and-butter of making the CE program indispensable to administrators who can establish future funding for the program. Play for the BOE, receptions, school events of all kinds to add "a touch-of-class¹ to any event. That¹s how administrators may see it; we see it as yet another way students grow and develop musically and emotionally. f. Most importantly, ensemble members are instructed to visit the venue location to make sure that they understand where to set up and play. It is a MUST to get the lay-of-the-land. Do they need stands? Chairs? g. They are also instructed to directly contact the person requesting the performance to make sure everyone understands the order of the program at the event. Select the music that is right for the occasion.

8. Gigs - Requests for CE performances are numerous, especially around the holidays and in the spring when there are an abundance of recognition ceremonies and end-of-the-year banquets. CE should be prepared to play both serious and light selections. There are four important procedures for handling gigs: a. ALL REQUESTS MUST BE IN WRITING. This allows the person requesting the CE to more carefully plan the use of the CE¹s musical contribution. Once you have a written request in hand, Xeroxed copies can be distributed, posted and discussed with CE musicians and coaches. Once CE musicians check their calendars and can confirm a date, they take charge of finalizing specific arrangements of the gig with the person who requested it. Directors also have a written record of the request for their files. b. THE REQUESTING PERSON MUST PROVIDE "SOMETHING" FOR THE PERFORMERS. Never send a CE unless there is either food or money involved. Students who play at a reception should be fed. Civic or private groups can either pay the performers directly or make contributions to the music department. These contributions allow for the purchase of more chamber music. If the requesting organization won¹t at least feed students, the director should. c. ASK THE REQUESTING PARTY TO SEND A THANK YOU NOTE. After the gig copies of the note (sometimes with photos) are posted. This is great incentive. Take pictures, too. d. NEVER ALLOW CHAMBER ENSEMBLES TO PLAY AT EVENTS WHERE ALCOHOL IS SERVED. You can lose you teaching license and much more. Question the person requesting the CE specifically about the presence of alcohol at the performance site and explain to them the importance of a straightforward answer.

9. Using Publicity - "Enough, but not too much," is a viable approach. It is possible to become swamped with requests. We try and fill every legitimate request, but sometimes we have to say "No". Although students are really great about playing gigs, at some point it becomes more of a time commitment than is reasonable to ask of students. Sometimes scheduling conflicts won¹t allow a gig to be filled. a. The best publicity is the CE program itself. Whenever they play in public, people enjoy their music. Only groups that are prepared and organized get sent to gigs. b. Use a signboard at the performance site to let the audience know to whom they are listening. Print the CE groups¹ names on placards for a display board. Show the placardboard. Present at almost all outside gigs, like today. c. Let parents in the music department know that CE are available to perform at events so that they can spread the word and request CE performances. Rarely do we play the same venue twice (except for pre-concert recitals); each gig is different and may be new and unusual experience for the musicians. BR5 inside Masonic temple. d. Sometimes CE are simply unavailable for whatever reason. Respect that, contact the requesting party and honestly tell them the situation and welcome a future request

10. Academic credit - CE members receive P/F academic credit (.5 for the school year) for fulfilling "Independent Study" course requirements. [Copies of the course of study and I.S. form containing a distillation of course requirements are included in your packet] There are between 50-60 students enrolled in each of the last two years. CE¹s have become very popular and students seem to be enjoying their experience. Around one dozen groups rehearse weekly and receive credit.

Chamber Ensemble Checklist - TEN STEP PLAN!
1. Acquire financial support
2. Engage coaches
3. Anticipating union concerns
4. Form groups
5. Get started
6 Select music
7 Use a variety of venues
8 Managage your gigs
9. Use publicity wisely
10. Obtain

Cleveland Heights High School
Dr. Frederick R. Mayer


Elective. This course is considered to be year-long, although students may elect to enroll only in a single semester. The class is for students who wish to participate in a chamber ensemble (string trio or quartet, woodwind trio, quartet, or quintet, etc.) to acquire additional experience in performance techniques and musical repertoire. The class will meet before or after school (0° or 8°) and will be coached by professional musicians and educators. Successful participation in this ensemble requires attendance/participation in all activities including, but not limited to: one coached and one "uncoached" rehearsal weekly, a minimum of four performances each semester (either formal or informal), seminars and workshops (either in school or in the community), and assessment/evaluation of each performance. The course is open to any musician in Cleveland Heights H.S.

Fee: None Unit of credit: .25 per semester
Open to Grades: 9-12 Prerequisite: Audition


1. To develop understanding and apply skills for rehearsing and performing chamber music. 1.1 Students should learn to read a musical score for the chamber music they are preparing. 1.2 Students should be able to start and stop, make tempo changes, and observe all musical markings without a conductor during performances. 1.3 Students should learn to prepare their individual musical parts independent of their ensemble. 1.4 Students should learn non-verbal techniques (example: eye contact, breathing as an ensemble) commonly used in chamber ensemble playing. 1.5 Students should learn to take responsibility for safekeeping and maintenance of their sheet music. 1.6 Students should learn to take responsibility for time management in rehearsals and performances. 2. To study the musical contexts of chamber music repertoire. 2.1 Students should understand the context of the music being studied with knowledge regarding the historical events and the composer's life. 2.2 Students should provide a formal analysis of the music they are studying. 2.3 Students should observe through their attendance at chamber music events, both the standard and non-standard instrumentation of chamber ensembles. 3. To provide students with performance opportunities. 3.1 Students will perform at seminars and informal recitals at school. 3.2 Students will perform at formal chamber music recitals. 3.3 Students will perform at school functions. 3.4 Students will perform at community functions. 3.5 Students may perform in other venues which they themselves have established. 3.5 Students may perform at regional, state, or national contests for ratings. 4. To develop music research skills that will enable students to gather information for enhancing their musical performances. 4.1 Students will learn how to access biographical information about composers. 4.2 Students will learn how to locate and acquire authentic editions of music and compare them to their current performance editions 4.3 Students will identify and locate U.S. and international sheet music resources. 5. To provide opportunities for students to develop music business skills. 5.1 Students will learn how to establish and maintain personal contact with those requesting chamber music performances. 5.2 Students will learn how to use a written contract to establish a performance commitment. 5.3 Students will learn how to determine and fulfill the musical needs of performance requests. 5.4 Students will learn practical/professional skills of promptness, preparation of musical parts, having proper accessories, interdependence of ensemble members. 6. To help students become knowledgeable consumers of chamber music. 6.1 After recognizing public advertisements referring to chamber music performances, students should be able to form a level of expectation based on knowledge of performance practices. 6.2 Students should attend chamber music performances in the community. 6.3 Students should acquire chamber music recordings for their listening pleasure or further study. 6.4 Students should be able to develop preferences among recorded chamber music performances based on their musical learning.

