in IE and Afrasian

(Hamito-Semitic, Hieroglyphic Egyptian and Arabic)

(Nostratic Hypothesis)

by Patrick C. Ryan
(rev. 3/6/2008)

currently under construction Copyright 2008 Patrick C. Ryan

{below are Proto-Language morphemes not discussed under lexical entries
Proto-Language Phonemes in IE and Afrasian)
[Afrasian or IE equivalents for Proto-Language morphemes
are preceded by AA or IE in the entries below]

K3-'pr, 4th Dynasty

AA/IE(A1v) verbal: "?A ("I" = "here"); (Egyptian in jn {?A-NA, ("here-thing"), "presence"}, interrogative particle, ‘**here/the presence (is . . . ?)' [cf. Arabic ?anaiya, ‘how?, whence?, where?']; also, ‘indeed' ('**here is . . .') [cf. Arabic ?inna, ‘indeed']); (Arabic interrogative particle ?a-, ‘**here (is . . . ?)'); (IE *1. e/e:, o/o:, ‘near by, together with', in expanded form, *2. an-, ‘there, on the other hand', *secondary interrogative particle (cf. Latin an, which also preserves the affirmative meaning, e.g. annon?, ‘or is it not so?' (‘indeed [or] not?')1.) but with a basal meaning of ‘here' (cf. Old Irish an-d, ‘here'); in lengthened final vowels: e.g. in *g[^]he(:)-, emphatic particle); (cf. Basque -a-, present tense prefix (see Trask 1997:223)); (cf. Beng *-:, stative); (cf. Japanese a-, copula ( MJ á-ru, ‘be at, exist'; in combination: ni a na; de a da))

AA/IE(A1n) nominal: ?A ("I" = "here") / ?E ("he/she/it" = "over there") / ?O ("you" = "there"); (Egyptian in independent pronoun basis for 1st p. pronouns, jn- {?A-NA, ("here-thing"), "presence"} in jn.k, 'I, **my presence', and jn.n, 'we, **our presence'; for 2nd and 3rd p. pronouns, jnt- {?A-NA-T[?]O, ("here-thing-torso"), "physical presence"; cf. Old Irish an-d, ‘here'}, in jnt.f, 'he, **his physical presence'); (Arabic ?a-, 1st p. imperfect prefix); ?an-, basis for 1st p. sing. pronoun: ?ana {for **?anâ from **anaya}, 'I, **my presence'; ?ant-, basis for 2nd and 3rd p. pronouns: e.g. ?anta, 'you, **physical presence'); (IE *-H2e (-a), 1st p. sing. perfect; *-H4e (-e), 3rd p. sing. perfect; *3. e-, ‘this, he'; also in *ei- ["?E-¿E or ?E-¿A {see below}], ‘this, he', listed under *3. e-; and *4. au- ["?E-FA{see below}], ‘that'); (cf. Basque -a-, -e-, -o-, direct object (see Trask 1997:220)); (cf. these early pronouns are present in Old Japanese a(re), ‘I'; o(:)(re), ‘you'; and a(ti) [for *e(ti)], ‘he, she, it); (cf. Uralic e, ‘this'); (cf. Beng [Southern Mandé] O, ‘he/she/it' - with present tense [ ?E-FA {imperfective}; cf. IE *4. au-, ‘that']; (cf. Beng E, ‘he/she/it' - with past tense [ ?E-¿A {perfective}; cf. IE *ei-, ‘this, he']); (in Ryan (1990), I demonstrated the existence of an early set of deictic elements that were used as personal pronouns for the 1st (?A), 2nd (?O), and 3rd persons (?E)).

AA/IE(A2v) verbal: ?E- (non-concommitant time); (Old and Late Egyptian j-, verbal augment); (IE e/e:-augment of perfect and imperfect, ‘then'); (cf. Basque e-, Biscaian past tense prefix; combined with *za/o (SA or S[H]O) into ze- when no other agreement adfix is present (Trask 1997:223))

(A2n) nominal: ?E {see ?A above}

(A3v) verbal: ?O {not identified at present}

(A3n) nominal: ?O {see above}

AA/IE(A4v) verbal: -"¿A(/HHA)("much [/ many]"= perfective [inanimate and animate]; (Egyptian -j(j), perfective ‘participle'); (IE -yo, future passive participles; participles of necessity; active or passive participles; the basis for the infinitive); (cf. Basque -i, perfective participle (Trask 1997:212)); (cf. Uralic -i, ‘past tense' marker (cf. Finnish annoin, ‘I gave', *antaim), which is really perfective); (cf. Beng past *-y (really: perfective)); (cf. Japanese -e(:)/i, infinitive); the idea behind the PL perfective is successful completion of a verbal activity; it was assumed that doing something ‘many' times or strongly (‘much') would lead to the successful completion of the activity)

IE(A4n) nominal: -¿A (/HHA)("much [/ many]"); (IE -i, plural in oblique cases and -i in neuter duals of o-stems).

