Zhong Yong

 

二○ ○二年五月十一日

子曰○南方之強與○北方之強與○抑而強與○ 子路問強○ 刃○可蹈也○中庸不可能也○ 子曰○天下國家○可均也○爵禄○可辭也○白 拳服膺○而弗失之矣○ 子曰○回之為人也○擇乎中庸○得一善○則拳 而不能期月守也○ ○而莫之知辟也○人皆曰○予知○擇乎中庸○ 子曰○人皆曰○予知○驅而納諸罟擭陷阱之中 為舜乎○ 隱惡而揚善○執其兩端○用其中於民○其斯以 子曰○舜其大知也與○舜好問○而好察邇言○ 子曰○道其不行矣夫○ 人莫不飲食也○鮮能知味也○ ○不肖者不及也○ 者不及也○道之不明也○我知之矣○賢者過之 子曰○道之不行也○我知之矣○知者過之○愚 子曰○中庸其至矣乎○民鮮能久矣○ ○小人而無忌憚也○ 君子之中庸也○君子而時中○小人之反中庸也 仲尼曰○君子○中庸○小人○反中庸○ 致中和○天地位焉○萬物育焉○ 天下之達道也○ ○謂之和○中也者○天下之大本也○和也者○ 喜○怒○哀○樂之未發○謂之中○發而皆中節 莫見乎隱○莫顯乎微○故君子慎其獨也○ 君子戒慎乎其所不睹○恐懼乎其所不聞○ 道也者○不可須臾離也○可離○非道也○是故 天命之謂性○率性之謂道○修道之謂教○

