Chinese Great Learning

 

二○ ○二年五月十一日

詩云○瞻彼淇澳○菉竹猗猗○有斐君子○如切 ○與國人交止於信○ 為人臣止於敬○為人子止於孝○為人父止於慈 詩云○穆穆文王於緝熙敬止○為人君止於仁○ 所止○可以人而不如鳥乎○ 詩云○緡蠻黃鳥○止于丘隅○子曰○於止知其 詩曰○邦畿千里○惟民所止○ 是故君子無所不用其極○ 詩曰○周雖舊邦○其命維新○ 康誥曰○作新民○ 湯之盤銘曰○苟日新○日日新○又日新○ 皆自明也○ 帝典曰○克明峻德○ 太甲曰○顧諟天之明命○ 康誥曰○克明德○ 者厚○未之有也○ 其本亂而末治者否矣○其所厚者薄○而其所薄 自天子以至於庶人○壹是皆以修身為本○ 齊○而后國治○國治○而后天下平○ 心正○心正○而后身修○身修○而后家齊○家 物格而后知至○知至○而后意誠○意誠○而后 欲誠其意者○先致其知○致知○在格物○ 其身者○先正其心○欲正其心者○先誠其意○ 者○先齊其家○欲齊其家者○先修其身○欲修 古之欲明明德於天下者○先治其國○欲治其國 物有本末○事有終始○知所先後○則近道矣○ 安○安○而后能慮○慮○而后能得○ 知止○而后有定○定○而后能靜○靜○而后能 大學之道○在明明德○在親民○在止於至善○

