For Technique I & II

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1. Abaissé- to lower   
2. Accent- to stress or emphasize.
3. Achilles-
4. Adage (adagio)- at ease or leisure; a series of exercises following the center practice consisting of a succession of slow and graceful movements which may be simple or of the most complex character, performed with fluidity and apparent ease; the opening section of the classical pas de deux in which the ballerina assisted by her male partner perAuditions the slow movements and enlevements in which the danseur lifts, supports or carries the danseuse.
5. Adagio- indicating music at a slow tempo.
6. Allegro- indicating  a fast or brisk tempo.
7. Arabesque- body supported on one leg with the other stretching directly behind the dancer creating the longest possible line from the fingers to the toes.
8. Arch-
9. Assemblé- to assemble; a jump from one foot to two feet in which the legs are drawn together to fifth position in the air
10. Attitude back- position on one leg with the other leg lifted to the back and bent at an angle and turned out in such a manner that the knee is raised higher than the toes, which are in turn  raised higher than the inside heel.
11. Attitude front- position on one leg with the other leg lifted to the front and bent at an angle and turned out in such a manner that the inside heel  is raised higher than the knees and toes.
12. Attitude promenade- partnered step in which one dancer moves another while walking a concentric circle as the other dancer holds one of the attitude positions.
13. Balance- to maintain a state of equilibrium; the equal distribution, and redistribution of weight, such that a position may appear to be “held”.
14. Balancé- three step movement pattern, may be executed side to side, front and back, or turning.  Also called waltz balancé, or waltz.
15. Ball change- to shift weight, (either part or whole) to the ball of one foot and then to the alternate foot.
16. Ballet- dance form codified in France in which a choreographer has expressed their ideas in group and solo dancing to musical accompaniment with appropriate costumes scenery and lighting.
17. Ballon- bounce; the light elastic quality in jumping in which the dancer bounds up from the floor, pauses a moment in the air and descends lightly only to rebound in the air like the smooth bouncing of a ball.
18. Ballotté- tossed.
19. Battement- clapped or beaten.
20. Bourre- “running” in fifth position sous sus.
21. Cabriole-
22. Canon- pattern of any duration repeated by two or more individuals or groups in succession.
23. Chainee turn- chained; links; a series of rapid linked turns on the points or ¾ points done in a straight line or circle.
24. Changement- springing steps in which the dancer changes feet in the air alighting in the fifth position with the opposite foot in the front.
25. Chassé- chased; a step in which one foot literally chases the other foot out of its position, can be done in a series.
26. Choreographer- this is the term applied to one who composes or invents ballets or other dances.
27. Choreography- the term used to describe the actual steps, groupings and patterns of a ballet or dance composition.
28. Contraction- an inward pulling of the torso or limbs which shortens the body.
29. Coupé- to cut; cutting a small intermediary step done as a preparation or impetus for another step; the position of standing on one leg with the other foot touching the top of the ankle bone with the little toe or to the back touching the inside heel just above the Achilles tendon.
30. Coda- the finale of a classical ballet in which all the principal dancers appear separately or with their partners; the final dance of the classic pas de deux, pas de trois or pas de quatre; the often dramatic and final section of a musical piece.
31. Croisé –crossed; one of directions of épaulement; the crossing of the legs with the body placed at an oblique angle to the audience. The disengaged (working leg, as opposed to standing) leg may be crossed in the front or in the back.
32. Danseur- male dancer
33. Danseuse/Ballerina- female dancer
34. Degagé- disengaged or disengaging step; the pointing of the foot through tendú position to an open position with a
fully arched instep disengaged from the floor.
35. Demi plié- One of the first dance steps of the traditional ballet barré. May vary between individuals but has the distinction of maintaining contact between the heels and the floor while the legs bend to their fullest extent.
36. Devant- in front; the addition of this word to other terms implies that the working foot closes in front.
37. Developpé- developing movement; a movement in which the working leg is drawn up to the knee of the supporting leg and slowly extended to an open position en l’air and held there with perfect control.
38. Downstage- toward the audience.
39. Dynamics- the act of musical expression that deals with the various degrees of loudness and softness in performance.  In dance, the expression that deals with various degrees of highs and lows, fast and slow and other opposites in performance.
40. Ecarté- separated; thrown wide apart.
41. Efface- shaded; one of the directions of epaulment, in which the dancer stands at an oblique angle to the audience so that a part of the body is taken back and almost hidden from view.  Efface is also used to qualify a pose in which the legs are open (not crossed).
42. Elevé- to rise to demi (¾), or full pointe without the aid of plié.
43. En croix- in the shape of a cross; indicates that an exercise will be executed to the fourth position front to the second position and to the fourth position back, or vice versa.
44. En face- opposite (the audience); facing the audience.
45. Enveloppé- leg extension in any direction followed by an inward movement to attitude, then to passé or retiré.
46. Epaulment- shouldering; the placing of the shoulders.
47. Five principles of choreography-
48. Flat back- position maintaining alignment of the entire spine while bending at the waist.
49. Flex- shortening of the line of the legs, especially, or arms achieved by pulling the toes or fingers toward the originating limb.
50. Fondú- to melt; sinking down; a term used to describe a lowering of the body made by bending the knee of the supporting leg.