1. The course is a performance class that focuses on chamber music repertoire. Chamber music implies that there is only one musician playing each musical part in a conductor-less ensemble. 2. The course will focus on skills required for making chamber music. They include, but are not limited to: musical and personal responsibilities, rehearsal and performance techniques. 3. The course will require the development of music research skills including, but not limited to: collecting biographical data and general historical background, authentic edition searches, and sheet music catalog searches. 4. The course will give students the opportunity to learn and apply music business skills through chamber music performances. This includes, but is not limited to: establishing personal contacts with those requesting performances, determining proper repertoire for each performance, performance preparation, and fulfillment of performance obligations.

Each chamber ensembles will be coached by professional musicians/educators:
1. Each ensemble will meet with their coach on a weekly basis. 2. Coaches will assist in the selection of repertoire appropriate to the skill level of the ensemble members. 3. Coaches will guide students in ensemble techniques necessary for attaining a cohesive ensemble sound . 4. Coaches will demonstrate and guide students in learning nuances of performance practice for the style of music that they are studying.

Chamber ensemble musicians will develop music research skills, the results of which may be presented:
1. In written form.
2. In a lecture performance.
3. Original format determined in collaboration with the ensemble members, coach and director.

Cleveland Heights High School

Evaluation processes include, but are not limited to: demonstration of ongoing progress in musicianship skills, assessment of oral and written presentations, assessment of performances from recorded sources, number of performances given, portfolio assessment, and ability to communicate their musical learning to others.

Chamber Ensemble, HHS Sectionals, Drum Line

The purpose of this request is for continuing support for professional music coaches for the Cleveland Heights High School Instrumental Music Department (IMD). Its original purpose was to provide coaches for sectional rehearsals, to increase student achievement, chamber music, for the purpose of creating small ensembles for school and community performances, and percussion coaching for the Tiger Marching Band's drum line. The sectional, drum line, and chamber coaches have been funded since mid-October 1992 by grants from Heights Foundation, Model Schools Planning Committee, and the Funding Foundation, and the Band and Orchestra Parents Organization (BOPO) of Heights High. The purpose of this request is to seek Board of Education funding through supplemental contracts rather than outside grants for these coaching positions.

As with previous grants received, direct Board funding would support professional music coaches who would serve both to increase skill levels through sectional rehearsals, and offer supplementary music experiences for more advanced students. Coaches include current district employees and professional musicians from the community. The program is designed to accomplish its objectives during scheduled daily periods (for sectional rehearsals) when students normally meet for orchestra class, as well as in special times outside the school day (for chamber ensembles and drum line).

Dr. Frederick R. Mayer, completing his second year at Heights High, serves as coach coordinator, music director of the Heights High Symphony and assistant director of the Tiger Marching Band. He is a published author in the field of orchestral music education, an active clinician, guest conductor, and chamber music performer.

The chamber ensemble component of this request has been explained in some detail in the Course of Study above. The sectional and drum line components are addressed below.

Sectional Component

Currently, the Heights High Symphony is comprised of over seventy members who meet daily during a fifty minute period throughout the school year. Directions from the conductor cannot adequately address all musical problems in each section of the orchestra. Therefore, there is a need to divide the large ensemble into smaller instrumental groups, or sections, to solve musical problems unique to each section. Sectional rehearsals are used by orchestras of all abilities, from student to professional. This project also seeks funding for professional sectional coaches for the purpose of providing a more favor-able student-to-teacher ratio which will increase musical achievement and further music problem solving.

Since the formation of a second string orchestra (Concert Orchestra) at Cleveland Heights High School the problem of a wide disparity of musical abilities among string players within the same performing ensem-ble has been eased. A comparison of the 1992 and 1993 fall audition scores indicate an improved level of achievement in the orchestra. This appears, in part, to have been the result of contact by coaches in sectionals and chamber music sessions.

Comparison of 1992 and 1993 Heights High Symphony Auditions

Section N % of new Players Mean (50) Max.-Min. Range Standard Deviation Woodwinds 92 14 44.36 49.2 - 39.8 9.4 2.53 Woodwinds 93 13 46 46.36 49.6 - 43.0 6.6 2.18

Brass 92 10 42.30 46.4 - 37.0 9.4 3.09 Brass 93 9 55 44.58 48.7 - 38.6 10.1 4.17

Strings 92 63 35.87 49.9 - 10.0 39.9 10.17 Strings 93 43 19 42.38 49.4 - 29.3 20.1 4.44

A comparison 1992 and 1993 audition statistics indicates higher mean scores in each orchestra section and a lower standard deviation and decreased score range in woodwinds and strings. These measurements are statistical indicators of increased achievement in the musical performance. In the brass section where the most seniors graduated and new players entered the orchestra the standard deviation was higher. However, the dramatic increase in achievement in the string section (indicated in a higher mean and lower range and standard deviation) may indicate both a positive effect of music coaches and the effect of a second orchestra for skill development less of advanced players.