君子胡不慥慥爾○ 不敢不勉○有餘○不敢盡○言顧行○行顧言○ ○未能也○庸德之行○庸言之謹○有所不足○ 乎弟○以事兄○未能也○所求乎朋友○先施之 ○未能也○所求乎臣○以事君○未能也○所求 君子之道四○丘未能一焉○所求乎子○以事父 忠怒違道不遠○施諸己而不願○亦勿施於人○ 而視之○猶以為遠○故君子以人治人○改而止 詩云○伐柯伐柯○其則不遠○執柯以伐柯○睨 道○ 子曰○道不遠人○人之為道而遠人○不可以為 君子之道○造端乎夫婦○及其至也○察乎天地 詩曰○鳶飛戾天○魚躍于淵○言其上下察也○ ○天下莫能破焉○ 猶有所憾○故君子語大○天下莫能載焉○語小 至也○雖聖人亦有所不能焉○天地之大也○人 有所不知焉○夫婦之不肖○可以能行焉○及其 夫婦之愚○可以與知焉○及其至也○雖聖人亦 君子之道○費而隱○ 子依乎中庸○遯世不見知而不悔○唯聖者能之 ○君子遵道而行○半途而廢○吾弗能已矣○君 子曰○素隱○行怪○後世有述焉○吾弗為之矣 死不變○強哉矯○ 矯○國有道○不變塞焉○強哉矯○國無道○至 故君子和而不流○強哉矯○中立而不倚○強哉 之○ ○衽金革○死而不厭○北方之強也○而強者居 寬柔以教○不報無道○南方之強也○君子居之
天下○身不失天下之顯名○尊為天子○富有四 武王纘大王○王季○文王之緒○壹戎衣○而有 武王為子○父作之○子述之○ 子曰○無憂者○其惟文王乎○以王季為父○以 故大德者必受命○ 於天○保佑命之○自天申之○ 詩曰○嘉樂君子○憲憲令德○宜民宜人○受禄 傾者覆之○ ○故天之生物必因其材而篤焉○故栽者培之○ ○必得其位○必得其禄○必得其名○必得其壽 富有四海之内○宗廟饗之○子孫保之○故大德 子曰○舜其大孝也與○德為聖人○尊為天子○ 之顯○誠之不可揜○如此夫○ 詩曰○神之格思○不可度思○矧可射思○夫微 其左右○ 明盛服○以承祭祀○洋洋乎○如在其上○如在 聽之而弗聞○體物而不可遺○使天下之人○齊 子曰○鬼神之為德○其盛矣乎○視之而弗見○ 子曰○父母其順矣乎○ 且耽○宜爾室家○樂爾妻孥○ 詩云○妻子好合○如鼓瑟琴○兄弟既翕○和樂 卑○ ○君子之道○辟如行遠必自邇○辟如登高必自 子曰○射有似乎君子○失諸正鵠○反求諸其身 故君子居易以俟命○小人行險以徼辛○ 求於人○則無怨○上不怨天○下不尤人○ 在上位○不陵下○在下位○不援上○正己而不 而不自得焉○ 狄○行乎夷狄○素患難○行乎患難○君子無入 素富貴○行乎富貴○素貧賤○行乎貧賤○素夷 君子素其位而行○不願乎其外○
父子也○夫婦也○昆弟也○朋友之交也○五者 天下之達道五○所以行之者三○曰○君臣也○ 不知天○ 親○思事親○不可以不知人○思知人○不可以 故君子○不可以不修身○思修身○不可以不事 在下位○不获乎上○民不可得而治矣○ 為大○親親之殺○尊賢之等○禮所生也○ ○仁者○人也○親親為大○義者○宜也○尊賢 故為政在人○取人以身○修身以道○修道以仁 人道敏政○地道敏樹○夫政也者○蒲盧也○ 舉○其人亡○則其政息○ 子曰○文武之政○布在方策○其人存○則其政 哀公問政○ 如示諸掌乎○ 乎其先也○明乎郊社之禮○禘嘗之義○治国其 郊社之禮○所以事上帝也○宗廟之禮○所以祀 ○孝之至也○ 其所尊○愛其所親○事死如事生○事亡如事存 毛所以序齒也○踐其位○行其禮○奏其樂○敬 ○所以辨賢也○旅酬下為上○所以逮賤也○燕 ○所以序昭穆也○序爵○所以辨貴賤也○序事 ○陳其宗器○設其裳衣○薦其時食○宗廟之禮 繼人之志○善述人之事者也○春秋○修其祖廟 子曰○武王○周公○其達孝矣乎○夫孝者○善 乎天子○父母之喪○無貴賤○一也○ 祭以大夫○期之喪○達乎大夫○三年之喪○達 大夫○祭以士○父為士○子為大夫○葬以士○ 侯大夫○及士庶人○父為大夫○子為士○葬以 季○上祀先公○以天子之禮○斯禮也○達乎諸 武王末受命○周公成文武之德○追王大○王王 海之内○宗廟饗之○子孫保之○
道○不信乎朋友○不獲乎上矣○信乎朋友有道 在下位不獲乎上○民不可得而治矣○獲乎上有 不窮○ 前定○則不困○行前定○則不疚○道前定○則 凡事豫則立○不豫則廢○言前定○則不跲○事 凡為天下國家有九經○所以行之者一也○ ○厚往而薄来○所以懷諸侯也○ 人也○繼絕世○舉廢國○治亂持危○朝聘以時 勸百工也○送往迎来○嘉善而矜不能所以柔遠 ○所以勸百姓也○日省月試○既禀稱事○所以 勸大臣也○忠信重禄○所以勸士也○時使薄歛 ○同其好惡○所以勸親親也○官盛任使○所以 ○賤貸而貴德○所以勸賢也○尊其位○重其禄 齊明盛服○非禮不動○所以修身也○去讒遠色 之○ 足○柔遠人○則四方歸之○懷諸侯○則天下畏 報禮重○庶子民○則百姓勸○来百工○則財用 昆弟不怨○敬大臣○則不眩○體群臣○則士之 修身○則道立○尊賢○則不惑○親親○則諸父 百工也○柔遠人也○懷諸侯也○ 親親也○敬大臣也○體群臣也○子庶民也○来 凡為天下國家有九經○曰○修身也○尊賢也○ 家矣○ 知所以治人○知所以治人○則知所以治天下國 ○知斯三者○則知所以修身○知所以修身○則 子曰○好學近乎知○力行近乎仁○知恥近乎勇 強而行之○及其成功○一也○ 知之○一也○或安而行之○或利而行之○或勉 或生而知之○或學而知之○或困而知之○及其 德也○所以行之者一也○ ○天下之達道也○知○仁○勇三者○天下之達
也○成物知也○性之德也○合外内之道也○故 誠者○非自成己而已也○所以成物也○成己仁 貴○ 誠者○物之終始○不誠無物○是故君子誠之為 誠者自成也○而道自道也○ 誠如神○ 福將至○善必先知之○不善○必先知之○故至 家將亡○必有妖孽○見乎蓍龜○動乎四體○禍 至誠之道可以前知○國家將興○必有禎祥○國 能化○ 明○明則動○動則變○變則化○唯天下至誠為 其次致曲○曲能有誠○誠則形○形則著○著則 ○則可以與天地参矣○ 性○則可以贊天地之化育○可以贊天地之化育 之性○能盡人之性○則能盡物之性○能盡物之 唯天下至誠為能盡其性○能盡其性○則能盡人 明則誠矣○ 自誠明○謂之性○自明誠謂之教○誠則明矣○ 果能此道矣○雖愚必明○雖柔必強○ 千之○ ○弗措也○人一能之○己百之○人十能之○己 弗辨○辨之弗明○弗措也○有弗行○行之弗篤 知○弗措也○有弗思○思之弗得○弗措也○有 有弗學○學之弗能○弗措也○有弗問○問之弗 博學之○審問之○慎思之○明辨之○篤行之○ 之者○擇善而固執之者也○ 不勉而中○不思而得○從容中道○聖人也○誠 誠者○天之道也○誠之者○人之道也○誠者○ ○不誠乎身矣○ 諸身不誠○不順乎親矣○誠身有道○不明乎善 ○不順乎親○不信乎朋友矣○順乎親有道○反
是故居上不驕○為下不倍○國有道○其言足以 崇禮○ ○極高明○而道中庸○温故○而知新○敦厚以 故君子尊德性○而道問學○致廣大○而盡精微 故曰○苟無至德○至道不凝焉○ 待其人而後行○ 優優大哉○禮儀三百威儀三千○ 洋洋乎○發育萬物○峻極于天○ 大哉聖人之道○ 王之所以為文也○純亦不已○ 為天也○於乎不顯○文王之德之純○蓋曰○文 詩云○維天之命○於穆不已○蓋曰○天之所以 殖焉○ 不測○黿○鼉○蛟○龍○魚○鼈○生焉○貸財 獸居之○寶藏興焉○今夫水○一勺之多○及其 今夫山一卷石之多○及其廣大○草木生之○禽 ○載華嶽而不重○振河海而不洩○萬物載焉○ 焉○萬物覆焉○今夫地一撮土之多○及其廣厚 今夫天斯昭昭之多○及其無窮也○日月星辰繫 久也○ 天地之道○博也○厚也○高也○明也○悠也○ 生物不測○ 天地之道○可一言而盡也○其為物不貳○則其 如此者○不見而章○不動而變○無為而成○ 博厚○配地○高明○配天○悠久○無疆○ ○所以成物也○ 博厚○所以載物也○高明○所以覆物也○悠久 ○博厚○則高明○ 不息則久○久則徵○徵則悠遠○悠遠○則博厚 故至誠無息○ 時措之宜也○
之所以為大也○ 並行而不相悖○小德川流○大德敦化○此天地 錯行○如日月之代明○萬物並育而不相害○道 辟如天地之無不持載○無不覆幬○辟如四時之 土○ 仲尼祖述堯舜○憲章文武○上律天時○下襲水 終譽○君子未有不如此○而蚤有譽於天下者也 詩曰○在彼無惡○在此無射○庶幾夙夜○以永 厭○ 言而世為天下則○遠之○則有望○近之○則不 是故君子動而世為天下道○行而世為天下法○ 惑○知人也○ 質諸鬼神而無疑○知天也○百世以俟聖人而不 世以俟聖人而不惑○ 不謬○建諸天地而不悖○質諸鬼神而無疑○百 故君子之道○本諸身○徵諸庶民○考諸三王而 民弗從○ 從○下焉者雖善○不尊○不尊○不信○不信○ 上焉者雖善○無徵○無徵○不信○不信○民弗 王天下有三重焉○其寡過矣乎○ 宋存焉○吾學周禮○今用之○吾從周○ 子曰○吾說夏禮○杞不足徵也○吾學殷禮○有 德○苟無其位○亦不敢作禮樂焉○ 雖有其位○苟無其德○不敢作禮樂焉○雖有其 今天下○車同軌○書同文○行同倫○ 非天子不議禮○不制度○不考文○ ○反古之道○如此者○烖及其身者也○ 子曰○愚而好自用○賤而好自專○生乎今之世 以保其身○其斯之謂與○ 興○國無道○其默足以容○詩曰○既明且哲○