AA/IE(A5v) verbal: ¿E(-?A) ("say{-here}"); (AA vocative ya); (IE *a in an, interrogative particle [PL ¿E-NA, "say-not"]); (cf. OJ ya, interrogative particle)

IE*(A5v1) verbal: -"¿E (verbal differentiation only); (IE -i in primary verbal endings e.g. -mi); (cf. Beng *-y); (cf. Japanese -i, non-past indicative of adjectives)

AA/IE(A5n) nominal: -¿E (" -like"); (AA -i [from *-ya], genitive); (IE -i, relationship of any kind to root; -i, genitive; in -yo / -iyo, adjectives of possession/origin; locative in -i is probably originally a genitive [if not from subessive ¿A, "under"]); (cf. Basque: 1) -i, "an ancient adjective-forming suffix (Trask 1997:212)", e.g. gazi, 'salty', from gatz, 'salt'; ari, 'active', from *ar, '*stack up'; Trask lumps Basque reflexes of PL ¿E, ¿A, and ¿O together: "I assume we are looking at a single suffix in all these cases (Trask 1997:212)" - but nothing could better illustrate the fallacy of considering Basque an "isolate"; 2)-e(from V + y), genitive (Trask 1997:201; "Michelena suggests (1972b) that -e might have been the original genitive ending"); (cf. Uralic -i, relationship of any kind to root); (the -i/? element of the Altaic forms: [cf. Sino-]Tibetan -yi, genitive [¿E-¿E], which has been supplemented by -q [QO, '*attached']); (cf. Beng *-y); (cf. Japanese -i/í [from *-ye] in MJ namí, 'wave'); the earliest PL "genitive" is -¿E, "-like"

AA/IE*(A5n1) nominal: -¿E-¿E ("always-like"), gentilic; (AA -iya [Egyptian gentilic -jj {/ya:/}]); (IE -iyo, see above); ([cf. Sino-]Tibetan -yi, see above [unless from dissimilated HHE-HHE]).

IE(A6v) verbal: -"¿O(-¿E), ("what is held, object(-like)"), causative; (IE in -(e)yo {**H3ey}, causative; -n-, causative [from PL NA, "one"]); (cf. Basque -i in itzal-i, 'obscure' ('cause to be shaded'), from itzal, 'shade' (Trask 1997:212; strangely, Trask does not recognize this as a causative formant, but characterizes it as "an identical -i . . . to derive participles from nouns and adjectives"; referring, of course, to Basque -i from PL ¿A); (cf. Japanese -*y in tate: ( *tatay) = taté-ru, 'erect' ('cause to stand'), from tata, 'stand'); in language after language, the causative/factitive has been simply formed by adding a formant to the verb which originally designated an inanimate object: factitive* ('I [cause] it {NA} [to be] V... -ed'); and the causative: ('I [cause] he {him} {¿O, originally inanimate} to V... it')

IE*(A6v1) verbal: -" ¿O ("hold"); (IE *-[y]e/o-, subjunctive?); (cf. Japanese yo, emphasis for statement or command [‘must'; cf. yu-u, ‘tie, bind' = IE *2. eu- {**H3ew-}, ‘put on, bind (cf. ou-tla: 'bandage')' [¿O-FA, "holding"])

IE(A6n) nominal: ¿O, ("what is held, object"); (IE *yo (from H3ey from ¿O- ¿E), ‘who, which', listed incorrectly under *3. e-); (cf. Altaic -i/?, 3rd p. sing.); (cf. Beng yo, ‘another')

AA/IE(A7v) verbal: -"FA[/F[H]A], imperfective;(Egyptian -w, imperfective ‘participle'); (IE in nomina actionis in -we/o(n) and Old Indian active present participle in u for s-desideratives); (cf. Beng -w in bON, ‘black pagne leaf'); (cf. Uralic Nenets -wa (not -*ma!), imperfective infinitive); (cf. Japanese imperfect -u [imperfective]); the idea behind this formant is that a definite small number of repetitions implies activity without completion.

IE(A7n) nominal: -FA [F[H]A], definite inanimate small plural; (Egyptian in -(j)w, nominal plural; in -wj, nominal dual; -w, (Late?) 3rd person plural suffix for nouns and verbs); (Arabic in -ûna, external masculine nominative nominal plural; in , 3rd person plural verbal suffix); (IE dual in *-o(:)u); (cf. Beng -*w in gbO, ‘feces'); also nominal topic (see B4 below)

(A8/9v&n). verbal and nominal FE, ("energetic") / FO, ("ear, leaf"); not identified at present

(A10v&n) verbal and nominal -F[H]A {see FA above}

(A11/12v&n). verbal and nominal F[H]E, ("weary") / F[H]O, ("wind") ; not identified at present

(A13v&n) verbal and nominal -HA {see ?A above}

AA/IE*(A13n1) nominal: HA(-¿E); (Egyptian negative element j(j)); (IE: the negative represented by Greek and Old Indian a-, negative (considered incorrectly to be a vocalic reduction of *n-)); i.e. HA, "air" or "airy, empty"); (cf. Uralic e, ‘no, not'); (cf. Altaic negative e); (cf. Beng (Southern Mandé) é, ‘not' (though I reconstructed the PL base as ?E in the essay on Beng, it could represent an unusual response to HA-¿E [é from *E from *ay?])); (cf. Japanese hi, ‘error, fault' (‘omission[?]'); hi-, ‘non-‘).

