Juan Fernández Ayala

1917-1957

 


 
"Los del Monte"
Una aproximación a este movimiento

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MAQUIS GUERRILLERO GUERRILLA ANTIFRANQUISTA

emboscados, maquis,  huidos, hombres que se echaron al monte tras la Guerra Civil Española, postguerra,  guardia civil, española, guerrillero, guerrilla, resistencia, antifranquista, antifascista, agruoación guerrillera, Juanín, Juan Fernández Ayala, Ceferino Roiz, Machado, Brigada, Pasionaria, Malumbres, Cariñoso, Cristino, Juan Gil del amo, practicante de los Carabeos, Campoo,  Cantabria. Vega, Liébana, Regiones, Devastadas, los, del, monte, republica, Francisco Bedoya, contrapartida, brigadilla, bandoleros, exilio, destierro, denuncia, astra, 400, subfusil, sten, mk2, radio, España, independiente, oposición, Franco, museo, ejercito, alzamiento, nacional, enlaces, milicia, asesinato, victimas, consejo, Potes, pistola, España, País, el mundo, exilio, emigración, campos de concentración

Liébana es una privilegiada zona de Cantabria, antaño paisaje de la guerrilla en la postguerra Española. Un lugar ideal para el turismo rural y activo: montañismo, escalada, senderismo, rutas a caballo, a la vez que rememorar una historia de nuestra historia reciente. Existe una amplia oferta de hoteles, apartamentos, camping, albergues y una gran variedad de productos gastronómicos. El famoso queso de tresviso y cabrales y el buen orujo de Potes. Está rodeada de montañas: Picos de Europa, cumbres de León, Palencia y sierras de Peña Labra y Peña Sagra. Por medio de los ríos Deva, Quiviesca y Bullón, vierte sus aguas al mar Cantábrico, abriendose paso a través del desfiladero de la Hermida. 

Picos de Europa, Beato de Liébana, Santo Toribio, Valles de Valdebaró, Cereceda, río Deva, Quiviesca, Bullón, Cabezón de Liébana, Linares, Caldas, Navedo, Cicera, Pendes, Castro, salarzón, San Pedro de Bedoya, Colio, Cahecho, Luriezo, Aniezo, Cambarco, Torices, San Andrés, Lon, Brez, Tanarrio, Mogrovejo, Enterría, Espinama, Cosgaya, Pido, Teleferico de Fuente Dé. Parador, Camaleño, Vega de Liébana, Bores, Bada, Villaverde, Barrio, Ledantes, Bárago, Dobres, Lomeña, La Parte, Pesaguero, Avellanedo, Valdeprado ,Lerones, Señas, Viorna, Maredes, Perrozo, Piasca, Tudes, Valmeo, Campollo, Cabezón de la Sal, Monte Corona, Ojedo, Cillorigo, Tama, Deva, garganta del Cares, Fuente De, Lebeña,, Novales,  Cordillera Cantábrica, Santander

Los Valles del Saja y Nansa también fueron otro importante escenario de la guerrilla en Cantabria durante la postguerra. Otro lugar adecuado para rememorar nuestra historia reciente mientras hacemos turismo.  Existe una amplia oferta de hoteles, apartamentos, camping, albergues, turismo activo, y una gran variedad de productos gastronómicos. Cabezón de la Sal, Carrejo, Santibañez, Ucieda, Ruente, Barcenilla, La Miña, Sopeña, Valle, Carmona, Terán, Renedo, Fresneda, Barcena Mayor, Selores, Salceda, Santa Eulalia, Tresabuela, Uznayo, Lombraña, Puente Pumar, Tudanca, Santoris, Salceda, San Sebastián de Garabandal, Sobrelapeña, Cosio, Lafuente, Obeso, Celis, Riclones, Micolón, Chufín, Sejos

Castro Urdiales, Guriezo, Allendelagua, Cerdigo, Revilla, el Puente, Montealegre, Sámano, Santuñan, Otañes, Mioño, Cueva del cuco