Drum Line Coach

Percussion skills for drum line performances are not fully addressed during daily band classes or band camp. Drummers must spend time prior to the marching season preparing for marching band. Last year, BOPO provided seed money for a drum line coach in support of the administration's purchase of new marching percussion. This was the first purchase of new marching percussion in over twenty years.

To facilitate training of percussionists for marching band, a drum line coach is necessary. This position is integral in furthering the skills of IMD percussionists similar to the sectional situation discussed above, but in an intensive summer workshop situation. This also builds ensemble skills and spirit among players. The net result is an improved level of musical achievement among individual percussionists and an improved look and sound for the Tiger Marching Band which is a great source of entertainment and pride in our community. Last year BOPO provided the drum line coaches' fees for an eight day "drum camp." A similar request is reflected in the attached budget.

Benefits to the Students, School, and Community

From November 1992 to November 1993, audiences comprised of adults and students, family and friends and strangers heard 40 musical performances by chamber groups both at Heights High and at Heights community social receptions where chamber groups were either the main entertainment for the event or background music. Audience members ex-pressed compliments through their verbal and written support and requests for performances throughout Heights High and the Heights community attest to the positive audience response for this project. The audience count listed below was derived from the number of people present to hear each chamber ensemble and marching band performances. A pre-concert recital series was established where students performed in the auditorium lobby before Symphony concerts. Other chamber performances took place during Symphony concerts on stage at Heights High or while on tour in Virginia as part of the concert format. In all, approximately 12,300 audience members heard students who benefited from music coaches between November 1992 through November 1993. Chamber Ensemble Participant, Performance, and Audience Counts

Ensemble Participants Performances: Audience Recitals or In-House/Out-Reach Flute Quartet 4 5/2 (1 workshop) 830 Woodwind Quintet #1 5 2/1 210 Woodwind Quintet #2 5 2/0 (1 workshop) 160 Woodwind Trio *(3) 3/0 380 Oboe Duo 2 3/1 (1 workshop) 130 Clarinet Duo 2 2/0 575 String Quartet 4 3/0 (1 workshop) 380 String Quintet 5 3/0 (1 workshop) 235 Chamber Strings 13 5/1 (1 workshop) 1550 Brass Choir **10 (2) 6/1 1850 Marching Band percussion 12 4/0 6000 60 (65%) 38/6 12,300 * Re-grouped from Quintet #2 ** Two Brass Choir members also played in woodwind quintets

Ensembles for 1993-94 include: 2 string quartets, string trio, chamber string ensemble, flute quartet, woodwind trio, and brass choir. A total of forty-one students (56%) from HHS currently are involved in chamber ensembles.

Several benefits of the project have been felt from within the Symphony when students returned from sectionals, chamber ensembles, and marching percussion to rehearse with the large ensemble. First, sectional rehearsals made an impact on the orchestra's performance. As a result of professional coaches, individual students and instrumental sections were better prepared in playing their orchestra parts.

The second benefit was subtle, but predictable. As a result of playing chamber music, Heights High Symphony musicians began to listen and blend their sounds within the large ensemble as if they were playing in a chamber group. In other words, the chamber music making concepts began to emerge in the large ensemble. The brass sound and articulation began to unify; woodwinds were playing more expressively together; strings played with more confidence and solo passages were performed with greater brilliance. This benefit is both powerful and sophisticated and will continue to strengthen in the coming years.

A third and obvious benefit to Heights High and the Cleveland Heights community were the availability of chamber groups for receptions and special events. Heights High receives many requests for band and orchestra performances in the community and almost all are turned down because of the logistics of transporting large ensembles. The chamber ensembles from this project fulfilled many of these requests equally well. This project has moved beyond the school building serving as an outreach to the community. Chamber groups from CH-UH City Schools have performed at artistic, civic, educational, and social functions as an outreach of our school district. Students in chamber ensembles showcased some of the highest level of student musicianship in our district.

Finally, these extra performances taught students personal responsibility within a musical performance context: punctuality, proper dress for events, remembering to bring music/ instrument/equipment, and musical preparation. Some basic lessons of life were addressed and hopefully learned. Most of these important yet mundane skills were easy to build into the chamber music performance experience and they transfer to other situations outside of music.


Coaches' fees are estimated at level "I" supplemental payment schedule for each one hour coaching session. [N.B. As per the January 1, 1992 CONTRACT, level "I" supplemental payment is $15.50/hour. Current contract negotiations may raise the current hourly rate.] Except for "drum line camp" all sessions meet weekly during the school year.

Weekly Coaching Sessions: Number of Coaches (a) String ensembles (Chamber Ensembles) 2 (b) Brass Choir (Chamber Ensembles) 1 (c) Woodwind ensembles (Chamber Ensembles) 2 (d) Orchestral wind sectional (one coach every other Tuesday) 0.5 (e) String sectional coaches (2 coaches every other Tuesday) WEEKLY COACHING SESSIONS 6.5

Weeks for Coaching October 4 November 4 December 3 January 4 February 4 March 4 April 4 May 4


Drum Line Coach: Hours of Coaching (f) Five, 7-hour days in August 35.0

TOTAL NUMBER OF COACHING SESSIONS 236.5 hours At current level "I" supplemental payment of $15.50 $3665.75


In 1990, the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics conducted a study of 18,000 high school students from 1,500 schools. It found that music students are nearly nine percent more likely to earn A's or B's in their core subjects than students who do not actively participate in music programs.