源也○心者易動○深恐始勤終懈○是病焉○則 此謂之身物昭著者也○故驅身物者○即曰覺心 未動之間○貪嗔凝愛遂熾焉○而現於言行矣○ 昭著者○以其心物未慎於隱微也○心物弗慎於 身物昭著○莫不自染已心焉○故賢人驅身物於 性常皓則即復性初也○ ○則心物終無矣○心物終無○則至性常皓○至 隱微之間者○心物未動也○雖未動而持之一慎 心物滋蔓○莫不自蔽己性焉○故聖人慎心物於 之功○豈可缺一哉○ 內曰自覺焉○身行著外曰覺人焉○故內聖外王 三者之不可離○猶植根本之不可分矣○性心居 ○驅身物者○覺心源也○性心身者○一貫也○ 故心物自蔽○身物自染○格心物者○復性初也 是故君子慎心物於隱微○遏意惡於動機○ 性蕩為定矣○剷愛妄○則挽性遷為止矣○ 矣○息嗔忿○則闢性塞為揚矣○消凝奢○則收 是以欲格其心物者○必戒貪慾○則扶性辟為正 ○心有所愛妄而性遷焉○ ○心有所嗔忿而性塞焉○心有所凝奢而性蕩焉 所謂致其知在格其物者○心有所貪慾而性辟焉 此謂知本○此謂知之至也○ 不得盡其辭○大畏民志○此謂知本○ 子曰○聽訟吾猶人也○必也使無訟乎○無情者 小人樂其樂○而利其利○此以沒世不忘也○ 詩云○於戱前王不忘○君子賢其賢而親其親○ ○道盛德至善民之不能忘也○ 兮喧兮者○威儀也○有斐君子○終不可諠兮者 琢如磨者○自修也○瑟兮僩兮者○恂慄也○赫 君子○終不可諠兮○如切如磋者○道學也○如 如磋○如琢如磨○瑟兮僩兮○赫兮喧兮○有斐
所謂修身在正其心者○身有所忿懥○則不得其 意○ 富潤屋○德潤身○心廣體胖○故君子必誠其 曾子曰○十目所視○十手所指○其嚴乎○ 子必慎其獨也○ 肝然○則何益矣○此謂誠於中○形於外○故君 ○揜其不善○而著其善○人之視己○如見其肺 小人閒居為不善○無所不至○見君子而后厭然 色○此之謂自謙○故君子必慎其獨也○ 所謂誠其意者○毋自欺也○如惡惡臭○如好好 此謂物格○此謂知之至也○ 不到○而吾心之全體大用無不明矣○ 之久○而一旦豁然貫通○則眾物之表媞貒妗L 知之理○而益窮之○以求至乎其極○至於用力 始教○必使學者○即凡天下之物○莫不因其已 ○惟於理有未窮○故其知有不盡也○是以大學 人心之靈○莫不有知○而天下之物○莫不有理 物者○言欲致吾之知○在即物而窮其理也○蓋 閒嘗竊取程子之意○以補之曰○所謂致知在格 此謂知不致○不可以誠其意○ 內聖之功矣○ 有四○實則二焉○以其心意儲諸一身○故亦列 而後○則意不誠而誠矣○心不正而正矣○雖序 故格其心物○以致其良知者○內聖功也○聖足 ○而臻於至理矣○ 以慎心物於隱微○遏意惡於動機○以復其良知 ○良知性也○心物既發謂動機○紛乘意也○是 所謂誠其意○在致其知者○故心物未發謂中和 此謂物不格○不可以致其知○ 矣○及其成功一也○ 身物復昭著矣○如能如終覺心則亦漸趨於覺性
詩云○其儀不忒○正是四國○其為父子兄弟足 詩云○宜兄宜弟○宜兄宜弟○而後可以教國人 家人○宜其家人○而後可以教國人○ 詩云○桃之夭夭○其葉蓁蓁○之子于歸○宜其 故治國在齊其家○ ○所藏乎身不怒○而能喻諸人者○未之有也○ 故君子有諸己而後求諸人○無諸己而后非諸人 ○而民從之○其所令反其所好○而民不從○是 堯舜師天下以仁○而民從之○桀紂師天下以暴 定國○ ○一國作亂○其機如此○此謂一言僨事○一人 一家仁一國興仁○一家讓一國興讓○一人貪戾 ○未有學養子而後嫁者也○ 康誥曰○如保赤子○心誠求之○雖不中不遠矣 也○ 所以事君也○弟者所以事長也○慈者所以使眾 人者無之○故君子不出家○而成教於國○孝者 所謂治國必先齊其家者○其家不可教○而能教 此謂身不修○不可以齊其家○ 故諺有之曰○人莫知其子之惡○莫知其苗之碩 而知其惡○惡而知其美者○天下鮮矣○ 之其所哀矜而辟焉○之其所敖惰而辟焉○故好 焉○之其所賤惡而辟焉○之其所畏敬而辟焉○ 所謂齊其家○在修其身者○人之其所親愛而辟 此謂修身在正其心○ 味○ 心不在焉○視而不見○聽而不聞○食而不知其 得其正○有所憂患○則不得其正○ 正○有所恐懼○則不得其正○有所好樂○則不
技○媢嫉以惡之○人之彥聖○而違之俾不通○ 之○以能保我子孫黎民○尚亦有利哉○人之有 之彥聖○其心好之○不啻若自其口出○實能容 休焉○其如有容焉○人之有技○若己有之○人 秦誓曰○若有一個臣○斷斷兮無他技○其心休 舅犯曰○亡人無以為寶○仁親以為寶○ 楚書曰○楚國無以為寶○惟善以為寶○ 之矣○ 康誥曰○惟命不于常○道善則得之○不善則失 悖而出○ 是故言悖而出者○亦悖而入○貸悖而入者○亦 是故財聚則民散○財散則民聚○ 德者本也○財者末也○外本內末○爭民施奪○ ○有土此有財○有財此有用○ 是故君子先慎乎德○有德此有人○有人此有土 命不易道得眾則得國○失眾則失國○ 詩云○殷之未喪師○克配上帝○儀監于殷○峻 爾瞻○有國者不可以不慎○辟○則為天下僇矣 詩云○節彼南山○維石巖巖○赫赫師尹○民具 民之所惡惡之○此之謂民之父母○ 詩云○樂只君子○民之父母○民之所好好之○ 右○此之謂絜矩之道○ 所惡於右○毋以交於左○所惡於左○毋以交於 所惡於前○毋以先後○所惡於後○毋以從前○ 所惡於上○毋以使下○所惡於下○毋以事上○ 君子有絜矩之道也○ 上長長○而民興弟○上恤孤○而民不倍○是以 所謂平天下在治其國者○上老老○而民興孝○ 此謂治國在齊其家○ 法○而後民法之也○