二○ ○二年五月十一日

○上天之載○無聲無臭○至矣○ 於以化民○末也○詩曰○德輶如毛○毛猶有倫 詩云○予懷明德○不大聲以色○子曰○聲色之 而天下平○ 詩曰○不顯惟德○百辟其刑之○是故君子篤恭 民勸○不怒而民威於鈇銊○ 詩曰○奏假無言○時靡有争○是故君子不賞而 而敬○不言而信○ 詩曰○相在爾室○尚不愧於屋漏○故君子不動 不見乎○ ○無惡於志○君子之所不可及者○其唯人之所 詩云○潜雖伏矣○亦孔之昭○故君子内省不疚 ○知風之自○知微之顯○可與入德矣○ 之道○淡而不厭○簡而文○温而理○知遠之近 ○闇然而日章○小人之道○的然而日亡○君子 詩云○衣綿尚絅○惡其文之著也○故君子之道 苟不固聰明聖知○達天德者○其孰能知之○ 肫肫其仁○淵淵其淵○浩浩其天○ 大本○知天地之化育○夫焉有所倚○ 唯天下至誠○為能經綸天下之大經○立天下之 霜露所隊○凡有血氣者莫不尊親○故曰配天○ 人力所通○天之所覆○地之所載○日月所照○ 是以聲名洋溢乎中國○施及蠻貊○舟車所至○ 莫不信○行而民莫不說○ 溥博如天○淵泉如淵○見而民莫不敬○言而民 溥博○淵泉○而時出之○ 敬也○文○理○密○察○足以有别也○ ○毅○足以有執也○齊○莊○中○正○足以有 ○寬○裕○温○柔○足以有容也○發○強○剛 唯天下至聖○為能聰○明○睿知○足以有臨也

The Mean-In-Action

That which Heaven entrusts to man is to be called his nature. The following out of this nature is to be called the Way. The cultivation of the Way is to be called instruction in systematic truth. The Way, it may not be abandoned for a moment. If it might be abandoned, it would not be the Way. Because this is so, the man of principle holds himself restrained and keyed up in relation to the unseen world (lit. what he cannot see or hear). Since there is nothing more manifest than what is hidden, nothing more visible than what is minute, therefore the man of principle is on guard when he is alone with himself. (The nature in human is the soul or spirit. The Truth about this nature is Tao or Way. Tao or Spirit, inherent in each one, cannot be removed from human body. Once IT is removed, the man is dead. Meditation is to be in communion with Tao or Way, and the mind should be tied to a point and not allowed to wonder about even when alone.)[Few lines have no translation.]

Chung-ni Said: 'The man of true breeding is the mean in action. The man of no breeding is the reverse. The relation of the man of true breeding to the mean in action is that, being a man of true breeding, he consistently holds to the mean. The reverse relationship of the man of no breeding is that, being what he is, he has no sense of moral caution.' (Mean in action is about the same as The Middle Path of the Buddhist doctrine. Mean in action can also be focusing on the centre, because the Mark is the chakra 'shuan-kuan'.)

The Master said: 'Perfect is the mean in action, and for a long time now very few people have had the capacity for it.' (This statement can mean this middle focusing is known to a handful and successful persons.)

The Master said: 'I know why the Way is not pursued. (It is because) the learned run to excess and the ignorant fall short. I know why the Way is not understood. The good run to excess and the bad fall short. Amongst men there are none who do not eat and drink, but there are few who can really appreciate flavors.' (The Middle Way is to maintain a neutral path, so you are not affected by the extremes. Also in meditation, think neither good nor evil.)

The Master said: 'Alas, this failure to pursue the Way!'

The Master said: 'Consider Shun, the man of great wisdom. He loved to ask advice and to examine plain speech. He never referred to what was evil, and publicly praised what was good. By grasping these two extremes he put into effect the Mean among his people. In this way he was Shun (ie a sage-emperor), was he not?' (The use of Shun to explain the mean in action is misleading. Confucius talked about the character of Shun but not how he cultivated himself. The meaning might be in the word 'shun'.)

The Master said: 'All men say "I know," but they are driven into nets, caught in traps, fall into pitfalls, and not one knows how to avoid this. All men say "I know," but, should they choose the mean in action, they could not persist in it for a round month.'