Student musicians also score better on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) from the College Board, which sponsors the widely used college entrance exam. Statistics show that among the 1997 test- takers, those whose course work included the arts scored an average of 52 points higher on the verbal portion of the test than students whose course work did not include the arts.

Original story by Ruth DeGolia for The Plain Dealer, Wednesday, February 24, 1999, G1. Daily CENTERNET messages are written by Fr. Ronald Nuzzi and posted by Cindy Giner, as a service to Catholic educators by the Center for Catholic Education at the University of Dayton.

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Mr. Campbell has compelling new evidence to show how music, used properly, has calmed students with such problems as ADHD and even helped autistic children.  He says "43 of the world's largest industrial companies provide music to their employees."  Dupont used a music listening program in one department that cut its training time in half and doubled the number of people trained.  Another corporation using music found that clerical errors decreased by one third.

Dr. Georgi Lozanov, the renowned Bulgarian psychologist, developed a methodology for teaching foreign languages that used baroque music with a beat pattern of about 60 beats per minute.  Students learned in a fraction of the normal time.  In a single day, one half of the normal vocabulary and phrases for the term (up to 1000 words or phrases) were learned.  In addition, an added benefit was that the students had an average of 92% retention of what they had learned!

Dr.Lozanov has proven conclusively that by using certain Baroque pieces, foreign languages can be mastered with 85-100% effectiveness in 30 days, when the usual time is 2 years. Students learning with the Baroque Music were able to recall their second language with nearly 100% accuracy even after they had not studied it for four years!  

For many years, with thousands of students, The Center for New Discoveries in Learning has been evaluating the use of music both in the classroom and while students study.  We have found that students using Mozart and certain Baroque pieces (recorded at about 60 beats per minute) felt calmer, could study longer and had a higher rate of retention as well as earning better grades according to their teachers.

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By Gordon Shaw / Academic Press

Academic Press in San Diego has just announced publication of Dr. Gordon Shaw's book, Keeping Mozart in Mind. Dr. Shaw (University of California-Irvine) has worked with AMC during the past 7 years to publicize his research results on Music and Early Childhood Development, Music and the Brain and Music Making and Math.

The book is due in bookstores in September and will include a CD-ROM which includes the recording of the music used in Dr. Shaw's research, Allegro con spirito from Sonata for Two Pianos in D major, (K.448) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, performed by Murray Perahia and Radu Lupu, courtesy of Sony Classical.

The CD-ROM also contains a special descriptive version of the S.T.A.R. (Spatial-Temporal Animation Reasoning) interactive computer game developed by Matthew Peterson.

In the landmark book, Dr. Shaw shows how music can help us understand how the brain works and how music may enhance how we think, reason and create. It includes key information about scientific research studies that have shown some remarkable results, including these:

For more information about joining AMC call (760) 431 9124, fax 760-438-7327 or

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"The Today Show" - July 28, 1999 with Dr. Joyce Brothers, Guest Speaker

Research has proven that exposure to music at an early age can profoundly affect a child's development. Now, new studies show benefits for senior citizens as well - with music helping to improve their health and well-being. In fact, seniors of all ages and skill levels say that music plays an important role in their lives. Dr. Joyce Brothers says that it's never too late to bring the benefits of music into your life. She shares her tips on how to help make learning or playing an instrument a positive experience for older Americans.

Studies have found that teaching healthy elderly people to play music decreases their anxiety, depression, and loneliness. Almost everything is involved in musical skill - physical coordination, mental concentration, memory skills, visual and aural ability. The entire brain is involved in making music. Every one of those black dots on a page of music is a set of instructions to a group of muscles. When an older person takes up an instrument, they cannot fail to improve their lives. They may never get to Carnegie Hall, but they cannot fail

Age is not a barrier to learning and learning keeps the mind and muscles alert. It has also been found that learning a musical instrument has changed older men and women's auditory physiology, making listening to music even more enjoyable. Psychologists have studied what happens when an ordinary person sits down at the piano, or picks up a violin or clarinet - and they are amazed at what happens.

When a musician reaches a fast passage, the number of individual motor actions running in the brain indicates that the process of performing the music is automatic. Here's how that works: At first, the beginning musician learns to make complicated moves on an instrument very laboriously - and slowly. He or she works out details step by step, corrects them and practices them over and over. The cerebellum tracks this process and takes over when the movements are sure and swift, allowing the musician to repeat them automatically. This activity "exercises" the brain.

Sounds can also positively change your brain. Some hospitals have patients in critical care units listen to classical music. One doctor reported that a half hour of music produced the same effect as ten milligrams of valium.

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If you decide to play a musical instrument, you can increase your pleasure and decrease the pressure by renting the instrument instead of buying it. If you rent, you can come to a point when you can fairly say to yourself, "it's not going to work. I don't truly get delight." Then you can return the instrument and rent another of a different kind.

Whether it is a private lesson, group lesson, or even a music appreciation class at your local community college, classes will keep you motivated as well as introduce you to other people who share your interests. Many places have special programs specifically geared toward older musicians, but don't be intimidated if you end up joining a group that included younger people. You are all the same skill level, and each person brings something to the group from which the others can learn.

Even if you don't play an instrument, music can still play an important part in your life. Whether you've had heart surgery or a bad day at the office, some soothing sounds may help. Music has the power to lower your pulse and blood pressure and can bring down anxiety.

It's important that the music be something you like in order to receive the benefits. There are different brain changes if the music is pleasant or unpleasant. Researchers are currently studying the "shivers down the spine" phenomenon that people often feel particularly strong about, but studies do show that people's moods tend to swing up or down depending upon the particular music being played.

If you played an instrument as a child or young adult, there may have been all kinds of pressure that others put on you, or you put on yourself to become a professional. You now have the luxury of playing music just for the joy of it!