(A14v&n) verbal and nominal -HE {see ?E above}

(A15v&n) verbal and nominal -HO {see ?O above}

(A16v&n) verbal and nominal -HHA {see ¿A above}

IE(A17v) verbal: HHE ("go"); in HHE- ¿E ("going"); (IE *-H4[e]i, dative; *1. ei-, ‘come, go'); (cf. Basque dative -i (from *-ey) (Trask 1997:201); dative verbal marker -i- (from *-ey-) (Trask 1997:228)); (cf. Uralic Nenets -ye? [from *-ey?{?}], ‘toward'); (cf. Japanese (h)e, ‘to (of motion)' [cf. also heru, ‘decrease' {‘go away'; héru, ‘pass'}])

IE*(A17v1) verbal: HHE-HHE ("always going"), (IE -ye: {from *-e:y}, optative); (cf. Uralic Nenets -yi?, potential noun: xet-, ‘tell' xetyiq, ‘possibility to tell' {‘going to tell'}; HHE-HHE dissimilated to HHE-¿E [IE *-e:y]}; (cf. Nenets 3rd p. optative -ya; conjunctive -yi); (not found in Japanese but probably present)

(A17n) nominal: -HHE {see ?E above}

(A18v&n) verbal and nominal -HHO {see ¿O above}

(A19/20/21v&n). verbal and nominal K[?]A, ("chew") / K[?]E, ("penis, male") / K[?]O, ("neck, twist"); not identified at present

IE(A22v) verbal: K[?]XA ("hair, hang, behind");(IE ghe in emphatic negations: Old Indian ná gha, ‘(strongly) not, **no hair, **no trace, not at all', listed under ghe-, emphatic particles)

AA(A22n) nominal: K[?]XA ("hair, hang, behind"); (Egyptian in H3 {K[?]XA-R[H]E, "hair- fall=back-of-head"}, ‘occiput, back of ear, behind')

AA/IE(A23v) verbal: K[?]XE ("face, in front of, about to . . ."); ( Egyptian in Hr {K[?]XE-RO, "front-part"}, ‘face, *front'); (IE g[^]he-, "*before", cf. Old Indian tár-hi, ‘at one time' = ‘before then', listed under ghe-; cf. also in gher-, ‘*face', in Czech zrak, ‘face', listed under g[^]her-, ‘beam, glow, shimmer'; g[^]he: in emphatic personal pronouns: Greek eme- gé, ‘me, **my face, **myself' [K[?]XE-?A, ("face-here"), ‘self'], listed under ghe-, emphatic particles); (cf. Basque -ke, potential mood suffix (Trask 1997:224))

IE(A23n) nominal: K[?]XE ("bare, scrape"); (IE *1. g[^]he:-, ‘be empty'); (cf. Basque -ge, ‘lack of . . . , missing')

IE(A24v&n) verbal and nominal: K[?]XO ("throat, hole"); not identified at present

IE(A25v&n) verbal and nominal: K[H]A; not identified at present

IE(A26v&n) verbal and nominal: K[H]E; not identified at present

IE(A27n) nominal: K[H]O; (IE *-ko, diminutive); (cf. Basque -ko, diminutive); (cf. Uralic -ka in pos-ka, ‘cheek'); (cf. Japanese ko-, ‘little, small'; ko, ‘child')

IE*(A27n1) nominal: K[H]O-F[H]A ("cover-ing"); (IE *2. (s)keu-, ‘cover, wrap up'); (cf. Basque -ko, ‘clothing')

IE(A28) nominal: KX[H]A-F[H]A ("hurting"); (IE ka:u-, ‘hew, beat'); (cf. Basque -ko (KO2), ‘blow')

IE(A29v) verbal: KX[H]E ("fast, busy"); (IE in *4. ken-; in *-sk[^]-, former of presents, iteratives, distributive, repetitive, continuative, intensive; in Greek perfect -k); (cf. Uralic -cha, deverbative); (cf. Japanese -k-, perfect)

AA/IE(A30v) verbal: KX[H]O ("closed up = close"); (cf. Egyptian sDm.xr.f, ‘he *must hear' [cf. xr, ‘with']); (IE k[^]e / k[^]o, "future particle [Greek]"); (cf. Basque -ko, future participle (Trask 1997:103)); (cf. Uralic -ka/ä, imperative [cf. Nenets -x, hortative])

AA/IE(A30n) nominal: KX[H]O ("closed up = close"); (cf. Egyptian xntj, ‘in front'); (IE *ko(m-); *ko-, ‘this', listed under *k[^]o, which is properly K[H]E, ‘that'); (cf. Uralic -ka/ä, comitative (‘with')); (cf. Nenets locative -x-na; xi, ‘near'); (cf. Japanese ko:(re), used for third person proximate; contrasting with so:(re) [S[H]O-RE], semi-proximate; and ka(re) [K[H]E-RE], distal)

(A31n) nominal: MA (formant of nouns of place); (Egyptian m-, prefix forming nouns of place ); (Arabic ma-, prefix forming nouns of place ); (IE -mo, suffix forming nouns of place as in Greek keuthmós, ‘hiding place'; (cf. Sumerian ma, 'land', from which the verbal infix -m(a)-, 'there', is derived)

IE(A31n1) nominal: MA-?A ("full"); (IE *2. ma:-); (cf. Japanese ma-, intensive prefix)

*(A31n2) nominal: MA-¿E ("full-like"); (cf. Japanese mai-, prefix meaning ‘each, every')