The Master said: 'Hui, a real man! He chose the mean in action, and, if he succeeded in one element of good, he grasped it firmly, cherished it in his bosom, and never let it go.' (The use of Hui is stupid. Hui died young. So he can be said to be not at his prime. When meditating, you can prolong your life.)

The Master said: 'The states and families of the Great Society might have equal divisions (of land). Men might refuse noble station, and the wealth that goes with it. They might trample the naked sword under foot. But the mean in action, it is impossible for them to achieve that.' (don't make sense)

Tzu Lu inquired about strong men, and the Master said: 'Is it strong men of the southern kind (that you have in mind)? The strong man of the south is magnanimous and gentle in instructing people, and he takes no revenge for being treated vilely; it is the habit of a man of true breeding to be like this. The strong man of the north lives under arms and dies without a murmur: it is the habit of a man of true force to be like this. Hence the man of true breeding, how steadfast he is in his strength, having a spirit of concord and not giving way to pressure. He takes up a central position and does not waver one way or another. How steadfast his strength, for, when there is good government, he does not change his original principles, and, when there is vile government, he does not change, even though his life be at stake.' (another nonsense)

The Master said: 'To unravel mysteries and work miracles, that I will not do, even though my name should be recorded for ages to come. The man of true breeding follows the Way in all his acts, and it is impossible for me, therefore, to abandon the course half-way. The man of true breeding has faith in the mean in action. Although he live the life of a recluse, unknown to his age, he has no regrets. A man must be a sage to have this capacity.' (Confucius's admission about Taoist recluse)

The Way of the true man is widely apparent and yet hidden. Thus the ordinary man and woman, ignorant though they are, can yet have some knowledge of it; and yet in its perfection even a sage finds that there is something there which he does not know. Take the vast size of heaven-and-earth; men can still find room for criticism of it. Hence, when the enlightened man speaks of supreme bigness, it cannot be contained within the world of our experience. Nor, when he speaks of supreme smallness, can it be split up in the world of our experience into nothing. As is said in the Book of Songs, 'The hawk beats its way up to the height of heaven, the fish dives down into the abyss.' That refers to things being examined from above and from below. Thus the Way of the man of principle: its early shoots coming into existence in the ordinary man and woman, but in its ultimate extent to be examined in the light of heaven-and-earth. (The bird flying up and the fish represent our eyebrows and the nose. Chuang Tzu also mentioned this in chapter one.)

The Master said: 'The Way is not far removed from men. If a man pursue a way which removes him from men, he cannot be in The Way. In the Book of songs there is the word, "When hewing an axe-handle, hew an axe-handle. The pattern of it is close at hand.' You grasp an axe-handle to hew an axe-handle, although, when you look from the one to the other (ie from the pattern to the block of wood), they are very different. Therefore the right kind of ruler uses men to control men and attempts nothing beyond their correction; and fidelity and mutual service (these two human qualities) cannot be outside the scope of the Way. The treatment which you do not like for yourself you must not hand out to others. And this Way for the man of true breeding has four sides to it, in not one of which have I succeeded. To serve my father as I would have a son serve me as a father, in this I, Chiu, have failed. To serve my prince as I would have a minister serve me as a prince, in this I, Chiu, have failed. To serve my elder brother as I would have a younger brother serve me as an elder brother, in this I, Chiu, have failed. To be beforehand in treating a friend as I would have him treat me as a friend, in this I, Chiu, have failed.' (The Tao or Way is inside us. A block of wood represents man. When hacked to be a axe-handle means becoming a sage. So man and sage is still wood but in different shape only. The mention of good behavior is out of place. Standard behavior is legalized by the men of old, so it is a form of law. Our natural self is without law. Law is man made not God made.)

The acts of the true man agree with the station in life in which he finds himself, and he is not concerned with matters outside that station. If he is a man of wealth and high position, he acts as such. If he is a poor man and low in the social scale, he acts accordingly. So also, if he is among barbarians, or if he meets trouble. In fact, there is no situation into which he comes in which he is not himself. In a high station he does not disdain those beneath him. In a low station he does not cling round those above him. He puts himself in the right and seeks no favors. Thus he is free from ill will, having no resentment against either Heaven or men. He preserves an easy mind as he awaits the Will of Heaven: (in contrast to) the man who is not true, who walks in perilous paths and hopes for good luck. As the Master said: 'In archery there is a resemblance to the man of true breeding. If a man misses the target, he looks for the cause in himself.' (Confucius was contradictory in saying these. He preached to the various princes in different states in order to secure high post but without luck.)

The Way of the true man is like a long journey, since it must begin with the near at hand. It is like the ascent of a high mountain, since it must begin with the low ground. In the Book of Songs there is: The happy union with wife and child is like the music of lutes and harps. When concord grows between brother and brother, the harmony is sweet and intimate. The ordering of your household, your joy in wife and child! (Charity begins at home.)

The Master said: 'How greatly parents are served in this!'

The Master said: 'How irrepressible is the spiritual power in the manes! Look for them and they are not to be seen. Listen for them, and they are not to be heard. They are in things, and there is nothing without them. They stir all the people in the Great Society to fast and purify themselves and wear their ritual robes, in order that they may sacrifice to them. They fill the air, as if above, as if on the left, as if on the right. As the Book of Songs has it: 'The coming of the Spirits! Incalculable. And yet they cannot be disregarded.' Even so is the manifestation of the minute and the impossibility of hiding the real. (He was talking about Tao.)