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A 1997 Gallup survey conducted by NAMM - International Music Products Association on "Aermica's Attitudes Toward Music, Music Making, and Music Edcation" revealed very important information. The following responses are representative of the Gallup survey:

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Study after study has proven that music education dramatically increases early brain development and improves students' overall academic performance. The following is a sample of the research that is currently available:

Music lessons have been shown to improve a child's performance in school. a research team exploring the link between music and intelligence reports that music training - specifically piano instruction - is far superior to computer instruction in dramatically enhancing children's abstract reasoning skills which are necessary for learning math and science. this experiment included three groups of preschoolers:

After six months of keyboard lessons, those children who received piano/keyboard training performed 34% higher on tests measuring spatial-temporal ability than the others. These findings indicate that music uniquely enhances higher brain functions required for mathematics, chess, science, and engineering.
- From Neurological Research: Feb, 1997; Frances Rauscher, Ph.D., Gordon Shaw Ph.D., University of California, Irvine

A research team studying first graders from two Rhode Island elementary schools found that students who participated in an "enriched, sequential, skill building music program" dramatically increased their reading and math performance.
- From Nature: May, 1996; Gardiner, Fox, Jeffery and Knowles

Mozart's Piano Sonata K448 was found to significantly increase spatial scores of college students on IQ tests when the Sonata was listened to for 10 minutes, dubbed the "mozart effect"
- From Nature Copyright 1993, Drs. Reuscher ad Shaw, University of California, Irvine

PROVIDES IMPORTANT EXPERIENCES Musical activities provide schildren with important experiences that can help them develop physical coordination, timing, memory, visual, aural and language skills. When they work to increase their command of music and exercise musical skills in the copany of others, they gain important experience with self-paced learning, mental concentration and a heightened personal and social awareness.
- Frank r. Wilson, M.D.; Associate Clinical Professor of Neurology - University of California School of Medicine in San Francisco

Students with coursework/experience in music performance scores 52 points higher on the verbal portion of the SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) and 36 points higher on the math portion of the SAT than students with no coursework or experience in the arts for a combined total of 88 points higher.
- Profiles of SAT and Achievemnt Test Takers 1998, The College Board

There is a direct correlation between improved SAT scores and the length of time spent studying the arts. Those with studeid the arts for four or mour years scores 57 points higher on the verbal and 39 points higher on the math portions of the SAT than students with no coursework or experience in the arts for a combined total of 96 points higher.
- Profiles of SAT and Achievement Test Takers 1998, The College Board

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Research proves that music education helps prepare children for the future. Music allows cildren the unique opportunity to "experience excellence" It provides them a way to develop critical skills needed for the current workplace. It also empowers them with the essential chenge-management skills needed to adapt to future workplace demands. The following is a sampling of current insights into this area:

Band directors agreed that childre who are active in school music programs get the unique opportunity to experience the intrinsic value of excellence. Organizations today emphasize the need to recruit people who can demonstrate proven abilities in the areas of quality and commitment to excellence. As one band director commented, "One bad note can wreck a beautiful symphony. this is about performing, not rehearsing"
- Dynamic Presentations Unlimited Research; Band Director Focus Group, December 1998

During a musical performance children must constantly turn their thoughts into action. Thought structures continually have to be updated and adjusted. The combination of constant vigilance and forethought coupled with ever-changing responses is an educational expereince of unique value.
- Frances Rauscher, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh

Ninety-five percent of respondents to a 1997 Gallup survey agreed taht playing in a school band is a good way to develop teamwork skills.
- 1997 Gallup Survey

The social climate of music instruction is marked by cooperation, whereas in most other subjects cooperation is titally lacking or replaced by competition. Only by working together can students play a musical performance. They learn that cooperation is a means to an end which can be applied to other goals in life.
- Frances Rauscher, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh

The U.S. Department of Labor issued a report in 1991 urging schools to teach for the future workplace. The skills they recommend (workin in teams, communication, self-esteem, cretive thinking, imagination, and invention) are exactly those learned in school music and arts education programs.
- 1991 SCANS Report, U.S. Department of Commerce

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The following important research provides scientific data how music affects brain development, overall health, well-being and much more.

This was on of the most important studies done to date with young children ages three to five. The results of the study was that music students had a 30% increase in spatial - temporal skills - above other students with computer or no musical training. this suggests that the study of music produces long term modifications to the underlying circuitry of the brain that is not ptimarily concerned with music. Complete research is available in a condensed form from AMC - American Music Conference.

This research suggests that musical training makes the cortical map of the brain grow. When music is added to the school curriculum, mathematical skills will increase. Complete research is available in a condensed form from AMC - American Music Conference.

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AMERICAN MUSIC CONFERENCE: AMC's mission is to promote the benefits of music, music-making and music education to the general public.

VH1 SAVE THE MUSIC: is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the quality of education in America's public schools by restoring and supporting music programs nationwide.

MR. HOLLAND'S OPUS FOUNDATION: is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting instrumental music nationwide.

MUSIC EDUCATORS NATIONAL CONFERENCE: MENC's mission is to advance music education by encouraging the study and making of music by all Americans.

NATIONAL COALITION FOR MUSIC EDUCATION: NCME is a coalition organized to raise awareness of the value and imporance of music in education.

THE REVELLI FOUNATION: is a charitable organization perpetuating opportunities for music education and band students.

INTERNATIONAL MUSIC PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION: NAMM's mission is to unify, lead and strengthen the global music products industry and to increase active participation in music-making.

MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT COUNCIL: MAC's mission is to provide materials to support initiatives in music education highlighted by the Iternational Music Products Assocation and the National Association of Band Instrument Manufacturers.

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By Charles Sykes, author of "DUMBING DOWN OUR KIDS"

He volunteered for high school and college graduates a list of eleven things they did not earn in school. In his book, he talks about how the feel good, politically correct teachings created a generation of kids with no concept of reality and set them up for failure in the real world. You may want to share this list with them.