AA/IE(A32n) nominal: ME ("tongue = "converser"); (Egyptian in -w(jj)n (irregularly for **-m(jj)n), 1st p. pl. of the Old Perfective); (IE *1. me-, 1st p. sing. oblique pronoun ; *-me, 1st person plural verbal inflection); (cf. Altaic in men, ‘I'); (cf. Beng (Southern Mandé) in , ‘you [sg. familiar]'); (cf. in Late Middle Japanese mi, ‘I'; corresponding to this, we also have kimi, ‘you, other converser' (K[H]E-¿E-"ME-¿E); K[H]E, 'other' is a common formant for the 2nd person)

AA/IE(A32v) verbal: ME(-HE) ("push away+move-across- from=reject"); (Egyptian m(j), negative imperative); (in Arabic tamahmaha {m-h}, 'to abstain from'; in mahmaha, 'to prevent from'); (IE *1. me:- (**meH4), ‘(that) not', prohibitive); (cf. Japanese -m-, negative irrealis)

IE*(A33n) nominal: MO ("overall"); (IE *-mo, superlative); (cf. Altaic - ma/e, augmentative in kap-kara, ‘entirely black' (from *kam-kara); (cf. Uralic -ma, superlative [cf. also Nenets ngar, ‘largeness' ngarm-, ‘become larger']); (cf. Japanese mo, ‘also, even')

AA/IE(A34n) nominal: M[H]A(-¿E); (Arabic mi-, prefix indicating nouns of instrument (miqbar)); (IE -m, accusative); PL M[H]A is "activity at"; it was originally used primarily with animate nouns to indicate — in the absence of an expressed animate subject — that they were targets of the action; obviously, it could also be used as a locative; neuters acquired -m secondarily, originally only as locatives; (cf. Uralic -ma/ä, accusative)

AA/IE*(A34n1)nominal: M[H]A (activity); (Arabic ma-, prefix forming nouns of location); (IE -mo, formant of locations); (cf. Uralic -ma/ä, deverbal noun [Finnish kuolla, ‘die' kuolema, ‘death'); (cf. Japanese -ma(:), in MJ jama, ‘obstruction, restriction' [PL T[?]SO-¿A-M[H]A {"held-activity"} = OJ *dyama:])

(A35v&n) verbal and nominal: M[H]E ("thin, soft, smooth"); not identified at present

AA/IE(A36n) nominal: M[H]O ("human"); (AA *man, ‘someone');(IE does not have this use presumably except as a constituent of *men, ‘someone'); (cf. Beng mo, ‘my, mine'; this word was used for "pronouns" in Amerindian languages.

AA/IE(A37v) verbal: NA; (Egyptian sDm.n.f; ‘he heard', really a nominalization: ‘what he spoke was . . .'); (IE -no, perfect participle); (cf. Basque -(e)n, past tense (Trask 1997:224) {really a nominalization}); Basque -n, nominalizer (Trask, "complementizer"; Trask 1997:240))

AA/(IE)(A37n) nominal: -NA (/N[H]A) (definite singular); (Egyptian n, "genitival particle[?]", shown to be an inflected article by its agreement with the foregoing noun, varying for feminine [n.t] and plural [{i}nw]); (Arabic -l [from animate N[H]A]); (not found in IE as a genitive per se, which has inherited *-y [from -¿E, "-like", an adjectivizer] but -n, nominal suffix; -l, Romance definite article base: -lo, agent; cf. also -ino, secondary adjectives; -ino, pronominal possessive); cf. Basque -n(a), refers to the absolutive subject of a subordinate clause / -la, refers to the ergative agent of the subordinate clause (see Trask 1997: 240-241); -ne, female first name (NA-¿E, a femininization of "the"); -le, agent, actor (N[H]A-¿E, "the [animate]"); (cf. also Uralic -n, genitive); -na/nä, de-nominal/verbal noun [Hungarian vad, ‘wild' vadon, ‘wilderness']); (cf. Beng in sON\, ‘person'); (cf. Japanese na in kana, ‘this (one)'; na, "copular connective(?)" in shizuka na hito, ‘a quiet man' (but perhaps simply the singular definite article [‘the man of quiet'], corresponding to genitive particle no [really the plural (article){NO}]).

(IE)*(A37n1) nominal: NA ("one" = "I / you"); (IE: not found as a 1st or 2nd p. pronoun unless in *3. ne- {*no:i [**neH3ey-{?}]; could this form be related to Arabic naHnu, 'we', **from NO-HHO(-F[H]A, 'be inclined to'["feel(ings)-resting = agreeing[?]"]; IE *2. neu-, 'nod'; Arabic naHâ [n-H-w], 'incline towards', as 'those who agree = we'?}, ‘we {oblique}'); (cf. Basque in ni (from na-"yV PL NA-"¿E), "I" (Trask 1997:196)); (cf. Beng n, ‘I'); a frequent set of pronouns around the world for the first and second person are NA, "the one", and K[H]E, "the other"; Beng ka, 2nd p. plural and polite); the a of ka (for *ke) and the syllabic n of *na show that these "pronouns" are stress-unaccented.