The Master said: 'Consider Shun, the man of superb filial piety. By the virtue in him he was a sage. In his dignity he was Son of Heaven. In his wealth he owned all within the four seas. Temple sacrifices were made to him, and his memory was cherished by his descendants. Thus it is that outstanding personality is bound to obtain its position of authority, its wealth, its fame, and its lasting life. For thus it is that Heaven, as it gives life to all creatures, can be surely trusted to give to each what is due to its basic capacity. And thus it is that the well-planted is nourished and the ill-planted falls prostrate. (The mention of temple sacrifice is stupidity in the sense that Chinese follow this advice to hero-worship their idols. The praise for Shun is stupid. Shun was not a sage when he was king. He abdicated the throne and later seek the Tao and may be a sage.)

The Book of Songs has the word:

Hail to our sovereign prince! How gracious is his personality! He has put the people to right: he has put his men to right. Heaven has vouchsafed its bounty to him. Heaven has protected him and appointed him king; Heaven's blessing is his, not once but again and yet again. (This is for the future sage-king.)

Thus it is that the man of superb personality is bound to receive the commission from Heaven.

The Master said: 'The only man who has been without sorrow is King Wen. He had Wang Chi for father and King Wu for son. The father laid the foundation, and the son built on it. King Wu thus inherited from a line of kingly men, T'ai Wang, Wang Chi, and King Wen. Once he had buckled on his armor, the world was his, for (although he rebelled) he suffered no loss to his world wide reputation. In dignity he became the son of Heaven, in wealth he owned all within the four seas. Temple sacrifices were made to him, and his memory was cherished by his descendants.' (Confucius's reference to King Wen and King Wu is wrong. These men were not sages. Sage does not kill a living soul. And again the temple sacrifices.)

It was in his old age that King Wu received the Commission, and it was Duke Chou who carried to completion the virtue in King Wen and King Wu. The rite reserved for sacrificing to a Son of Heaven he used for sacrificing to his (non-royal) forbears. And this rule in ritual was extended to the feudatories and great officers and was applied in every rank of society down to the minor officials and the common people. If the father was a great officer and the son a minor official, then the father was buried with the rite of a great officer, but afterwards was sacrificed to with the rite of a minor officer. If the father was a minor official and the son a great officer, then the father was buried with the rite of a minor official, but afterwards was sacrificed to with the rite of a great officer. The practice of mourning for one year was extended to a great officer, of mourning for three years to a Son of Heaven. In the case of mourning for a father or a mother, there was no difference for the noble or the commoner. The practice was the same. (The stupidity of including funeral rites in this book shows the moral standard of Confucius. He had not reached the sage stage. This inclusion did retard the progress of Chinese in the past 2500 years, because people are concern about rites and ritual, so where have they time to learn other things.)

The Master said: 'How wide an influence King Wu's and Duke Chou's filial piety had.' Filial men are those who are well able to follow up what the men before have willed, and preserve what they have undertaken. In the spring and the autumn they repair their ancestral temples, arrange the sacrificial vessels, set in order the ceremonial robes, and offer the seasonal meats. The ritual of the temple is the means by which the line on the male side and the line on the female side are kept distinct. The gradation of titles is the means by which higher and lower ranks are defined. The distinctions of office are the means by which the worth of men is marked. In the pledging rite those of low station present the cup to those of high, and thus a place is made for the common man. At the festal board white-haired old men have their places, and by this means differences of age are observed. To maintain one's ancestors in their proper shrines, to carry out their rites, to play their music, to reverence those whom they honored, to love those closely related to them, to serve the dead as they were served alive, to serve those who are no more as they were served when they were here: this is the height of filial piety. Let (a ruler) only grasp the significance of the rites at the altars of Heaven and Earth and those in the ancestral temple, and government will become (as easy) as pointing to the palm of the hand. For the rites to Heaven and Earth are means by which service is rendered to Shang Ti, the rites in the temple are the means by which (grateful) offerings are made to those from whom we have sprung. (This lecture is stupid. Confucius was promoting custom and traditions. He was trying to say that were proper. That is why Chinese are superstitious and cannot become strong. If you don't pray to your ancestors but do my meditation, you will become strong and prosperous. Also don't pray to the Heaven and Earth, because Tao or Way is inside you.)

The Duke Ai asked advice as to governing, and the Master said: 'King Wen's and King Wu's system of government is revealed in the historical records. It is this: with their kind of men the system worked: without their kind of men it came to an end. Man's right way is to be prompt in good government as the earth's way is to be prompt in making things grow. Thus, good government is like the speed with which some reeds grow. For this reason good government depends on the men (who govern). Such men are obtainable on the basis of their personality. The cultivation of personality is on the basis of the Way. The cultivation of the Way is on the basis of human-heartedness. To be human hearted is to be a man, and the chief element in human-heartedness is loving one's relations. So it is with justice: it is to put things right, and the chief element in it is employing worthy men in public service, whilst the degrees in kinship and the grades of office are the product of the established order of procedure. (Unless those in the high ranks of society can capture the confidence of those in the lower ranks, they cannot gain the support of the people for their administrative measures). Thus it is that the true ruler must not fail to cultivate his self; and, having it in mind to do this, he must not fail to serve his parents; and having it in mind to do this, he must not fail to have knowledge of men; and having it in mind to have this knowledge, he must not fail to have knowledge of Heaven. (See my drawing in my comments on Great Learning above. Same meaning.)

There are five things which concern everybody in the Great Society, as also do the three means by which these five things are accomplished. To explain, the relationship between sovereign and subject, between father and son, between husband and wife, between elder and younger brother, and the equal intercourse of friend and friend; these five relationships concern everybody in the Great Society. Knowledge, human-heartedness, and fortitude, these three are the means; for these qualities are the spiritual power in society as a whole. The means by which this power is made effective is unity. (This lecture is secondary.)