Laredo, Colindres, Adal Treto, Liendo, Limpias, Ampuero, La Bien ASparecida, San pantaleón, Udalla, Bádames

Santoña, Isla, Noja, Argoños, Escalante, Bareyo, Güemes, Ajo, El convento, San Mamés de Meruelo, Barcena de Cicero, Solórzano, Arnuero

Santillana del Mar, Cuevas de Altamira, Oreña, Puente San Miguelo, Vispieres, Cerrazo, Rudagüera, Cóbreces, Cigüenza, Pando, Mijares, Queveda, Viveda, Puente Avios, Cortiguera

Torrelavega, Rumoroso, Cudón Cuchía, Miengo, Mogro, Oruña, Quijas, La Busta, Golbardo, Casar de Periedo, Barcenaciones, Cabrojo, Valles, Yermo, Cartes, Tanos, Campuzano, Pico Dobra, Viérnoles, Riocorbo, Caldas de Besaya

Comillas, Liandres, El Tejo, Ruiseñada, Lamadrid, Labarces, Roiz, Caviedes, Ayuela, Pumalverde, Treceño, San Vicente del Monte, Ruiloba, Trasierra

San Vicente de la Barquera, Bustamante, Muñorrodero, Prio, Casamaría, Cabanzón, Camijanes, Otero, Cades, Bielba, Gandarilla, Estrada, Serdio, Carrás, Abaño

Las caldas, Barros, Tarriba, Llanos, Rivero, Mata, Los Corrales de Buelna, Cueva de Hornos de la Peña, Somahoz, Bostronizo, Cotillo, Fraguas, Arenas de Iguña, La Serna, Santa Cruz, Helguera, Molledo, Silió, Barcena de Pié de Concha, Calzada Romana, Portus Blendium, Cobejo, Pujayo, Pesquera, Rioseco, San Miguel de Aguayo, Somballe, Cañeda

Proaño, Argüeso, Reinosa, Hoz de Abiada, La Lomba, Entrambasaguas, Villacantid, Fontibre, nacimiento del Ebro, Cañeda, Aradillos, Población de Suso, Poblado de Somahoz, Cervatos, Suano, La Loma, Hoyos, Olea, Fombellida, Camesa rebolledo, Retortillo, Juliobriga, Celada marlantes, Montes Claros, Barruelo, Bárcena de Ebro, Santa María de Valverde, San Martín de Elines, Polientes. Valderredible, Arroyuelos, Valdeolea, Camppo de enmedio, Campoo de Yuso, Valdeprado, Cuenca y Vega de Pas, Pisueña, Puente Viesgo, Castañeda, Argomilla, San Vicente de Toranzo, Penilla, Alceda, Ontaneda, Selaya, Vilñlacarriedo, Borleña, Castillo de Pedroso, Vejoris, Villafufre, Luena, Santa María de Cayón, Saro, Liérganes, Rubalcaba, Cárcoba, San Roque de Riomiera, Valdicio, Asón, Arredondo, Guardamino, La Revilla, Ramales, Quintana, Suances, Tagle, Hinojedo

Guerras Cantabras, Espina del gallego, Cildá

ley de fugas, tortura, enlaces, régimen franquista, dictadura,  leyenda, mito, mitología, Diario Montañés, Alerta, censura, gubernativa, propaganda, narrativa, misterio, historia

El maquis y el actual terrorismo en España de ETA, FRAP, GRAPO, constituyen fenómenos bien distintos

tourism in Spain

The Spanish Civil War.

When the leading Generals of the Spanish Army led their troops into a revolt against the Republican Government on 18th July 1936, they expected little opposition to their coup d'etat. They were, however, mistaken. The supporters of the Government proved to be much stronger than expected and as a result Spain experienced three years of bloody Civil War.

It was a war of contradictions and political in-fighting. Both sides experienced problems in retaining the support of groups or political parties that were, more often than not, in violent opposition with one another.