IE**(A37n2) nominal: "NA(-¿E) ("inside-like"); (IE nei- {Slavic *on[?]}, listed under *1. en, ‘in'); (cf. Basque -n, locative, ‘in' (Trask 1997:202)); (cf. Uralic -na/ä, illative [‘into']); (cf. Japanese ni, ‘in, into'

IE***(A37n3) nominal: NA/N[H]A in ?A+N[H]A(-FE) ("this-animate[-male]"'); (IE in *all- for **alw-, listed under *1. al-; 2. an-); (cf. Altaic ol, 3rd p. demonstrative nominative and ?E-NA("that", inanimate), -a/en, 3rd p. demonstrative oblique); Altaic is attempted to preserve the animate-inanimate distinction of N[H]A/NA, the nominative preferring the animate form); (cf. Beng aN, ‘we [past, imperative], us, our')

IE****(A37n4) nominal: NA-?A ("being inside, absent"), (IE 1. ne/e:, sentence negation); (cf. Japanese *na:-, ná-i, ‘there is not')

AA/IE*****(A37n5) nominal: NA-"?A-¿E ("inside-like=not here=absent"); (Egyptian (j)n(n), negative); (IE *ne:i-, listed under *1. ne/ne:-, negative); (cf. Beng , ‘not'); (cf. Japanese -*na:i -nai, ‘not' — for this interpretation of the Japanese negative, cf. náibu, ‘inside, interior' [NA-?A-¿E-P[?]FO-FA])

IE******(A37n6) nominal: NA-¿E ("not-say"); (IE *nei, sentence negative, listed under *1. ne/e:); (cf. Japanese nee, particle asking for agreement)

(A38v&n) verbal and nominal: NE ("mucus, sticky"); not identified at present

AA/IE(A39n) nominal: -NO ("basket"); (Egyptian -n, pronominal plural); (IE n in -nt, 3rd p. pl.; in -men, 1st p. pl.); (cf. Uralic -n, plural [originally inanimate]); (cf. Japanese plural -no in ono (see #6), and so(-)no, ‘that, those'; properly a marker of the definite plural)

(A40v)verbal: -N[H]A ("start to . . ."); (IE: not formally recognized but *-l, inchoative [cf. Armenian infinitive in -l{but possibly from R[H]O, "rise to . . ."}]); (cf. Basque l-, 3rd person prefix for the irrealis (see Trask 1997:212-3); (cf. Uralic -l, inchoative (perhaps this has been weakened to mean only ‘move'); (cf. Beng -N, inchoative); (cf. Japanese: Miller 1967 -n- "perfect" but see p. 326, where it is clearly an inchoative)

AA(A40n) nominal: -N[H]A-¿E ("moving inside"), (cf. Afrasian *li, ‘[in]to'); (cf. Japanese ni, locative, [‘into'])

*(A40n1) nominal: -N[H]A ("move inside"); (Basque -la, forms adverbs of manner (‘moving like . . .'); {see also NA above}

IE**(A40n2) nominal: -"N[H]A-(¿E); (IE *-lo (*-li), nouns of the agent); (cf. Basque -le, agent)

(A41v&n) verbal and nominal: N[H]E ("slippery, slide "); not identified at present

IE(A42n) nominal: -N[H]O; (IE *-lo, diminutive)

(A43/44/45v&n). verbal and nominal P[?]A, ("partitive/diminutive") / P[?]E, ("pour out") / P[?]O, ("swell"); not identified at present

(A46v&n) verbal and nominal: P[?]FA ("protrude"); not identified at present

IE(A47n) nominal: P[?]FE-(¿E) ("foot-like = at the feet of, by, under"); (IE *bhi-, "by", listed under *ambhi-, ‘around'); (cf. Basque -b/pe, ‘under')

IE(A48n) nominal: P[?]FO-¿E, ("leg-like, on top of"); (IE (*ebhi[?]), ‘upon something, thereupon and overpowering it' [?E-, "there"+])

AA/IE(A49n) nominal: P[H]A ("over"); (Egyptian p3, former of past perfects); (IE in *pero-s, ‘earlier'; *peri-, ‘before', listed under *2. per-, ‘lead out over'); (cf. Basque b-, prefix of 3rd person jussive verbs; cf. ba, ‘already'; (cf. cf. Sumerian ba-, verbal prefix, glossed by Akkadian perfect in -t)

(A50/51v&n) verbal and nominal P[H]E, ("small") / P[H]O, ("sniff"); not identified at present

(A52/53/54v&n) verbal and nominal P[H]FA, ("fat") / P[H]FE, ("sting") / P[H]FO, ("puff"); not identified at present

(A55/56v&n) verbal and nominal QA, ("tubular") / QE, ("congeal"); not identified at present

(A57v) verbal: QO ("attached"); (cf. Uralic Nenets -ng?, essive); cf. Altaic -q in genitives [-i/?q = ¿E-QO or ¿E-QA; -ni/?q = NA-¿E-QO or NA-¿E-QA]); (cf. Japanese ga, emphatic subject [but Japanese a for o is unexplained])

IE(A57n) nominal: -QO ("skull, pot"); (IE *-ng collectives); (cf. Uralic -ka/ä, non-singular)

*(A57n1) nominal: QO ("skull = animate entity"); (cf. Sumerian ga-10, ‘I'); (cf. Beng qa, ‘they [with negatives]'; qO [*qo + va, imperfective], ‘they [with present/future]'); this use of QO is particularly frequent in Australian languages

