§ **The Elastic Continuum Theory of Electromagnetic
Field & Strain Bubbles. ECT.pdf ** (122
K)** **

§
**The Electron Structure & Coulomb
Interaction**. **TESCI.pdf **(69 K)** **

§ **Nucleon Structure & Strong Interaction**. ** NSSI.pdf** ** ** (430 K)

§ **The Hydrogen Orbitals & Photon wave packet. THOPP.pdf **(107 K)** **

§
**A
Conceptual Error in Schrodinger’s wave equation** **FQM.pdf ** (58 K)

In all branches of applied sciences, we have made
a tremendous progress. But in theoretical Physics, which had been once regarded
as Mother of all sciences, the situation is quite grim. Throughout the 20^{th}
century, Physicists have occupied themselves with working out Quantum Mechanics
and Relativity in all their implications. In the process Physics has absorbed
mathematical ideas and notions of increasing sophistication and abstraction. However, there is a gradual shift in our
focus from the physical reality to the abstract mathematical formulations that
are supposed to describe physical reality. The community of Physicists in general, appear to have
been steadily indoctrinated into believing that due to complexity of physical
reality, we can not even demand deeper meaning, deeper understanding and mental
visualization of the basic phenomena in quantum mechanical world. Modern Particle Physics is tending to
be quite incomprehensible. The most recent speculation of the
theoretical physicists is that elementary particles are not particles at
all but vibrations of tiny loops of quantum mechanical strings, wriggling
around in twenty-six dimensional space!! **In this context the author has proposed a new fundamental theory in Physics, titled ****the** **Elastic Continuum Theory of Nature****.**
It is a fresh attempt to explain the origin of Elementary Particles, Fields and
their interactions in empty space.

**Notion
of Aether**

In the 19th century Physics, the notion of an all pervading elastic medium called ether or aether was considered an undesirable necessity. Some self-contradicting properties had to be ascribed to this aether medium. It was supposed to be an extremely thin medium to enable resistance free motion of solid bodies through it. At the same time it was required to be a highly elastic solid to enable the transverse (light) wave propagation through it. This was essentially due to the fact that matter and aether medium were regarded as two separate, independent entities. Maxwell's development of the electromagnetic theory of light, rendered the aether superfluous as the electromagnetic field was also granted an independent status, capable of independent existence just as matter. In 1887 Michelson and Morley conducted their historic experiment which claimed to prove the non-existence of aether medium. The Special Theory of Relativity reconciled the results of MM experiment through special postulates. Therefore, in order to introduce even the revised concept of aether as an Elastic Continuum, we must re-examine the MM experiment in the light of our current knowledge of elementary particles.

§
**Invalidation
of Michelson - Morley Experiment **

The original MM experiment was conducted in
the backdrop of ‘aether current’, or ‘aether wind’ which was expected to
influence the propagation of light, viewed as a continuous wave motion. For the critical re-examination of MM experiment, we may conduct the same old
MM experiment in the backdrop of our familiar ‘Vacuum’ or ‘Empty Space’ to show
‘__Invalidation of Michelson - Morley Experiment__’. It is conclude
that the MM experiment conducted in the thin ‘vacuum’ or isotropic ‘empty space’
also fails to show the predicted fringe shifts, just as the original MM
experiment conducted in thin ‘aether’ had failed. However, in reality, the MM
experiment had neither proved the non-existence of ‘aether’ nor that of ‘vacuum’ or ‘empty space’. The real culprit responsible for producing
misleading results, inferences and proofs, were the set of explicit or implicit
assumptions upon which the whole MM experiment was based, conducted and
interpreted.

§
**Aether
and Vacuum **

Now, there is a growing realization in the scientific
circles that matter and electromagnetic field, both appear to be having a
common origin in the 'vacuum'.
Originally the concept of space had been introduced purely as a
reference framework, as a reference coordinate space for representing the
physical universe at any given instant of time. The space-time continuum on the other hand, was intended to
provide an extended 4- D reference framework to represent the dynamic physical
activity in the universe. But as shown in a separate article titled **GTR is founded on a Conceptual Mistake** additional notions of 'deformability' or 'Elasticity' have also
been attributed to the empty space. When we view the empty space as
an 'elastic space', as a supporter or 'holder' of 'vacuum energy'; or when we
ascribe the physical 'dimensional' properties of permittivity and permeability
to the empty space, we are extending the role of physical space much beyond the
reference framework. In fact when
we consider the additional notion of 'elastic space' or 'deformable space' (as
implied by GR), we may still need a reference framework to keep a track of
relative displacements of 'space points'.