Rule 1: Life is not fair; get used to it.

Rule 2: The world won't care about your self-esteem. The world will expect you to accomplish something BEFORE you feel good about yourself.

Rule 3: You will NOT make 40 thousand dollars a year right out of high school. You won't be a vice president with a car phone until you earn both.

Rule 4: If you think your teacher is tough, wait till you get a boss. He doesn't have tenure.

Rule 5: Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Your grandparents had a different word for burger flipping; they called it opportunity.

Rule 6: If you mess up, it's not your parents' fault, so don't whine about your mistakes. Learn from them.

Rule 7: Before you were born, your parents weren't as boring as they are now. They got that way from paying your bills, cleaning your clothes, and listening to you talk about how cool you are. So before you save the rain forest from the parasites of your parents' generation, try delousing the closet in your own room.

Rule 8: Your school may have done away with winners and losers but life has not. In some schools they have abolished failing grades; they'll give you as many times as you want to get the right answer. This, of course, doesn't bear the slightest resemblance to ANYTHING in real life.

Rule 9: Life is not divided into semesters. You don't get summers off, and very few employers are interested in helping you find yourself. Do that on your own time.

Rule 10: Television is NOT real life. In real life people actually have to leave the coffee shop and go to jobs.

Rule 11: Be nice to nerds. Chances are you'll end up working for one.

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From the remarks of Robert Shaw on accepting the Gold Baton Award from ASOL Chairman Peter Kermann

Our family's summer farmhouse in the Southwest of France is at the edge of a shepherds' village of some forty inhabitants.

A land of plateaus, ravines and underground rivers where fourty-thousand years ago Cro-Magnon man first dwelt in caves, leaving his remarkable paintings for "civilized" man to ponder.

We are told that in this semiarid region early man worshipped springs of water - and that it is on the sites of these springs the early Christian churches were built thirty-nine thousand years later.

We visit these thousand-year-old churches, and we note the founts of "holy" water at their entrances - The same "holy" water? For the "love of God" - why not?

The archeologists tell us that these churches - and occasional cathedrals - some of stone and some of brink - are attributed to no architect - and were built over periods of scores of years and several generations by families of artisans or by local farmers and shepherds who cut their stone and mold their brick between sowing and reaping - or breeding, lambing and shearing.

In such an environment it is hard to escape a sense of the long span of even this planets life and the breathless haste of one's own "lifetime".

Man may be - in some evolutionary sense - becoming. And one can hope that his love of life - however short - and his sense of responsibility - if only for his children's children - will be enough to save him from self-extinction.

Which leads me to surmise that no one of us really merits the elevation of a Golden Baton.

Or that all of us do - being lifted or submerged by the same waves of time.

Awards - even such heartwarming and well-intentioned ones as this - are less than a feathery ripple on the dark and fathomless face of the waters.

My favorite speechwriter (you remember) was Abraham Lincoln, who said "It is a mistake to say that I have led - I have been controlled by events"

And so I thank you for sharing your award with me - and thereby especially, with the San Diego, Cleveland and Atlanta Orchestras. Choruses. Administrators and Volunteers with whom I have been most closely associated.

And, also with the musicians - instrumentalists and singers, professionals, amateurs and students with whom I have had the fortune to make music through nearly six decades.

By now, I suppose, they could be numbered in the hundreds of thousands.

But all of us in the long span of Time are equally faceless and nameless.

But each of us has a stone to but and a brick to lay - and it behooves us to do it with precision and with passion.

Wonders of wonders - we are in a field - where there is a chance that it can occasionally also be done with Beauty.

Now, who could ask for anything more?

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And Other Anomalies of the Concert Hall
By Roxane Orgill - Hoboken, New Jersey

"The use of flashbulb cameras or recoridng equipment during the concert is strictly prohibited." That's the only regularion you'll ever see in the program on how to behave at a classical concert. It's not that there aren't other rules. There are plenty of them:

Don't applaud, except at the very end of a piece. How do you know when the end comes? The program says Allegro, andante con moto, vivace, adn other things in Italian under the titles of the pieces. There will be a little pause between each of these. When the Italian words are all used up, the piece is over and you may clap. Or play it safe and wait intil everyone else is clapping.

The idea behind silence between movements or sections of a piece, by the way, is that the composer created the work as a whole even though he or she wrote it in parts. So we hold our applause out of respect for the composer (classical music is big on respect).

Don't talk. One of the astounding things about a concert hall is the scoustics, which can pick up not only the sounds of the orchestra but your sounds as well and circulate them throughout the hall. Your "Guess what? Ted and Carol split up" is picked up instantly by 2,000 people, some of whom may even know who Ted and Carol are.

Don't rustle, roll, or fold your program. If you are resentfull of your wife having dragged you to this concert, don't tell her with your program. Tell her in words, but please, wait until the intermission.

Don't sing along. It's marvelous, really, that you know all the choruses of the Messiah, but try to find a more suitable venue. The shower stall, or an uninhabited forest. Don't hum either.

Don't even think of those hard candies at the bottom of your purse. For some reason music makes many concertgoers think of hard candies wrapped in cellophane. The minute the music starts, they reach into their pocketbooks and pull out a piece of candy, then unwrap it slowly - on the theory that slower equals softer (it doesn't). In some avant-garde circles, the result may be called ambient music, but cellophane and Schubert do not mix.

Don't cough. Studies have found that coughing increases in direct proportion to listeners' boredom. Amazing what the appearance of a comely soprano with a gorgeous voice can do for the common cold.

Don't leave in the middle. The sight of people running up the aisles toward the exits while the music is being played tends to make performers a little insecure.