Some people know these relationships by the light of nature. Others know them by learning about them from a teacher. Others, again, know them through hard experience. But once they all do know them, there is unity. Some people practice these relationships with a natural ease. Others derive worldly advantage from their practice of them. Others, again, have to force themselves to practice them. But once they all have achieved success in practicing them, there is unity. (Meditation will develop intuitive power in you.)

The Master said: 'To love to learn is to be near to having knowledge. To put into practice vigorously is to be near to being human-hearted. To know the stings of shame is to be near to fortitude. So we may infer that the man who knows these three things, knows how to cultivate his self. When he knows how to do that, it may be inferred that he knows how to rule other individuals. And, when he knows how to do that, it may be inferred that he knows how to rule the whole of the Great Society with its states and families. (Confucius himself and his so called sage-kings were unable to bring peace to the world world, so his words are useless. I think he just copied from old book like the Book of Songs etc. Or else he should have brought world peace in around 550 BC.)

For those whose function covers the whole Great Society or any one of its constituent states, there are nine basic duties: cultivation of one's self, honoring men of worth, affectionate treatment of the royal family, high respect towards ministers of state, courtesy towards all the other officers, fatherly care of the common people, promotion of the hundred crafts, kindly treatment of strangers, enlistment of the fervent loyalty of the fief-holders. Let the self be cultivated, then the Way is established in the country. Let the right men be put into the right posts, then mistakes[? in administration] will not occur. Let the royal family be treated affectionately, then the royal uncles and cousins will bear no ill will. Let the ministers of state be held in high respect, then there will be no vacillation in policy. Let courtesy be extended to all the other officers, then the lower ranks will doubly repay that courtesy. Let fatherly care be bestowed on the common people, then they will gladly obey. Let the hundred crafts be promoted, then the resources for expenditure will be ample. Let strangers be treated with kindness, then men from all parts will be attracted. Let the loyalty of the fief-holders be enlisted, then the whole Great Society will stand in awe of the Throne. (The main point is self cultivation - meditation. The other words are not so important.)

(At the times of solemn sacrifice) when purification is to be made and ritual robes to be worn, if nothing be done in contravention of the established order of  procedure, this is the means by which the individual self is cultivated. If intrigues be expelled from court and seductive beauties kept well away, if riches be regarded lightly and the virtue in men be prized, men of worth are thereby encouraged. If high titles together with generous allowances be given to the members of the royal family, if sympathy be shown with their natural likes and dislikes, they are thereby encouraged to family affection. If their departments be enlarged, and they be given full responsibility, ministers of state are thereby encouraged. If an honest confidence be given to them and allowances be on a generous scale, lower ranks of officers are thereby encouraged. If the corvee be used only at the farmer's slack time and the taxes be lightened, the common people are thereby encouraged. If daily and monthly trials of skill be held, and grants of better rations be given on the merit of the work done, the hundred crafts are thereby encouraged. If they be escorted on their return and welcomed on their arrival, if those who are men of merit be entertained and those who are not be given charity, kindness is thereby shown to strangers. If arrangements be made for sacrifices in great families whose line of succession has been broken, and fiefs which have been extinguished be restored, if order be made where anarchy prevails and support be given where there is danger from attack, and if courts be held at stated intervals and a generous bounty be dispensed at their close with a moderate tribute required at their opening, the fervent loyalty of the fief-holders is thereby enlisted. These are the nine basic duties for the men whose function covers the whole Great Society or one of its states. By the practice of these duties and the way in which they work, there is unity. (This lecture is secondary)

In the transaction of business success depends on preparation beforehand: without preparation there will be failure. If you decide beforehand what you are going to say, (when the time comes) you will not stutter and stammer; and if you are decided on what you are setting out to do, you will fall into no quandaries. Decide (therefore) beforehand what conduct should be, and then there will be no regrets: decide beforehand what the Way is, and then there will be no limit to the result. Thus, unless those in the higher rank of society can capture the confidence of those in the lower ranks it is impossible for them to gain the support of the people for their administrative measures. But there is only one way by which this confidence may be captured; for, if friends cannot trust each other, there can be no confidence in the men in the higher ranks. But there is only one way by which friends can come to trust each other; for if men are not dutiful to their parents, there can be no trust between them as friends. But there is only one way for men to be dutiful to their parents; for, if in rounding in on themselves, they are not true, they cannot be dutiful to their parents. But there is only one way for a man to have a true and real self; for, if he does not understand the good, he cannot be true and real in himself. (Another useless talk.)

It is the characteristic of Heaven to be the real. It is the characteristic of man to be coming-to-be-real. (For a man) to be real [ie to have achieved realness] is to hit the Mean without effort, to have it without thinking of it, entirely naturally to be centred in the Way. This is to be a sage. To be coming-to-be-real is to choose the good and hold fast to it. This involves learning all about the good, asking about it, thinking it over carefully, getting it clear by contrast, and faithfully putting it into practice. If there is any part about which he has not learnt or asked questions, which he has not thought over and got clear by contrast, or which he has not put into practice, he sets to work to learn and ask and think and get clear and put into practice. If he does not get the required result, he still does not give up working. When he sees other men succeeding by one effort, or it may be a hundred, he is prepared to add a hundredfold to his own effort. The man who can last this course, although he is stupid, will come to understand: although he is weak, will become strong. (Good for everyone.)

To (be able to) proceed from (the capacity for) realness to understanding is to be ascribed to the nature of man. To proceed from understanding to realness is to be ascribed to instruction in truth. Logically, realness involves understanding and understanding involves realness.