The Government had the support of all the Left-wing political parties. These included the Republicans, the Socialists, the Communists, and the Anarchists. They and their associated Trade Unions provided the armed Militias that resisted the rising in its earliest stages. Support was also forthcoming from the Catalan and Basque Nationalists as the Republic had given them their much longed for regional autonomy. Some elements of the Armed and Para-Military Forces remained loyal to the Republic; included amongst these were most of the Navy's Seamen (but not the Officers), a large part of the Air Force, some units of the Peninsular Army, sections of the Guardia Civil (the national police force) and Carabineros (the Frontier Guards), and a majority of the Asaltos (the national riot police).

The Government received some military material from the French Socialist Government in the early stages of the war, and substantial assistance from the Mexican Government throughout the conflict. Considerable help also came, in the form of weapons and advisers, from the Russian Government once the Left-wing nature of the Republic was established and a large part of the Spanish Gold Reserves were safely housed in Russia! Further military aid was provided by the many foreign volunteers who were organised, with the help of the Communist International, into the International Brigades.

The Insurgents (who soon became known as the Nationalists) had the support of the Army of Africa (which contained the most battle-hardened units in the Spanish Army), the remainder of the Peninsular Army, Guardia Civil, Carabineros, and Asaltos, and the Right-wing and Traditionalist Political parties. These parties included the Monarchists, the Carlists, and the Falange. The two latter parties were of particular importance as both had armed Militias that could assist in putting down resistance to the rising. With the exception of the Basque Region, the Catholic Church gave its support to the Insurgents.

The Nationalists also received foreign military aid. The Right-wing governments of Italy and Germany sent "volunteers", tanks, aircraft and artillery to aid the Nationalist cause. In addition small numbers of Portuguese, French and Irish volunteers fought with the Insurgent armies.

The Spanish Civil War was a war of ideals fought by soldiers who thought that God or History was on their side. It foreshadowed many aspects of the Second World War whilst at the same time harking back to an earlier age; it seemed at times to be a war of Medieval ferocity fought with Twentieth Century technology.

THE POLITICS OF THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR

THE NATIONALISTS

The Carlists The Carlists supported the claim of the descendants of Don Carlos (the uncle of Queen Isabella II) to the throne of Spain. They wanted a return to a "traditionalist" ultra-Catholic monarchy. Although they hated the Alfonsine Monarchists, whom they regarded as too "liberal", they loathed the anti-clerical Republicans. The movement's support came from the Requetes (the Carlist Militia), the Pelayos (the Carlist Youth Movement) and the Margaritas (the Carlist Womans' Service), whose recruits were mainly drawn from the families of Navarrese smallholders.

The Catholic Church The CEDA (Confederacion Espanola de Derechas Autonomas) was a composite right-wing Catholic party founded in 1933 by Gil Robles. It was formed from the Accion Popular and Partido Agrario, and had a youth movement known as the JAP (Juventudes de Accion Popular). Although successful in the 1933 elections, the Party virtually collapsed after the Popular Front victory in 1936. The membership of JAP then switched en masse to the Falange.

The Falange. The Falange was a small fascist party that was founded in 1933 by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera. It gained a degree of popular support when it merged with the JONS (Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista), in 1934, to form the Falange Espanola de las JONS.

The Monarchists. The Monarchist groups, which included Accion Espanola and Renovacion Espanola, supported the claim of the descendants of Queen Isabella II to the throne of Spain. The Monarchist movement, which had the support of conservative army officers, became the focus of opposition to the Republic after the abdication of King Alfonso XIII.

THE REPUBLICANS

The Anarcho-Syndicalists. The Anarchist movement in Spain was the strongest in Europe. Its main support came from the industrial workers of Barcelona, who formed the anarcho-syndicalist trades union, the CNT (Confederacion Nacional de Trabajo), in 1911. The Anarchist also founded a youth movement, the FIJL (Federacion Iberica Juventudes Libertarias), to promote anarcho-syndicalist beliefs amongst the young. The most influential organisation within the Anarchist movement was the FAI (Federacion Anarquista Iberica); this was a federation of militant anarchist groups founded in 1927. It worked in secret, and formed the backbone of the Anarchist Militias at the outbreak of the Civil War.