AA/IE**(A57n2) nominal: QO(-?A) ("be attached"); (Egyptian in [j]gr, ‘also'); (IE *(n)go:, 'behind, after, on account of', listed under *g[^]ho:; *eng- in *en-dh-, ‘and', listed incorrectly under *en-); (cf. Sumerian -(n)ga- [a better reading for J. #594 in my opinion is the attested Akkadian -(n)gu(-u), which I would indicate as -(n)gu/ûx], modal prefix, ‘also' [in texts older than Old Babylonian, the prefix is always written -ga- but in Old Babylonian and later, it is normally written in-ga. Thomsen 1984 says on page 170: "The form of this prefix is normally considered to be /inga/ or /nga/." If the initial i- is not derived from i3, the normal sign of non-concomitant time (PL ?E), then it may represent the first element of IE *eng or Egyptian [j]gr.]); (cf. Uralic Nenets ngo?, ‘also'); (cf. [Sino-]Tibetan -ang in ky+ang, ‘also'); (cf. Japanese -go:, ‘after' [ MJ go])

(A58/59v&n). verbal and nominal Q[H]A, ("hard, humped, elevated") / Q[H]E, ("bustle"); not identified at present

(A60n) nominal: Q[H]O ("hooked"), (cf. Beng possibly in ?aaN, ‘hear now, well'; perhaps doubtful)

(A61v&n). verbal and nominal RA, ("tree"); not identified at present

IE(A62v) verbal: RE ("scratch, (any) one"); (IE in Latin -r, passive ending); (cf. Basque in ra-, causative prefix; -erazi, causative suffix (Trask 1997:231);(Japanese -r- , passive)

AA(A62n) nominal: -RE ("scratch" = indefinite number); (Egyptian in p-3, ‘**any one', as against p-n, ‘the' (P[?]A-N/N[H]A); *jp-, ‘ones' (¿A-P[?]A)); (cf. Japanese in so(-)re, ‘it, that'); (cf. [Sino-]Tibetan -re, ‘each', distributive); (cf. Altaic -a/er, distributive); properly, -RE is a marker of the indefinite singular

IE*(A62n1) nominal: "RE-¿E; (IE *re:i-, ‘number', listed incorrectly under *1. ar-); (cf. Japanese -ri, single (any one), in hito-ri, ‘single man')

(A63v) verbal: RO (augmentative); not identified at present.

IE(A63n) nominal: -RO (elative); (IE *-ro, comparative); (cf. Beng -l/r, augmentative); (cf. Japanese *-ro but not recognized as a suffix)

IE(A64n) nominal: R[H]A (color formant); (IE *-r, terminating color words); (cf. Beng -l in kala, ‘elderly person')

(A65v&n) verbal and nominal: R[H]E ("rain, fall"); not identified at present

IE(A66v) verbal: R[H]O ("rise"), (IE for *lo = ‘rise', cf. OHG ti-la, ‘women's breast', and Greek tú-lo-s, ‘swelling'; cf. *-lo, nouns of agent and instrument [this is from "give rise to"]); (cf. the Japanese imperfect ending -ru = either PL RE ("apply") + FA (imperfective) [cf. Egyptian -3] or R[H]O-F[H]A [Armenian infinitive in -l]; (cf. Japanese *-ro: ( MJ -roo), presumptive, ‘rise to . . . , intend to')

IE(A66n) nominal: -R[H]O; (IE -lo, augmentative)

IE(A67n) nominal: -SA(-¿E) or SA-FE ("strong[-like] {unbreakable}" or "strong-powerful"); (IE *-s, aorist; *s-mobile; or *su-, ‘well'); (cf. Old Basque *Z-, which has the effect of de-leniting initial consonants in a word; -tza, ‘abundance, large amount of, collectivity'; or -zu / *-tzu (-tsu [SA-¿E-FE [?]]), "full of"; Biscaian ze-, past tense prefix when no other agreement prefix present {see (A2) above}); (cf. Uralic Nenets -sy, "past tense" or so/wa, ‘good'); (cf. Japanese súu-, ‘several').

(A68n) nominal: SE ("individual", inanimate); see S[H]E below.

(A69v&n) verbal and nominal: NO ("skin, pull "); not identified at present

IE(A70n) nominal: S[H]A ("content = serene"); (IE desiderative / future in -*s); (cf. Japanese -*s(a:)-, marker of respect ( MJ -mas-u (MA-S[H]A, "fully happy"; cf. masáru, ‘surpass, excel'; Miller 1967:326)

IE*(A70n1) nominal: S[H]A ("rest, place"); (IE *-s, nouns of quality [cf. Old Indian tápa-s, ‘warmth']; Mediterranean place names in -isso); (cf. Basque -z, instrumental; in -zko, ‘made of . . .' (+ KX[H]O-F[H]A, "cutting"; IE *1. (s)keu-, ‘get ready, carry out'; *6. ske:u-(t-), ‘cut, separate, scratch, score, puncture, poke through'); -tz, *stative, in gaitz, ‘bad'; putz / futz, ‘puff of air'; -tza, stative, in bizitza, ‘life'); (cf. [Sino-]Tibetan -sa, ‘place of . . . ‘); (cf. Uralic -s(s)a, inessive); (cf. Japanese *-sa:, noun of quality or place)

IE**(A70n2) nominal: S[H]A ("rest, place"); (IE possibly *-s- in *-sk[^]o); (cf. Basque -tza, job or profession); (cf. Japanese -s-, adjectivizer, in aka-s-i, ‘be red')

IE***(A70n3) nominal: S[H]A ("female"); (IE *-sa in *-i-sa, feminine [cf. Latin -issa]); (cf. Basque -sa, female); (cf. Nama -s, female)

(A71v) verbal: S[H]E ("individual"); (cf. Japanese -se, causative); see (A6) verbal: ¿O above.