It is only the man who is entirely real in this world of experience who has the power to give full development to his own nature. If he has that power, it follows that he has the power to give development to other men's nature. If he has that power, it follows that he has the power to give full development to the natures of the creatures. Thus it is possible for him to be assisting the transforming, nourishing work of heaven and earth. That being so, it is possible for him to be part of a trinity of power (heaven, earth, and himself). (This is true and I don't know where he copied from?)

For, in the second place, with regard to the lopsided man, he can have realness. Assuming there is realness, the inference is that it takes on form. If it takes on form, then it is conspicuous. If conspicuous, then full of light: if full of light, then stirring things: if stirring things, than changing them: if changing them, then transforming them. Thus it is only the man who is entirely real in the world of experience who has the capacity to transform.

A characteristic of the entirely real man is that he is able to foreknow. When a country is about to flourish, there are bound to be omens of good. When it is about to perish, there are bound to be omens of evil fortune. These are revealed in the milfoil and (the lines on the shell of) the tortoise. They affect the four limbs. When disasters or blessings are on the way, the morally good and the morally evil (elements) in a country are bound to be known first of all. Thus the entirely real man has a likeness to the divine. (The mention of fortune telling is ill-placed. So many Chinese depend on it to do their daily work. This is stupid.)

Realness is self-completing, and the way of it is to be self-directing. Realness is the end as well as the beginning of things, for without realness there would be no things at all: which is the reason why the true man prizes above everything coming-to-be-real. Realness is not merely a matter of an individual completing himself. It is also that by which things in general are completed. The completing of the individual self involves man-to-man-ness (jen). The completing of things in general involves knowledge. Man-to-man-ness and knowledge are spiritual powers (te) inherent in man, and they are the bridge [lit. tao, way] bringing together the outer and the inner. Hence it is self-evidently right that realness should function continuously. (No comment yet because of the Chinese word Realness.)

The result is that entire realness never ceases for a moment. Now if that be so, then it must be extended in time: if extended in time, then capable of proof: if capable of proof, then extended in space-length: if extended in length, then extended in area: if extended in area, then extended in height-visibility. And this quality of extension in area is what makes material things supportable from below: this quality of extension in height-visibility is what makes things coverable from above: whilst the extension in time is what makes them capable of completion. thus area pairs with earth, height-visibility with heaven, and space plus time makes limitlessness. This being its nature, it is not visible and yet clearly visible, does not (deliberately) stir things and yet changes them, takes no action and yet completes them. [This is abstract talk, like the Diamond Sutra talking about the six directions. Here it mentions the inaction (wu wei) and completion of things.]

The Way of Heaven-and-Earth may be summed up in a word, namely, their function in relation to all things is unique, and consequently their giving of life to all things is unfathomable. The Way of Heaven-and-Earth is large, is substantial, is high, is brilliant, is far-reaching, is long-enduring. But take now the heaven before us with its bits of brightness: and yet viewed in its inexhaustible extent with its network of sun and moon and stars, constituting the canopy over all creation. Let us take this earth before us, a handful of soil: and yet bearing the burden of the Hua Mountains and the rivers and the seas without feeling the weight or letting the water seep away. Take this mountain, just a fistful of stones: and yet on its broad flanks producing plants and trees, making a home for birds and beasts, and storing within masses of precious stones and metals. Take this piece of water, just a ladleful: and yet in its plumbed depths producing all the fishes and monsters of the deep which are of so great profit to mankind. The Book of Songs has the words: 'Heaven's decrees, how gloriously unceasing they are': which means that this is what makes heaven to be Heaven. And again, 'How concealed from view was the purity of spiritual power (te) in King Wen': which means that this was what made King Wen to be wen (the civilized): for purity does not stop. [The verses here are talking about the face. Sun and moon represent our eyes. The Hua mountain represents our nose. (42 sections Sutra's last section has saying like 'Samadhi is like the splendor in front' the Hua word is used.) The water represents our tears. Confucius was trying to pin point the word 'wen' to mean something here.]

How supreme is the Way of the sage man, (the influence of it) spreading far and wide like the ocean. His Way nourishes all creation. Its influence reaches to the height of heaven. And how yet more supreme are the Three Hundred Maxims of the Ritual Code, and the ten times more on discipline in conduct. 'Unless the power of personality (te) be of the highest, the highest result of the Way cannot be consolidated.' Therefore the enlightened man does homage to the spiritual power (te) which is his by nature and applies himself to personal study (of li). The further a-field he goes in this, the more he explores the hidden subtleties. At the peak of enlightenment the mean in action directs him. Thus it is that he studies the old past and comes to know the new present, and gives earnest attention to (the principles and practice of) the Ritual Code. (Mean-in-action here could mean Tao or Way. Ritual Code is out of context here.)

It follows from this that in a high position the enlightened man is not proud, in a low position he is not insubordinate. When things are right in the country his advice is such that he has to be employed. When things are wrong, his silence is such that he cannot be treated harshly. Is not this the meaning of the saying in the Book of songs: 'His intelligence and wisdom are a protection to himself'? As the Master said: 'To be ignorant and have a passion for one's own opinion, to be in a low position and be entirely self-willed, to live in the world today and go continually back to the old ways: people of this sort invite calamity on themselves.'

The Son of Heaven is the only person who has the right to decide the rules of li (ritual), the weights and measures, and the forms of the characters. Take the Great Society as we see it today. Carriage wheels have to be a uniform distance apart, books have to be written in uniform characters, and conduct is regulated by uniform relationships. Although a man occupy the throne, if he has not the corresponding moral personality, he has not the right to make new rituals and music. Nor if he has the moral personality but does not occupy the throne has he this right. The Master said: 'I can speak of the Hsia Ritual, but (the authorities in) Chih State cannot prove what they were. I can study the Yin Ritual, because it still exists in Sung State. Actually I study the Chou Ritual, for it is in use today. I follow Chou.' (No point talking about rituals.)