51. Frappé- to strike.
52. Glissade- glide; a traveling step executed by gliding the working foot from the fifth position in the required direction the other foot closing to it.
53. Glissé- to slip; simultaneous tendú with plié.
54. Grand battement- large clapping/beating; an exercise in which the working leg is raised from the hip into the air and brought down again. Usually executed with a straight leg.
55. Grand plié- full plié.  The heels may suspend contact with the floor in all positions except second.  Does not stop in any position.
56. Grand jeté- large jeté.  In this step, both legs are thrown to 90 degrees, respectively, with a corresponding high jump.  The end goal will be achieving a full 180 degree split.
57. Grand rond de jambe-
58. Grapevine- crossover step of the feet moving to the dancer’s right or left.
59. Isolation- moving one part of the body against another.
60. Jazz corners (Cecchetti/Giardano) system of numbering the basic directions of the stage or dancing area corners are listed first beginning with “1” to the dancers downstage right and continuing counter-clockwise.  The audience is recognized as corner “5”.
61. Jazz walks- stylized walks in jazz; encompasses many types of walks
62. Kick ball change- sharp flick of one foot followed by a weight shift to that foot and a change of weight to the other foot.
63. Musicality-
64. Parallel- alignment (especially of the legs and feet) in which the knees, feet and toes are all pointing in the same direction as the front of the pelvic bone.
65. Pas de Basque- step of the Basque (Indigenous step of the Northern Spain region).
66. Pas de bourrée-  to pack and shove together; three step combination.
67. Pas de chat- step of the cat; involves a plié, followed by a  simultaneous springing from the floor with a developpé to pasé in the traveling direction, followed by a demi side attitude envelope with the trailing leg.
68. Pas de cheval- step of the horse.  The foot pulls from fifth position to coupé or sur le coup-de-pied into a demi developpé in any direction.
69. Passé-  to pass through.
70. Percussive- drum-like; movement quality that has sharper or often more distinctive rhythmic qualities.
71. Petit battement- small clapping/beating.
72. Petit jeté- little or small jeté achieved by gliding the working foot on the ground, springing from the floor and landing in fondú on the working leg with the other foot extended in the air, sur le cou-de-pied or coupe position.
73. Pique- to prick.
74. Pique tour (pique)- stepping directly onto a fully extended leg followed by a full revolution on that leg.
75. Pirouette- to whirl or spin; a complete turn of the body on one foot.  May  be executed on point or ¾ point.
76. Pirouette en de hors- turning towards the working leg.
77. Pirouette en de dan- turning away from the working leg.
78. Plié- to bend.
79. Point- to stretch the toes so that they are stretched the furthest distance from the working leg.
80. Port de bras- carriage of the arms.
81. Port de corps- carriage of the torso.
82. Port de bras- carriage of the arms; a movement or series of movements made by passing the arm or arms through various positions; a term for a group of exercises designed to make arms move gracefully and harmoniously.
83. Positions of feet 1-6-
84. Positions of arms 1, 2, 4, Spanish 4, 5-
85. Preparation for pirouette- What does this entail for ballet?  For jazz?
86. Promenade- to walk.
87. Proper arms position-
88. Relevé- to plié and rise to ¾, or full pointe.
89. Retiré- often referred to as passé; technical term for one leg held in position with the toes touching the knee, while balancing on the other leg .
90. Reverence- a showing of thanks to musician (if present), fellow performers or Master Class instructor.  Often performed through a series of adagio movements at the end of class, including bows, but sometimes limited to applause.
91. Rond de jambe a terre- half circle or oval motion of the leg; Auditions a "D"-like shape on the floor.
92. Rond de jambe en l’aire- several different types but all maintain the quality of being off the floor.
93. Royale versus entre chat quatre- difference between two different types of  “beaten” changement.
94. Sauté- jumped; often refers to the skipping movement attained by taking of and landing on the same leg.
95. Stage right- to the performer's right according to the dancer when facing the audience.
96. Stage left- to the performer's left when facing the audience.
97. Sternum-
98. Spot (focus)- any center of activity attention; to fix on one object, concentrate.
99. Sous sus- the dancer springs up onto ¾ (demi) or full pointe, drawing the feet and legs together.
100. Soutenu- sustained; a pulling together of the legs in fifth position relevé and revolving while maintaining contact with both feet on the ground.
101. “S” grip promenade- partnered step in which the dancers link place either their right or left arms in middle first position and link hands as a support for walking a concentric circle around their partner.
102. Tableau- stage picture; often designed as moment in time to capture a mood or inspire the audience.
103. Temp lié- succession of a tendú, plié (in either second or 4th position) and a weight shift to the other leg with the initial working leg now in tendú.
104. Temp levé- hop or jump in which both feet land in the same position as they begin.
105. Tendú- foot stretch in which the toes remain in contact with the floor. Typically executed from 1st, 3rd, 5th, or 6th position.
106. Tombe- to fall.
107. Turned out- maximum rotation of the upper thigh in the hip joint; possibly the most important core element to the essence of ballet.
108. Upstage- away from the audience.
109. ¾ time- also referred to as Waltz tempo. Three beats to the measure in which the quarter note receives the beat.
110. 4/4 time- the majority of contemporary American music is written in this time signature four beats to a measure (quarter note receives the beat).


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