Don't squeak. If you get a seat that squeaks, do not shift position, breath, or do anything else to set off the squeak. Just lean back, freeze... and enjoy the concert!

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A Gentle Reminder: Audience DOs and DON'Ts
Stagebill, Inc. NY

It is always a good time to be reminded of what it takes to be a good audience member. Observance of these rules guarantees a more enjoyable evening at the opera or the concert hall.

Etiquette Update Here's a refresher course. Please read on, and remember, part of one's pact as an audience member is to take seriously the pleasure of others, a responsibility fulfilled by quietly attentive (or silently inattentive) and self contained behavior. After all, you can beas demonstrative as you want during bows and curtain calls.

1. Go easy with atomizer; many people are highly allergic to perfume and cologne.
2. If you bring a child, make sure etiquette is part of the experience. Children love learning new things.
3. Unwrap all candies and cough drops before the curtain goes up or the concert begins.
4. Make sure beepers and watch alarms are OFF. And don't jangle the bangles.
5. The overture is part of the performance. Please cease talking at this point.
6. Note to lovebirds: When you lean your heads together, you block the view of the personbehind you. Leaning forward also blocks the view.
7. THOU SHALT NOT TALK, or hum, or sing along, or beat time with a body part.
8. Force yourself to wait for a pause or intermission before rifling through a purse,backpack, or shopping bag.
9. Yes, the parking lot gets busy and public transportation is tricky, but leaving while theshow is in progress is discourteous.
10. The old standby: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

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By Donn Laurence Mills

there were a basic training manual for orchestra players, it might include ways to practice not only music, but one-upmanship. It seems as if many young players take pride in getting the conductor's goat. The following rules are intended as a guide to the development of habits that will irritate the conductor. (Variations and additional methods depend upon the imagination and skill of the player.)

1. Never be satisfied with the tuning note. Fussing about the pitch takes attention away from the podium and puts it on you, where it belongs.

2. When raising the music stand, be sure the top comes off and spills the music on the floor.

3. Complain about the temperature of the rehearsal room, the lighting, crowded space, or a draft. It's best to do this when the conductor is under pressure.

4. Look the other way just before cues.

5. Never have the proper mute, a spare set of strings, or extra reeds. Percussion players must NEVER have all their equipment.

6. Ask for a re-audition or seating change. Ask often. Give the impression you're about to quit. Let the conductor know you're there as a personal favor.

7. Pluck the strings as if you are checking tuning at every opportunity, especially when the conductor is giving instructions. Brass players: drop mutes. Percussionists have a wide variety of dropable items, but cymbals are unquestionably the best because they roll around for several seconds.

8. Loudly blow water from the keys during pauses (Horn, oboe and clarinet players are trained to do this from birth).

9. Long after a passage has gone by, ask the conductor if your C# was in tune. This is especially effective if you had no C# or were not playing at the time. (If he catches you, pretend to be correcting a note in your part.)

10. At dramatic moments in the music (while the conductor is emoting) be busy marking your music so that the climaxes will sound empty and disappointing.

11. Wait until well into a rehearsal before letting the conductor know you don't have the music.

12. Look at your watch frequently. Shake it in disbelief occasionally.

13. Tell the conductor, "I can't find the beat." Conductors are always sensitive about their "stick technique", so challenge it frequently.

14. As the conductor if he has listened to the Bernstein recording of the piece. Imply that he could learn a thing or two from it. Also good: ask "Is this the first time you've conducted this piece?"

15. When rehearsing a difficult passage, screw up your face and shake your head indicating that you'll never be able to play it. Don't say anything: make him wonder.

16. If your articulation differs from that of others playing the same phrase, stick to your guns. Do not ask the conductor which is correct until backstage just before the concert.

17. Find an excuse to leave rehearsal about 15 minutes early so that others will become restless and start to pack up and fidget.

18. During applause, smile weakly or show no expression at all. Better yet, nonchalantly put away your instrument. Make the conductor feel he is keeping you from doing something really important.

It is time that players reminded their conductors of the facts of life: just who do conductors think they are, anyway?

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As collected by J.W. Swing.

1. Everyone should play the same piece.
2. Stop at every repeat sign and discuss in detail whether to take the repeat or not. The audience will love this a lot!
3. If you play a wrong note, give a nasty look to one of your partners.
4. Keep your fingering chart handy. You can always catch up with the others.
5. Carefully tune your instrument before playing. That way you can play out of tune all night with a clear conscience.
6. Take your time turning pages.
7. The right note at the wrong time is a wrong note (and vice versa).
8. If everyone gets lost except you, follow those who get lost.
9. Strive to get the maximum NPS (note per second). That way you gain the admiration of the incompetent.
10. Markings for slurs, dynamics and ornaments should not be observed. They are only there to embellish the score.
11. If a passage is difficult, slow down. If it's easy, speed it up. Everything will work itself out in the end.
12. If you are completely lost, stop everyone and say, "I think we should tune".
13. Happy are those who have not perfect pitch, for the kingdom of music is theirs.
14. If the ensemble has to stop because of you, explain in detail why you got lost. Everyone will be very interested.
15. A true interpretation is realized when there remains not one note of the original.
16. When everyone else has finished playing, you should not play any notes you have left.
17. A wrong note played timidly is a wrong note. A wrong note played with authority is an interpretation.

As collected by the members of the Philadelphia Orchestra.

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Compiled by Andrew Levin.

On the way to rehearsal, the violist & bassist had been complaining about what a YUPPIE snob their conductor was. Upon arriving at the rehearsal hall and getting off the bus, they saw the Maestro getting out of his BMW when, all of a sudden, a semi whooshed by and ripped the door right off the car...taking the conductor's arm with it!
The musicians rushed to the aid of their conductor who was crying out loud, "Oh my God, my Beemer, my Beemer!! Just look at my poor car!!!!" The bassist said, "Your car?!? You IDIOT!! Look at your arm!!" The conductor, looking down at his severed arm, screamed, "OH NO!! NOT MY ROLEX, TOO!!!!"