If the man who exercises kinship in the Great Society has the three important matters (of ritual, weights and measures, and the forms of the characters) in hand, he will seldom go wrong. But, if the man at the head be good but does not give such visible proof of his goodness, then being unattested, he does not inspire confidence, and the people, in consequence, do not obey. So also with his officials if they be good but have no respect (for the regulations which they enforce): they also do not inspire confidence, and the people, in consequence, do not obey. Thus it is that the Way of the true monarch is rooted and grounded in his own personality and proves itself in the eyes of the people, bears examination by the Three Sage-Kings, and reveals no fundamental errors: is built up in accord with Heaven-and-Earth and shows no contradiction (of its laws): is tested in relation to the manes and creates no doubts: and is able without society going astray to wait a hundred generations for a sage. If (a monarch's way) can stand the test in relation to the manes, then he has understanding of Heaven. If it can thus wait a hundred generations for a sage man without leading society astray, then he has understanding of man. And thus it is that the true monarch's influence may last for generations as the Way for the Great Society, and his deeds be an example and his words a pattern. Then people in far-off places look longingly to him; and those who are near will not grow weary of him. The Book of Songs has the words: 'In this quarter no hatred (of him), in that no wearying. Almost without ceasing night and day they continue their praises.' There never has been a true monarch of this kind who became widely known as 'a highly reputable parasite.' (A hundred generation is about right. Confucius's descendants are now in the 80th generation. It is very close. This confirms my saying that sage-kings of Confucius were not sages when they were kings.)

Chung Ni handed on the (traditions of) Yao and Shun as if they had been his ancestors, and took Wen and Wu's laws as subject of exposition. These conformed with the regularity of the stars above and fulfilled the laws of land and water below. They are to be compared with heaven and earth, for there is nothing which they do not hold and sustain, nothing which they do not cover and envelop. They are to be compared with the seasons in their interaction, with the light of the sun and the light of the moon giving place to each other. Thus all creatures were nourished alike with none injuring their fellows. All men pursued the Way alike with none contradicting it to another. By the virtue of their lesser powers the streams flowed in their courses; and by virtue of their greater powers there were mighty transformations. This in them is that by which Heaven-and-Earth is supreme. (The talk of traditions and laws is out of place.)

It is only the man who is entirely sage-like in the Great Society who can be both brilliant in intellect and intuitively wise, and thus be adequate for being over all men: who can be magnanimous and tender-hearted, and thus be adequate for being king to all: who can be strong and determined, and thus be adequate for holding all in control: who can be outwardly composed and inwardly true, and thus be adequate for being revered: who can be cultured in mind and withdrawn into his studious thoughts, and thus be adequate for distinguishing between true and false. Like a fathomless deep spring, continually gushing forth and watering far and wide! Being all-embracing like heaven and deep as a spring from the abyss, when he appears, the people all revere him: when he speaks, they all trust him: when he acts, they all take delight in him. Thus it is that his fame spreads from end to end of the civilized world [lit. the Middle Kingdom] and even to the barbarian tribes. Where ships and carriages go, wherever the strength of man penetrates, wherever the canopy of heaven is overhead and the earth bears up the world, on whatever spot the sun and the moon shine and the frosts and dews fall, all who have blood and breath pay loving homage to him. And thus it may be said, he pairs with Heaven. [(God), Middle Kingdom is China.]

It is only the man who is entirely real in his world of men who can make the warp and woof of the great fabric of civilized life, who can establish the great foundations of civilized society, and who can understand the nourishing processes of heaven and earth. Can there be any variableness in him? His human-heartedness how insistent! His depth how unfathomable! His super-humanness how overwhelming! Who is there who can comprehend this unless he posses acute intelligence and sage-like wisdom, unless he reach out to the spiritual power of Heaven! (Only the One to come will know about this.)

There is the expression in the Book of Songs: 'Over her embroidered robe she wears a simple cloak'; for she dislikes the display of the robe's elegance. Hence the Way of the true man is hidden from view yet daily more resplendent, whilst the untrue man takes the obvious path and daily goes more and more to ruin. The true man may seem tasteless, but people do not weary of him. He has simplicity along with great accomplishments, is thorough but all in accord with principle. He knows the nearness of the distant, that, indeed, the wind must come from somewhere, that the invisible must become visible. Such a man has the right to enter into spiritual power. As it is said in the Book of Songs: 'Without a word we seek the presence. During this time (of sacrifice) all quarrels are put aside.' Before the true monarch gives rewards for goodness, the people are already encouraged to be good. Before he punishes in his anger, they fear him in a way that no hatchets or battle-axes can make them fear. As it is said in the Book of Songs: 'Nothing is more resplendent than their spiritual power. The chieftains all pattern themselves on it.' Thus it is that the true monarch is true-hearted and reverent of spirit, and the world is at peace. As the saying is in the Book of Songs: 'I am moved by your spiritual power of understanding. You do not build your fame on empty show.' And the Master said: 'Of the means of transforming the people, the least is the bubble of fame.' And, again, in the Book of Songs: 'Spiritual power is weightless as a hair. Yet even a hair has weight for comparison.' But 'the deeds of high Heaven are without sound and smell.' This is perfection.

(23rd July 2001) Where does the spiritual power come from? By Confucian theory? Those who talk too much don't understand this. Spiritual power comes from inaction or meditation. Therefore action (inaction) is supreme. With the spiritual power, one can do propagation. This propagation increases further the spiritual power because of compassion, love for fellow human being. In Buddhist term, it is the 'Great Vehicle' or Mahayana.

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Edited on 5th June 2008