11th Generation - Samuel Beauregard Greenfield 1861- 1953
Life Conveniences Farming
Women's Work The Mill The Country Store
Mountain Christian Church The Black Family
12 th Generation - My Grandparents
In 1888 Samuel Beauregard married Willana Black. Together they had 5 children, Howard Herold in 1891, Mary Lydia in 1892, Samuel Slater in 1893, Camp Butler in 1894 and Cassie Rebecca in 1897. He did not die until 1953 and was called "Grandpap" by his grandchildren and great grandchildren.
What was life like for Samuel’s generation in the last half of the nineteenth century?
We know that he was a farmer, but without his own land until his mother purchased the property in 1910. So he was what is called a “tenant farmer.” That is to say he would enter into an agreement with a landowner to farm a specified part of his property and be allowed to keep a specified part of the produce. Often he would be allowed to live in a “tenant house” on the property and there were other tasks that he agreed to perform for the landowner. This type of agreement dates back to practices on the English manors. This arrangement was also similar to what was called a “share cropper” in the South.
During the 1880s to 1910 the Greenfields lived and worked on many farms in Harford and Baltimore Counties. These addresses include the following: Chestnut Hill 1888, Chrome Hill 1889, Van Bibber 1890, Churchville 1891-97, Fallston 1898, Wheel 1899, Bradshaw 1903, and Edgewood 1903-10.
In 1910 Mary Elizabeth purchased 37 acres from Ring Factory Road to Wilna and later gave the deed to Howard Greenfield, her oldest grandson. The pictures are of that farm as it looks today and the sign from the short road that runs beside the property. The farm is now part of Olney Farm, the old homestead was torn down in the 1950s.
Wood stoves, first introduced in the 1700s continued to be the primary source of heat. It wasn’t until the late 1800s that a stove that worked on coal which heated a downstairs room and a flue which carried hot air to the rooms above. But wood continued to be used for heating purposes by most rural folks until long after 1900.
By the late 1800s, kerosene laterns had become common for a source of light. The electric light was invented in 1880, but few rural homes had this service until well after 1900.
The wooden pump came into use around 1800 and served many homes. It was made of a large log, stood about 6 feet high and had a long, tapered iron handle. It was bored from end to end, usually hexagonal in shape and painted to the whim of the owner.
At the beginning of this era, farming was still largely labor intensive with most of the task being done by hand. It was not until about 1850 that mechanical devises for planting were available, but many farmers were not able to take advantage of these inventions and hand sewing persisted for decades. The harvesting of grain was also labor intensive. The scythe and grain cradle were the chief implements. The cradle with its long blade and pointed fingers required great precision to use. Gradually after the Civil War the reaping machine came into use. About 1890 the grain binder was introduced to this area, the combine was not introduced until a half a century later.
By 1880 it was common to see six horse teams with large loads of hay winding their way to Baltimore. They returned with loads of fertilizer and building materials. The journey of almost 30 miles required two days for the round trip. In the 1890s long lines of country wagons could be seen hauling produce to the Farmers Market on Ensor Street in Baltimore. There they exchanged their goods for food and clothing. This task is spelled out very specifically in a contract between Samuel Beauregard and Mr. Watson as follows:The aforesaid Greenfield agrees to haul and sell if necessary all the said Watsons Hay and Potatoes which he may want sold free of charge to Baltimore or elsewhere the said Watson to pay one half of actual expense of Tavern, Toll and weighing of Hay, then the said Watson and Greenfield each to receive one half of the balance of the proceeds of said Potatoes and Hay and the said Greenfield agrees to haul back loads from Baltimore for use of said Farm free of charge.
The Mill played an important role in the life of the farmer. It was here he brought his grain to be milled and ready to sell. Jerusalem Mill also played a significant role in the Greenfield family history. Many of Samuel K.J.’s letters were postmarked from here in the 1850s. Samuel’s grandson Samuel Slater Greenfield worked here from 1910 to 1942. Slater, as he was called, worked for the owner Harry Pyle, at one point leased the mill from Mr. Pyle, and employed his son, Calvin Slater Greenfield.
Below are the recollections of Samuel Slater’s daughter, Mildred Greenfield Emmel as published in the Spring 1986 Volume Number 28 of the Harford Historical Bulletin:Oh yes . . . I remember the mill! Dusty inside with masses of cobwebs drooping everywhere and the machinery clanking. There was an office at the front with a big, old desk and chair and the old-style crank telephone. I loved to go in and sit at that desk.