二○ ○二年五月十一日

此謂國不以利為利○以義為利也○ 如之何矣○ 小人之使為國家○菑害並至○雖有善者○亦無 長國家而務財用者○必自小人矣○彼為善之○ 為利也○ 歛之臣○寧有盜臣○此謂國不以利為利○以義 畜牛羊○百乘之家○不畜聚歛之臣○與其有聚 孟獻子曰○畜馬乘不察於鷄豚○伐冰之家○不 事不終者也○未有府庫財○非其財者也○ 未有上好仁○而下不好義者也○未有好義○其 仁者以財發身○不仁者以身發財○ ○用之者舒○則財恆足矣○ 生財有大道○生之者眾○食之者寡○為之者疾 是故君子有大道○必忠信以得之○驕泰以失之 必逮夫身○ 好人之所惡○惡人之所好○是謂拂人之性○菑 不能退○退而不能遠過也○ 見賢而不能舉○舉而不能先○命也○見不善而 唯仁人○為能愛人○能惡人○ 唯仁人放流之○迸諸四夷○不與同中國○此謂 實不能容○以不能保我子孫黎民○亦曰殆哉○

Comments On Confucianism

24th September 1999

I have already mentioned Confucianism in my other articles like Meditation, Meditation for Everyone, Election 97, To Achieve World Peace? etc.

The Great Learning

The Way of learning to be great consists in shining with the illustrious power of moral personality, in making a new people, in abiding in the highest goodness. To know one's abiding place leads to fixity of purpose, fixity of purpose to calmness of mind, calmness of mind to serenity of life, serenity of life to careful consideration of means, careful consideration of means to the achievement of the end. (There is no details of how to achieve this end. My answer to this is meditation. Only this can calm the mind.)

Things have their roots and branches, human affairs their endings as well as beginnings. So to know what comes first and what comes afterwards leads one near to the Way. The men of old who wished to shine with the illustrious power of personality throughout the Great Society, first had to govern their own states efficiently. Wishing to do this, they first had to make an ordered harmony in their own families. Wishing to do this, they first had to cultivate their individual selves. Wishing to do this, they first had to put their minds right. Wishing to do this, they first had to make their purposes genuine. Wishing to do this, they first had to extend their knowledge to the utmost. Such extension of knowledge consists in appreciating the nature of things.

For with the appreciation of the nature of things knowledge reaches its height. With the completion of knowledge, purposes become genuine. With purposes genuine, the mind becomes right. With the mind right, the individual self comes into flower. With the self in flower, the family becomes an ordered harmony. With the family harmony ordered, the State is efficiently governed. With State efficiently governed, the Great Society is at peace. (The repetition of events show the importance of the words. From the last four sentences, I draw three figures of body, one for self, one for family and one for country.)

So cultivating self consists in purifying the mind. When the mind is pure, our speech will be good, so will be our body healthy. Harmonize the family is by means of the perfection of the father. The father when perfect, the wife will be subservient and the sons (no son means no perfection) obedient. The country can be perfectly governed only when the king or president is perfectly pure. So the government is efficient and the citizens loyal. When this happens, the Great Harmony is in place throughout the whole world.

The men of old is referring to the new Sage, who will act (not talk) till perfection.

Thus from the Son of Heaven down to the common people there is unity in this; that for everybody the bringing of the individual self to flower is to be taken as the root. (Since that is so), for the root to be out of order and the branches to be in order is an impossibility. For a man to despise what he should respect and then be respected for having what he despises, is contrary to human experience. This is to be described as knowing the root. (Cultivating self is the root of all good deeds. Start with mind purification first.)

As for what is described as knowing the root, this means the height of knowledge. For in the Book of Songs are the words: _________

That 'carving and polishing' means learning. That 'cutting and grinding' means the cultivation of the self. 'Like the music of strings', so he trembles within himself. 'Stern yet debonair', so he is the very pattern of majesty. 'Ever to be held in memory', so abounding power of personality and the height of goodness are what the common people can never forget. As the Book of Songs has it: 'How the kings of old are borne in mind'. The true man deems worthy those whom they deemed worthy; the common people take pleasure in the pleasures and gain profit from the profits which they made. Thus it is that although he is gone from the world he is not forgotten. (The human quality development from meditation can be known to the meditator only. The vibration and smell are a part of it. The outer appearance depends on the food taken, but the final stage could be very striking to everyone when agitated. The kings of old are appreciated for their good deeds but not for their bad deeds. Most people think Solomon was wise, but to me he was not wise but intelligent. A wise man will not have 300 wives.)

In the K'ang Kao it is said: 'He has the gifts of illustrious power of personality. In the T'ai Chia it is said: 'He guards this illustrious charge from Heaven.' In the Ti Tien it is said: 'He has the gifts for shedding luster on his outstanding power of personality.' These three are cases of the self giving luster. (The sentences talk about the new Sage.)