IE(A71n) nominal: S[H]E ("individual"); (IE singular in *-s); (cf. Altaic as -z, Turkish suffix of one of objects occurring in pairs); (cf. Beng in sia, ‘male')

IE(A72v) verbal: S[H]O ("clan-member=same=so"); (IE *swe-, ‘*same', listed incorrectly under *se-; *mes-, listed under *1. e:-); (cf. Japanese *-s in negative irrealis -z- (from *-n-i-s- [NA-?A-¿E-S[H]O = "not so"]; Miller 1967:327); and -mas [M[H]A-S[H]O = "hold so"]; Miller 1967:327)

AA/IE*(A72v1) verbal: S[H]O ("clan-member=person"); (Egyptian s-, causative); (IE some *s-mobile may be causative rather than intensive); (cf. Basque z-, prefix of the third person past (really properly an intensive) {see also (A2) above})

IE**(A72v2) verbal: S[H]O-¿E ("follow-like"); (IE *se:i-, ‘so', listed under se-); (cf. Japanese shi, ‘and')

IE(A72n) nominal: S[H]O ("clan=good"); (IE in *su-, ‘good'); (cf. Basque -so, family relationship); (cf. Japanese OJ so:-, intensive prefix)

IE*(A72n1) nominal: S[H]O-¿E ("clan-member-like"); (Egyptian -s(j), ‘she'); (IE secondary *-s, 2nd p. sing. of active; *syo-, ‘this', listed under *so[s]); (cf. Altaic -si/?, 3rd p. sing.; in sen, ‘you [sing.]'); (cf. Uralic , ‘he/she/it'); (Beng in sO\N, ‘person, someone, somebody, body'); (cf. Japanese in so(-)re, ‘it, that'; so-no, ‘that, those')

IE**(A72n2) nominal: S[H]O ("clan[-member]"); (IE in *-es, nominative plural); (cf. Basque -z, plural absolutive verbal suffix (see Trask 1997: 221-2))

IE(A73n) nominal: T[?]A ("hand"); (. IE *de-, demonstrative stem, ‘I'-deictic in part; cf. Greek dé:, ‘even, now, just, certainly'); (cf. Basque d-- as a third person prefix for present tense verbs); (cf. Beng díN, ‘next to'); (cf. Altaic -de/a, locative; (a lative [‘at the side of, with'] in languages all over the world; seen dimly in IE ablative -e:/o:d, possibly a metathesis of *-d+e: (T?A+HHE, "go away from the hand") to facilitate pronunciation of vowelless stems); (cf. Uralic -t(Vogul), locative); (cf. Sumerian -da, locative); (cf. Japanese de (from "T[?]A-¿E), ‘at/in/on (the hand of); by means of (through the hand of)')

(A74/75v&n). verbal and nominal T[?]E, ("heel, spin around") / T[?]O, ("torso, put together"); not identified at present

(A76/77v&n). verbal and nominal T[H]A, ("dew, steal, damp") / T[H]E, ("star, shine, contract"); not identified at present

IE(A78v) verbal: -T[H]O, ("approach, gather"); (IE *2. to-); (cf. Uralic *-ta/ä, allative (‘toward') [cf. Nenets dative -n~to/-h]); (cf. Japanese to, ‘and, as soon as')

IE*(A78v1) verbal: -T[H]O (iterative); (IE *-to, perfective passive participle); (cf. Altaic -d/t, perfective); (cf. Japanese -ta, perfect [the a for expected o is unexplained]); also -t-, perfect (Miller 1967:326))

(A78n) nominal: T[H]O (definite animate plural); (IE *1. to-, ‘this'); (cf. Basque -to, augmentative)

IE*(A78n1) nominal: -"T[H]O-¿E ("tribesman-like"); (IE *-ti, nomina agentis and nomina actionis; [cf. IE *sru-ti-s, 'a flowing, streaming', from *sreu-); (cf. Basque -te, gerund); (cf. Uralic -tya in kun-tya, ‘urine'); (cf. Japanese -te, ‘one who performs . . .', gerund)

IE**(A78n2) nominal: -"T[H]O-¿E ("tribesman-like"); (IE *-ti, collective); (cf. Basque -te, ergative NP plural verbal suffix (see Trask 1997:221-2); -te, ‘abundance'; -ti, ‘group of men' (T[H]O-"¿E)

(A79v&n) verbal and nominal: T[?]SA ("long, body"); not identified at present

IE(A80v) verbal: T[?]SE-FA ("releasing=going away"); (IE *dheu-, listed under *3. dhe:-, ‘disappear'); (cf. Japanese -zu, negative)

(A81v&n). verbal and nominal T[?]SO, ("circling"); not identified at present

(A82/83v&n). verbal and nominal TS[H]A, ("rear up, excessive") / TS[H]E ("bristle up, frightened"); not identified at present

IE(A84n) nominal: TS[H]O (circle of animates); (IE in -*tu, forms abstract substantives (TS[H]O-F[H]A)); (cf. [Sino-]Tibetan -tsho, plural)