The village then was beautifully kept; each house well kept, each yard had a tidy fence or whitewashed gate. Mr. Pyle lived nearest the mill among stately trees with a smooth green lawn and shrubs blooming at its edges. Mrs. McCourtney at the store had roses climbing her fence, and Mrs. W. Much Carr just opposite raised dahlias the size of dinner plates. The whole effect was of a quaint country village. . .
We lived about a mile away on Old Joppa Road. An almost daily routine in the hot weather was a walk to the millrace for a swim. Sometimes I’d be given a nickel and could stop at the store on my way home. I had a time deciding whether to spend it on grape soda or penny candy.
But the millrace was important for another reason besides our swims; persons who joined the Mountain Christian Church were baptized there. The service would be held on a Sunday afternoon, and I found it impressive, even as a small child. The minister would step down a few wooden steps into the waist deep water in all his vestments. Friends and relatives gathered on the bank. The new church member would walk into the water also and during the ritual be totally immersed for an instant.
So many of our family were baptized in that millrace that my father used to joke that his mill would surely choke up and quit running from the heavy load of Greenfield sins.
THE COUNTRY STORE
This time period saw the continued rise of the local community. Most existed at a crossroads and consisted of a blacksmith shop, church, school and most importantly, a general store. Many of these communities played a part in the lives of our ancestors. Samuel K.J.’s letters were postmarked from many of these communities in Baltimore and Harford Counties such as Jersulem Mills, Fork, Bradshaw and Upper Falls. The picture is of the General Store at Jersulem Mills.
The country store was a unique institution. The inside was filled with a conglomeration of all types of goods. The stove was usually in the middle of the floor. Long counters were piled high with stacks of overall, straw hats, stove polish, harness oil, liver stimulants and many other goods. The O.N.T. cotton box and tobacco cutter were always present. Along each side were long rows of shelves filled with linens, gingham’s and calico flanked with leather goods, kerosene lamps, enamel ware and lamp chimneys. At the back hung the cow chains, horse collars and buggy whips. The cracker barrel, sugar barrel and flour barrel stood at the floor at the counter’s end and the huge scales were nearby.
The store could furnish almost everything necessary for use by man or beast from ax handles and plowshares to patent medicines. The store also usually served as the post office, and the wire cage on the counter inside the store housed the shelves and pockets for letters, newspapers and packages.
MOUNTAIN CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Samuel Bearuregard, Willanna and their children were very active in the Mountain Christian Church. According to family oral history Samuel was originally a member of Union Chapel Methodist Church, had a “falling out” with that church, and then moved his affiliation to the Mountain Christian Church. According to the church records, Samuel Beauregard was baptized on August 13, 1916. The children were raised in that church. Samuel and his wife and his mother are buried there.
The history of the Mountain Christian Church began at Union Chapel Methodist where several followed the teachings of James McVey and were baptized in the stream behind the church where I played at as a child. When those baptized were excommunicated from the Methodist fellowship, McVey’s followers withdrew and formed the Jerusalem Christian Church which met in a log school house near Jerusalem until 1846. Then they acquired land on what was known as “Mountain” at the corner of Mountain and Jerusalem Mill Roads where it is today. The remembrances of Millie Greenfield Emmel show how the church still used the millrace at Jerusalem Mill to baptize during her childhood.
My grandfather, Camp, living behind Union Chapel, went back to membership there as an adult.
THE BLACK FAMILY
There was much information about the Black Family that was contained in the Family Bible. There were also two photograph albums. Many of the photographers were from Canton and Alliance Ohio. This picture is of Willana's father J. R. Black.
In 1873 Lydia Parsons Black, J.R.’s widow, bought land in Harford County after J. R. Black’s death and apparently moved there with Willanna. This might also indicate that the Black or Parsons family had connections in Harford County before going to Ohiio.
Willana’s mother’s family, the Parsons and Fords were originally from Philadelphia. I believe that there were some Quaker members of the family from the garb in some of the photos, but have yet researched for proof. Included in the surviving family papers is the marriage license of Mahlon Parsons and Rebecca Ford in Philadelphia from 1811.
|Origins in England -1530-1668||Settlers in Maryland - 1668-1715|
|Long Green Valley - 1715-1800s||Samuel K. J. Greenfield -Letters|
|Baltimore/Harford - 1860s On||Family Photos 1860s on|
|Genealogy Reports||King Family|