On King T'ang's bath-tub there was an inscription: 'If on one day there may be a renovation, then every day there may be, indeed, daily there must be.' So in the K'ang Kao it is said: 'Making a new people' and in the Book of songs is the saying: 'The fief which Chou held was an ancient one, but the charge from Heaven was new.' The true man, therefore, in everything uses his supreme endeavors. (Renovation and making a new person are referring to meditation on self cultivation. You meditate and become a new person. After reading a scripture, you meditate for a month and then read the scripture again, you will find the scripture is becoming clearer to understand.)

In the Book of Songs it is said: 'The royal demesne of a thousand li is where the people are really at rest.' In the Book of Songs it is said: 'Ming-mang goes the oriole's song, as it rests on a corner of a mound'; and the Master said: 'As to resting, the bird knows where it can rest--is it right for a man to be less than a bird?' (Demesne could be printed wrongly in the English book. As for the bird, it reminds us of our eye-brows. In the New Testament, 'when you see vultures you know there is corpse below'.)

In the Book of Songs it is said: Hail to King Wen...............

The Master said: 'As an arbitrator in men's quarrels I am no better than other men. Inevitably so! If only there could be no cases for arbitration.' Then inhuman men would be barred from acting out their (inhuman) contentions, and people's private-mindedness would be greatly checked.

All this means knowing the root. (No comment. I don't like to praise King Wen or King Solomon. The bad of King Wen is mentioned in the Chuang Tzu (book).)

What is described as 'making one's purposes genuine' is as follows. Beware of self-deception. It is to be compared to hating a bad smell and loving a lovely sight; this is what is called self-fulfillment. Thus it is that the true man is sure to be on guard when he is alone. The man who is not true in his privacy, has the habit of setting no limit to the badness of his actions. Then when he comes into the presence of a true man he is abashed. He conceals his bad qualities and displays his good. But he gains nothing by doing so, for (under these conditions) a man sees himself as if he saw his own liver and reins. This means that what is really within will take on form without. That is why the true man is sure to be on guard when he is alone. As Master Tseng said: 'How awe-inspiring must be what many eyes gaze at and many hands point to!' As riches adorn a house, so moral power adorns a man. The mind is enlarged, the limbs are at ease. This is why a true man is sure to make his purpose genuine. (The mind is enlarged or pure, the body will be natural and healthy. When alone don't let the mind wanders.)

As for the meaning of 'the cultivation of the self consists in the rectification of the mind,' if the self is angry about anything, or frightened, or delighted over anything, or unhappily perturbed about anything, in each case it follows that it cannot get itself right. When the mind is away, we gaze at things and do not see them, sounds come to our ears and we do not hear them, we eat and do not discern the flavors. This is what is meant by 'the cultivation of the self consists in the rectification of the mind.' (Self cultivation is to purify the mind. Books on Confucianism talk so much on the theory but none mentions how to purify the mind. This is the failure of Confucianism. We have to learn from Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism etc about the self cultivation.)

As for the meaning of 'the bringing of the members of the family into an ordered harmony consists in cultivating the self,' men are prejudiced about those whom they love, prejudiced about those whom they hate, prejudiced about those whom they revere, prejudiced about those whom they pity, prejudiced about those whom they despise. There are very few people in the world who are awake to the evil in the object of their dislike. Hence, as the proverb puts it: 'Men are not aware of the evil of their sons or of the fertility of their field.' This means that there can be no bringing of the members of the family into an ordered harmony unless there is cultivation of the self. [When you purify your mind, your mind will know what is right or wrong (intuition development). Therefore when applied to the family, you will be impartial. If your son commits mistake, you will punish him.]

As for the meaning of 'the efficient ruling of a State of necessity consists in bringing its families into an ordered harmony,' it is not the case that a man can fail in instilling good principles into his own family and, at the same time, succeed in instilling those principles into men outside it. Thus it is that a true man without going outside his family brings good principles into being throughout the country. Filial piety is the means by which the prince is served. Deference to an elder brother is the means by which the elder generation is served. The exercise of parental kindness is the means by which a whole population is influenced. In the K'ang Kao it is said: 'Act as if you were watching over an infant.' If your mind is truly set on your action, although you may miss your mark, you will not go far astray. A young woman has never had to learn to suckle an infant before she gets married. (A perfect man can influence the whole country. Only when he is king or president, then he can bring world peace.)