AA/IE*(A84n1) nominal: TS[H]O ("circling"); (IE in *ter-, ‘there' [Egyptian '3], listed incorrectly under *1. to-); (cf. Uralic "essive" -ta); (cf. Sumerian -ta, instrumental); (cf. Japanese to, ‘[along] with')

IE**(A84n2) nominal: TS[H]O; (IE *to, ‘then', under *1. to-); (cf. Japanese to, ‘when')

(A85/86v&n). verbal and nominal XA, ("swallow, slit") / XE, ("fur, feather, prick"); not identified at present

AA(A87v)verbal: XO, ("squirt, below"); (Egyptian in *Xr {XO-RO, "below-part"}, ‘under')

IE(A88v)verbal: X[H]A-F[H]A ("resting=(be)come"); (IE *kwe- in kwey6-); (cf. Japanese -k[w] in forms of adjectives except non-past indicative, from kú-ru, 'come')

(A89v&n). verbal and nominal X[H]E, ("curl around, encircle"); not identified at present

AA/IE(A90n) nominal: X[H]O (large indefinite animate plural); (cf. Egyptian S in jSzt, ‘what?' [S X]); (IE *kwo-, indefinite); (cf. Japanese ka, interrogative particle ('what?'); indefinite [the Japanese a for expected o is unexplained])

IE*(A90n1) nominal: X[H]O-HA ("at the quanity"); (cf. IE *kwei-, ‘as', listed under *kwo- [‘of the quantity of']); (cf. Uralic Nenets simulatives in -r-xa); (cf. Altaic -ca, aequativus) [‘at the quantity of']); (cf. Japanese koo, ‘this way')

IE(B1) nominal: HHA-¿E-KX[H]O ("water-like=sea+shell=property"); (IE *e:ik-, ‘have as one's own; be able to'); (cf. Basque ergative *-ek); (cf. Sumerian genitive -ak)

*(B2) (S)OV is the earliest Basque word-order, corresponding to OV established by Lehmann for earliest IE; S-OV (and possibly OV-S, which may have distinguished between imperfective and perfective aspects before singular and plural elements were applied to convey the same aspects) word-order stems from the language of the active-type phase, where the transitive subject is only loosely linked to the object-"verb", which is primary, and need not be expressed overtly, a characteristic which many active/ergative-type languages amply illustrate; Basque, Beng (Southern Mandé), Japanese and Sumerian also have SOV,which should also be assumed for Altaic and Uralic (proved by the invariable rectum-regensword order of Uralic and Altaic [except Northern Tungus]).

*(B3) verbal: REDUPLICATION indicates habituality; however, when the iterative -*to (-ta) began to be used for the perfective, reduplication was re-defined as iterative: e.g. in Japanese, when *ker-, ‘*run', is reduplicated, the vowel -a- represents a stress un-accented root -e-: *ke"ker- kakér-u, ‘run'; kák-u, ‘write'; stem: ka(i)-; (Egyptian reduplication, habitual: e.g. Ddd.t, ‘what has always been said').

*(B4) cf. Basque -u, circumlocative, in gu, "we, (to and for) us"; and zu, "(to and for) you (singular but formerly plural); (Japanese conservatively preserves archaic features of the Proto-Language (active-type) period, during which the transitive subject formed a separate sub-phrase of the sentence, and was frequently deleted. When the context required it to be included, the early ergative-type sub-phrases were formed: S + FA, literally, 'around' the S, which is actually a topicalizer rather than a formative of the ergative subject; this element is very old; we can see it in *-su, the IE locative plural (*-s + *-u); and possibly the Latin nominative in -u; and in IE pronominal forms with *-w, e.g. *tewe; in -w, the Egyptian independent pronoun ending (zw, he [topic {subject} of stative]; him [topic {notobject} of transitive verb]); cf. Afrasian nominative in *-u; cf. Hurrian dative (of interest) -wa.

**(B5) (cf. Japanese: the direct object marker (*w)o is a relatively late innovation; according to Shibatani (1996:340), "it was more common not to mark the direct object at all" in the earliest records; this is the most archaic pattern; in spite of the Japanese orthographical details, this particle seems to mean "toward", which would suggest a derivation from PL HHO, "come down on" (cf. IE 1. o, to, with; [cf. Egyptian h3]); this correlates better with the Japanese vocative and hortative use of o (cf. IE 2. o:, vocative).

The correspondence of 160+ roots and many formants

suffices for a preliminary study to establish the

presumption of a genetic relationship.

Combinatory Modifications

for modifications of the vowels and consonants in combination, see the

Table of Modifications

Summary of Phonological Changes

from Proto-Language to Afrasian


In order for readers to judge the semantic plausibility of the analysis of Proto-Language (PL) compounds suggested here, I am including access to a table of Proto-Language monosyllables and the meanings I have provisionally assigned.

Most assignments can be exhaustively supported by data from actually attested forms but a few animates are very doubtful; and this list does not represent the "final" solution of these questions, which will only be approached when other scholars assist in refining it.

Patrick C. Ryan

Summer 1998



the latest revision of this document can be found at

Patrick C. Ryan * 9115 West 34th Street - Little Rock, AR 72204-4441 * (501)227-9947

1. v. entry under an in A Latin Dictionary for Schools, p. 71.