The Basques. The Basques had always considered themselves to be a separate nation. The region had its own language, culture, traditional laws and style of government, and its people looked to the Republic to reintroduce the autonomy that had previously existed. The PNV (Partido Nacionalista Vasco), the main Basque Nationalist Party, was founded in 1895 and enjoyed popular support in the Basque region.

The Catalans. Like the Basques the Catalans thought of themselves as separate from Spain. They too had a language and culture of their own, and expected to gain autonomy when the Republic was founded. The main Catalan political parties were the ERC (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya), which was a Left Republican nationalist party founded in 1931, and the PSUC (Partido Socialista Unificado de Cataluna), the United Catalan Socialist Party, which was formed in 1936 from several Socialist and Communist groups. The latter was affiliated to COMINTERN and was the Communist Party in Catalonia.

The Communists. The PCE (Partido Comunista de Espana) was founded in 1921. Due to the strength of the Socialist, Anarcho-Syndicalist and Marxist movements in Spain, the Spanish Communist Party was small; it was also highly efficient and enjoyed the support of Stalinist Russia. This was to prove highly significant as the Civil War progressed; as the other political parties declined in power the Communists were to exert more and more influence, especially in the Armed Forces.

he Marxists. The revolutionary anti-Stalinist Marxist Party, the POUM (Partido Obrero de Unificacion Marxista), was formed in 1935 as the result of the merger of the BOC (Workers and Peasants Bloc), led by Joaquin Maurin, and Izquierda Comunista (Left Communist Party), led by Andres Nin.

The Republicans. The two main republican parties were founded in 1934. They were the Izquierda Republicana (Left Republican Party), which was formed from four smaller left-wing social-democratic groups, and the Union Republicana (Republican Union Party), which had broken away from the Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Party).

The Socialists. The Socialists were the most powerful left-wing political force in Spain before the Civil War. The Spanish Socialist Workers Party, the PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Espanol), was founded in 1879; it was supported by the Socialist Trades Union, the UGT (Union General de Trabajadores), and the Socialist Youth Movement, the FJS (Federacion de Juventudes Socialistas). The latter amalgamated, in 1936, with the Communist Youth Movement to form the Unified Socialist Youth or JSU (Juventudes Socialistas Unificadas); this was soon dominated by the Communists.

Spain, tourism Liébana and Picos de Europa Cantabria. RURAL TOURISM IN SPAIN. vacations in Spain. Active tourism

Der spanische Bürgerkrieg 1936-1939

Am 17. Juli 1936 begannen konservative spanische Generale in Spanisch-Marokko eine lange geplante Revolte gegen die linke republikanische Volksfrontregierung Spaniens unter Manuel Azana y Diaz (1880-1940). Unter der Führung von General Francisco Franco weitete sie sich im Mutterland schnell zu einem Bürgerkrieg aus. Am 20. Juli verkündete die legitime Regierung die Mobilmachung und verteilte Waffen an die Bevölkerung. Aufgrund deren Widerstands sowie der Überlegenheit der regierungstreuen spanischen Armeeverbände schien der Putsch bereits gescheitert, als Adolf Hitler am 25. Juli 1936 beschloß, dem Hilfegesuch der Putschisten nachzukommen und sie militärisch zu unterstützen. Im Spanischen Bürgerkrieg wurden erstmals seit Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs deutsche Soldaten im Ausland eingesetzt.