If one family be human-hearted, human-heartedness will grow in the whole country. If the members of one family give way to each other, the spirit of giving way will grow in the whole country. If one man be incontinently wicked, he will cause anarchy in the whole country. The mechanism of the situation is like that. This means that one remark may throw public business into disorder, or one man may consolidate a country. (If PAP leaders are not graceful, how can you expect Singaporeans to be graceful?)

It was through being human-hearted that Yao and Shun were the leaders in the Great Society. The people followed their example. It was through being oppressors that Chieh and Chow were the leaders in the Great Society: the people obeyed them. But since the actions they commanded were contrary to what they liked to do themselves, there was no obedience. Thus it is that what the true man has in himself, that he can require from others: what he has not in himself, that he cannot require from others: there never has been a man who had no store of reciprocity in himself and yet was able to communicate it to other men. Hence the ruling of a State consists in ordered harmony in the family. [All these theory is nothing when the perfect man is pure and appointed king or president. If Yao and Shun are great we need not have to study scriptures. Confucius liked to praise Yao, Shun, King Wen, Tang etc. If you read Chuang Tzu (book) about them, you will find they were common leaders. During their reign they were great. But what have the Chinese throughout these 2500 years and over learn from them, nothing! If the Chinese have learn something, China will not be ruled by the Mongolians and the Manchus; and bullied by the Japanese and the West.]

In the Book of Songs is the saying: ...............

True! Order your household and then you can teach good principles to influence the nation. In the Book of Songs is the saying: 'With elder brother's duty done, with younger brother's duty done.' True. Fulfill your duties as elder and younger brother, and then you can teach good principles to the nation. In the Book of Songs is the saying: 'His ways are faultless. He puts the four fiefs to rights.' True! The ruler as a father, as a son, as a younger brother, as an elder brother, first rises to the level of being a model, then the people come to be modeled on him. This is the meaning of 'the ruling of a state consists in ordered harmony in the family.' (If quotations from old books are simple in their meaning, why Confucius was unable to act himself? He talked so much but no action. Is he truly wise? If old books can be fully understood, there is no need for this 'Great Learning'. The important point in this paragraph is the ruler must be perfect and pure in mind.)

As to the meaning of 'the attainment of peace in the Great Society consists in the efficient government of the States,' if those in high places treat old age as old age should be treated, the people develop the filial spirit. If those in high places treat their seniors as seniors should be treated, the people develop the younger-brotherly spirit. If they have pity on orphans, the people will not go counter to them. Thus there is for the true man the Way of the Measuring Square. What a man dislikes in those above him, he must not bring to bear on those beneath him. What he dislikes in those beneath him, he must not bring to the service of those above him. What he dislikes in his forbears, he must not do in advance for his descendants. What he would dislike in his descendants, he must not do as following his forbears. The treatment which he dislikes from the left, he must not give to the right. This is what is meant by the Way of the Measuring Square. (When a ruler is perfect do you think he needs all this lectures?)

In the Book of Songs is the saying: 'Blessings on our true man, father and mother to his people.' To like what the people like and to hate what the people hate, this is the meaning of being father and mother. As in the Book of Songs: 'That South Mountain with its beetling crags! The height of it before our eyes! So the Grand Master, in his overwhelming might! Not one can take his eyes from him.'

True! The man with a country in his charge cannot afford not to be cautious. If he leaves that true path, he becomes the world's criminal. Again, as the Book of Songs says: 'Before they lost their people's (hearts), the Yin kings stood at God's right hand. The Yin kings stand before our eyes (as proof): God's high commission is hard to keep.'

It is that: win the people, and the country is won: lose the people, and the country is lost. This is why the true man is first concerned with the power of moral personality. Possessing the power in himself, he possesses men. Possessing men, he possesses the soil. Possessing the soil, he possesses wealth. Possessing wealth, he possesses the means of governing. [The nose (mountain) is before (below) our eyes. Yin kings stood at God's right hand can be compared to Jesus Christ in glory at the right hand side of God. Yin kings before us means the mark on the forehead. The Chinese word for 'right' can represent our face, showing the mouth clearly.]

This moral power is the root: wealth is but a branch. If the root be discounted and the branch be prized, there will be quarreling, and the people will be incited to steal. This is why the people will disperse if the wealth be amassed in the ruler's hands, and why the people will mass round the ruler if the wealth be dispensed among them. And if the ruler's words go forth in injustice it is the reason why injustice will come home to roost. If injustice enters with the produce of the country, injustice will take that produce away. It is said in the K'ang Kao: 'The charge from Heaven itself is not unchangeable.' This means that goodness brings it to a man, and evil takes it away from him. (If the Son of Heaven is pure in morality, there is no need for this lecture.)