Conductor to orchestra at the beginning of a rehearsal: Please get your pencils out...we have some marking to do on this score. The first two bars are in 3/4, not 4/4 as written. Next, in the 5th bar, change it to 7/8 and this remains to the end. Now, in bar 7 we lower the pitch 1/2 step. In bar 13, lower the pitch one whole step and this will remain to the end. Thank you. Now, let us begin.
Soprano soloist: Excuse me, Maestro. What would you like for me to change? Conductor: Nothing, madam. Sing it just as you did yesterday.


The famous conductor finally passed on, but his agency kept getting calls asking to speak with him. "I'm sorry, he's dead," was the standard reply. Finally, the receptionist who fielded these calls began to realize it was always the same person calling so she asked who it was and why he kept calling. The reply: "I was in his orchestra, and I just like to hear you say it."


Q: Christopher Hogwood, Daniel Barenboim, and Neville Mariner are all on the same plane when it ditches in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Who is saved? A: Mozart


Q: A conductor and a violist are standing in the middle of the road. Which one do you run over first, and why? A: The conductor. Business before pleasure.


A violist came home and found his house burned to the ground. When he asked what happened, the police told him "Well, apparently the conductor came to your house, and ..." The violist's eyes lit up and he interrupted excitedly, "The conductor? Came to my house?"


A violist in an orchestra was crying and screaming at the oboe player sitting directly behind him. The conductor asked, "What are you so upset about?"
The violist replied "The oboist reached over and turned one of the pegs on my viola and now it's all out of tune!"
The conductor asked "Don't you think you're overreacting?" The violist replied "I'm not overreacting! He won't tell me which one!"


An American orchestra had just arrived in Europe for a two-week tour. One hour before the first concert, the conductor became very ill and was unable to conduct, and the orchestra suddenly had to find a substitute.
The orchestra manager asked if anyone in the orchestra could step in and conduct; the only person who was willing was the last chair violist. The manager was very nervous about this. "We can't audition you," he said. "No problem," replied the violist. "There's no time to rehearse. You'll have to do the concert cold." "I know. It'll be all right."
The violist conducted the concert and it was a smashing success. Since the conductor remained ill for the duration of the tour, the violist conducted all of the concerts, getting rave reviews and standing ovations at each one.
At the next rehearsal, the conductor had recovered, and the violist took his place at the back of the viola section. As he sat down, his stand partner asked him "Where've you been for the last two weeks?"

Lines from the retired conductor of The New Hampshire Symphony

"I try not to look, because then I see."

"Terrible rhythmic training. Why don't you kill all your teachers and get your money back?"

"Play slow enough to be exact."

"Basses, you're like a Chinese wife; you're always a little behind."

"It's eleganza-you sound like Woolworth's."

"Under no circumstances should anyone look at me here."

"For that, they have milking machines."

"If you won't watch, I won't listen."

"I'll try to spit equally in both directions so everyone will know where we are."

"Play in a kind of Friday-matinee style."

"Look artistic when you play that."

"It's very important to play your phrase the way it is."

"Too loud cellos. And don't throb there."

"Try and simulate non-sight-reading."

"The horn is still unwinding his entrails there."

"Please don't use the depth-charge pizzicato."

"I know you're all very well brought up, but don't show it. (Stomps feet) 'I won't clean up my room!'"

(On La Valse) "If Parsifal could waltz, this would be it."

(To cellos) "You sound like your fingers are doing the walking through the Yellow Pages."

"Violins, don't play like such pigs."

"Better to be slow than quick."

"It says accelerando. It's not like falling downstairs"

"Play that for your dogs and cats. When they stop howling, you've got it right."

"It doesn't need to be good, it just needs to be loud."

"You should play a soft forte."

"If that happens, don't laugh."

"We're starting at bar three. Even those of you with all your fingers cut off can find it."

"Play as if you were accompanying John Denver."

"There is a lot of fishing for notes. I wish you would catch them."

"Play as if you were musicians."

"Look busy at the beginning."

"It sounds like an Italian Strawberry Festival."

"Try not to sound like Segovia."

"Play faster. It's getting late."

"If you can't play the notes, play the accents."

"It sounds like killer bees on the loose."

"The downbeat has to be up."

"You all sound like a Walgreen's Drug Store. I'll have a cherry frappe."

"Imagine that you know what I'm going to do."

"It must be very soft. Play as if you're lost."

"It's sort of yo-ho-ho, a little bit."

"Violas, let your true piggish sides come out."

"The piece is all based on harmony, so we have to hit the right notes."

"Horns, imagine that you've had a really ugly breakfast and it's about to come up."

"Triangle, not so much in the loud section. Don't join in on the fun."

(In Beethoven's 6th) "My God, it's a brook, not the ocean. I'm getting seasick."

"Strings, I know what you're thinking: 'With all this racket going on, why am I playing?' Well, theres no time for existential questions right now."

"Above all, don't look worried."

"It's a little bit note-sniffing right now."

"It sounds as if you're all doing your income taxes."

"Listen to the tune, and then accompany it in a non-disgraceful fashion."

"You sound as if you hate music."

"Look like you're playing long after you've given up"

"I may do something artistic there, which means I'm going to drag."

"Violins, don't try to play the accents, just try to get through the part without dropping your bows."

"Imagine you're getting enough money for what you do"

(In Pathetique first mvt.) "It sounds like everybody has already committed suicide."

"Definitely third-world."

"Strings, vibrate; you sound like storm troopers.

"Your tone sounds like the weather outside."

"It's half-good."

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