Hitlers wichtigste Motivation für das deutsche Eingreifen im Spanischen Bürgerkrieg war die Stärkung des Faschismus in Europa. Er fürchtete ein sozialistisches oder kommunistisches Spanien, das sich eng mit Frankreich und der Sowjetunion verbünden könnte, was seine Expansionspläne in Europa erschwert hätte. Zudem wollte er das Verhältnis zum faschistischen Italien verbessern, das die Franco-Truppen ebenfalls massiv unterstützte. Zusätzliche Gründe für die Militärhilfe waren die Sicherung spanischer Rohstofflieferungen an das Deutsche Reich und die Aussicht, die Kampfkraft der Wehrmacht, vor allem die der Luftwaffe, zu erproben. Die militärische Unterstützung Frankreichs und der Sowjetunion für die spanischen Republikaner lief trotz deren Propagandamaßnahmen dagegen nur langsam an. Schnelle und überzeugende Hilfe erhielt die Volksfrontregierung dagegen von fünf Internationalen Brigaden mit sozialistischer Ausrichtung. Ungefähr 5.000 dieser 35.000 Freiwilligen waren Deutsche, meist politische Flüchtlinge.

Der Spanische Bürgerkrieg wurde auf beiden Seiten mit einem Höchstmaß an Einsatzbereitschaft, aber auch an Brutalität geführt. Zum Sinnbild für die Grausamkeit des Kriegs wurde die Zerstörung Guernicas mit rund 2.000 Toten am 26. April 1937, die Pablo Picasso noch im selben Jahr in seinem berühmt gewordenen Gemälde darstellte. Die heilige Stadt der Basken und Symbol ihres Unabhängigkeitswillens war durch Luftwaffeneinheiten der deutschen "Legion Condor" bombardiert worden. Die Luftwaffen- sowie Panzer-, Transport- und Nachrichteneinheiten der Wehrmacht und die Unterstützung aus Italien waren schließlich Garanten für den Sieg Francos im Frühjahr 1939. Trotz der Waffenhilfe blieb Spanien im wenige Monate später beginnenden Zweiten Weltkrieg aber offiziell neutral.


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Modern times: The 19th and 20th centuries brought industrialisation, urbanisation, poverty and emigration to the region. Many people fled to Latin America in search of their fortunes. The few that did come back with money, called Indianos, created a new architectural style and helped their local communities fallen on hard times. A precursor of the Spanish Civil War was the Asturian miner’s strike, brutally ended by a military force led by Francisco Franco. It was natural that after the fascist victory in the Civil War the Picos should become shelter for the last resistance fighters against Franco, the famous maquis. At the beginning of the 20th century Picos de Europa became the first Spanish National Park, enlarged six years ago to become the largest in Europe

Der Iron Man des Antifaschismus.

Zuerst kämpften die Guerilleros im spanischen Bürgerkrieg, dann gegen die Franco-Diktatur. Heute ist die Bürokratie in der Demokratie der Feind. von simón ramírez voltaire

Spanier, der Krieg ist zu Ende! Alle, an deren Händen kein Blut klebt, sollen jetzt in ihre Dörfer zurückkehren, wo sie Arbeit und ein Zuhause finden werden. Dass das Ende der Guerra Civil für ihn und tausende Republikaner, Anarchisten, Sozialisten und Kommunisten den Beginn eines neuen Krieges markierte, sollte er Monate später erfahren. »Das Leben ging weiter, und ich entdeckte, auf welche Weise der Krieg beendet worden war. So wie es allen Männern klar wurde, die, anstatt die Waffen abzugeben, in die Berge flüchteten, um zu überleben. Schlagartig wurde uns klar, dass das Kriegsende ein Verrat war. In der Vereinigung Archiv Krieg und Exil (Age) versammeln sich die Überlebenden und rekonstruieren akribisch die Geschichte der Maquis. Es ist die Geschichte von eisernen Antifaschisten und bisweilen auch die Legende von Unermüdlichen: Sozialisten, Kommunisten, Anarchisten oder Republikanern, die die Niederlage der Zweiten Republik nicht akzeptierten. Mit dem Begriff Maquis, dem Namen für die südfranzösischen Widerstandsbewegungen Maquisards entlehnt, umgingen sie die während der Franco-Zeit verbotene Bezeichnung Guerilleros

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