It is said in the Book of Ch'u: 'The State of Ch'u has nothing it considers precious except its good men. Them, it holds precious.' Uncle Fan said: 'As exiles there is nothing we count precious, only to be human-hearted to our kin.' In the Ch'in Shih it is said: 'If I have but one minister, a man with no guile in him, having no special skill, but open-hearted and showing this in his demeanor, welcoming another man's skill as if it were his own, in his heart no less than in his speech hailing genius in other men, and thus able to make way for them so that they can protect my descendants and my people-- if I have this, how great is the gain. If, however, my minister be jealous of another's skill and go on to hate him: if he thwarts the man of genius and blocks his way to advancement so that he is unable to guard my descendants and my people, how great is the peril.' The human-hearted man, he alone can send such a man packing, driving him out among the barbarian tribes, refusing to have him living alongside in the Middle Kingdom. This is the meaning of 'only the human-hearted man can love men, only he can hate men.' You may discover a man of worth and be unable to employ him, that is fate. But to discover a bad man and be unable to remove and banish him; that is your own fault. For to love what men hate and to hate what men love, this is an outrage on human nature, and disaster inevitably falls on such an individual. Thus it is that the true man has a supremely right Way. With devotion and good faith he is sure to succeed in it. With arrogance and dissipation, he is sure to fail. (The theory here is second class. Reason as above, if the Son of Heaven is pure, there is nothing to preach.)

For the creation of wealth there is a supremely right Way. If those who create the wealth be many, those who consume it few, and if the accumulating departments be zealous, the spending departments economical, then there will be a permanent sufficiency of wealth.

For the human-hearted man wealth is the means by which the individual self is expanded. For the non human-hearted man the individual is a tool for the expansion of wealth. There never has been a case in which those in high places were devoted to human-heartedness and those beneath them were not devoted to justice. There never has been a case in which there was devotion to justice and state affairs failed of completion. There never has been a case in which there was opposition to the wealth being in the Government's storehouses.

Meng Hsien Tzu said: 'If you have the status of keeping a horse and carriage, you do not keep a check on fowls and pigs. The great family with its stores of ice does not tend sheep and cattle.' So also the great house of a hundred chariots does not keep a special officer for collecting taxes. With such an officer, in what way is it better than employing a robbing expert? This means that on the national scale it is not gain that is gain, but justice. The man at the head of a country's administration who is only concerned with wealth and expenditure is himself a base fellow. He may think he is doing good, but his ways of getting things done are those of a base fellow. (An example is Lee Kuan Yew. He is so worried about Singapore's reserve that he sits as chairman of Singapore GIC and introduced the elected president law.) Calamity from Heaven and injury from men both ensure, and although there may be good men in the country, they can do nothing to stop this. This means that on the national scale gain is not gain: justice is gain.

[(3rd July 2001) - The Chinese word for justice is 'yi', righteousness. This is what I stress. I do not go for democracy and human rights because scriptures do not mention them. The West does not understand the true meaning of righteousness, but rely on stories in the Bible. The Bible talks about rape, sexual intercourse, cheating, murders etc etc. How are people going to be holy when they are occupied by all these adventurous stories? The West did not ponder when they occupied other people's land and properties. They did not ponder when they made other races slaves. So they are not enlightened races, more like barbarians.]

When the Son of heaven is pure, he has no worry of anything. Justice and righteousness are what we should know. If you study my drawing above, you can grasp the meaning of 'The Great Learning'. There is no need for lectures.

This book is also indicating to you a man will cultivate self, harmonize the family, purify the country and bring peace to the whole world. This truly is the Sage-King, not old kings mentioned by Confucius.

Therefore for me to achieve this Sage-king stage, I have to wait for my uncle-father to die first. My cultivation is bringing his moral value higher but not to perfection. Other things are like other people's contempt of me (mentioned in The Diamond Sutra) and my explanation of scriptures to the whole world (mentioned in Chuang Tzu).

I am in the son's stage, so I have opposition from above and below. The day will come for my glory. That is why I ask all those who said bad things against me to say sorry. When I am in glory you have no chance to say sorry.

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Edited on 19th June 2008