A close scrutiny of fundamental
notions behind the physical concepts of
**'Aether'
and 'Vacuum'** will show
that in fact they represent ONE and the SAME entity. Fundamental properties of this vacuum or empty space are given
by

I. ε_{0}, the Permittivity of free space.

II. μ_{0}, the Permeability of free space.

III. c
the velocity of propagation of EM waves in free space.

IV. Z_{0} the intrinsic impedance of
vacuum or free space.

These four parameters are dimensional constants and hence
represent fundamental properties of vacuum.
This has been further elaborated in an important article on **Permittivity and
Permeability Constants of Vacuum. **However, since these four
parameters are inter-related, only two of these are independent. It is
interesting to note, for example, that μ

§ **Postulate**

Now we have two
independent notions; one that of Vacuum or matter free space with dimensional
properties of ε_{0} and μ_{0}
and the second that of Aether with fundamental dimensional properties of
elasticity and inertia to enable transverse wave propagation through it. In order to
establish an identity between the Vacuum and the Aether, we need to postulate
the equivalence of their fundamental properties.
Thus we assume that the parameter 1/ε_{0} (or c.Z_{0}) represents the elastic constant and μ_{0} (or Z_{0}/c) represents the inertial constant of
the Aether. Appropriate physical dimensions can be assigned to these
parameters through dimensional analysis. The plausibility of this assumption is
confirmed by the fact that square root of (elastic constant/inertial constant)
represents the velocity of strain wave propagation and the square root of ((1/ε_{0})/μ_{0})
also represents the velocity of transverse wave propagation. With this the identity between Aether and Vacuum is
established. To make it more representative of Aether and Vacuum, we may assign
a more appropriate name to this entity - The Elastic Continuum.

§ **Detection of
Aether or Vacuum or Elastic Continuum**

Obviously, most readers will have one
crucial question uppermost in their mind; that is, how exactly do we detect the
presence of aether or vacuum or matter free space or the elastic continuum? The detection and measurement of any physical entity
actually involves the detection and measurement of some of its characteristic
attributes. Such characteristic attributes of the Ether or the Elastic
Continuum are ε_{0},
μ_{0}, c
and Z_{0}, all of which have been measured quite precisely. However the overall physical existence of
aether or the elastic continuum is embodied in the physical existence of a
Preferred or Absolute or a Universal Reference Frame. With current
technological advancements, **Experimental
Detection of such a Universal Reference Frame** is now quite feasible.

§ **Aether and
the Independent Status of Matter and EM Field**

For this Elastic Continuum
the equilibrium equations of
elasticity are identical with vector wave equation of
Maxwell's electromagnetic theory.
Particular solutions of these equilibrium equations as functions of space-time coordinates,
satisfying appropriate boundary and stability conditions within a bounded
region, are shown to represent various strain wave fields and strain wave
packets or strain bubbles. The electromagnetic field as well as all other forms of
energy and matter can be shown to exist in the Elastic Continuum as strain wave
fields or strain bubbles. The energy density associated with these
stress/strain waves in any particular region of the continuum will be
proportional to the square of the intensity of such waves. The matter particles essentially exist in
this Elastic Continuum as packets of standing strain wave oscillations whose
total strain energy remains conserved
in the absence of any interaction
with other strain waves or
packets. Hence
matter and EM field do not have any independent status separate from the
elastic continuum.

The Elastic Continuum Theory or **ECT**
in short, essentially deals with the study of formation, existence and mutual
interactions of stress/strain wave packets in the Elastic Continuum, leading to
their co-relation with the formation, existence and mutual interactions of
elementary particles in the ‘Vacuum’ or the ‘Empty Space’.

·
__The Detailed Papers (Mathematical)__

**The proposed theory is presented through following five
main research papers.**

**1.**** **** ****The Elastic Continuum Theory
of Electromagnetic Field & Strain Bubbles.**** ect.pdf
** (122 K)** **

In this
paper equilibrium equations of elasticity have been derived afresh for the
continuum. These equations turn out to
be identical to **Maxwell's vector wave equation**. Solutions of
equilibrium equations, subject to boundary conditions, are shown to
represent bounded regions of the continuum under strained state, which are
termed 'strain bubbles'. Study of these strain bubbles yields the structure,
properties and interactions of various elementary particles and fields.
Maxwell's electromagnetic field in empty space is found to be just the dynamic
stress- strain field in the elastic continuum.

** **** ****The Electron Structure &
Coulomb Interaction.**** tesci.pdf **(69 K)**
**

A new model
for the electron structure and its electrostatic wave field, has been
introduced in this paper. Obtained as a spherically symmetric solution of
elastic equilibrium equations, the electron and positron type particles are
found to consist of an oscillating strain wave core surrounded by radial strain
wave field. ** **

**3.**** Nucleon Structure & Strong Interaction. nssi.pdf ** (430 K)** **

A new model
for the nucleon structure has been introduced in this paper. Obtained as a
cylindrically symmetric solution of elastic equilibrium equations, the nucleons
are found to consist of an oscillating strain wave core. The strong interaction
between two nucleons is computed through the axial as well as radial
superposition of their cores. ** **

**4.**** A Fresh look at the fundamental concepts of Quantum
Mechanics.
fqm.pdf ** (58 K)** **

In this paper
fundamental concepts of kinetic energy and potential energy have been reviewed
in relation to the development of Schrodinger’s wave equation. Emphasizing
distinction between the particle and the associated wave packet, an error in
Schrodinger’s wave equation has been brought out, wherein the potential energy
term V(r) has not been made dependent on particle coordinates.

** The Hydrogen Orbitals & Photon wave packet. thopp.pdf ** (107 K)

**An over-view of the
proposed Elastic Continuum Theory is given at ** **Summary_ECT**

The proposed Elastic
Continuum Theory represents an entirely novel and drastically different point
of view regarding the ultimate reality of Nature; regarding the most
fundamental basis of physical reality. This novel point of view is drastically different from
the currently accepted quantum mechanical viewpoint in somewhat similar way as
the Copernican & Kepler models of the Solar system represented
drastically different viewpoint from the then well accepted, highly complex and
accurate Ptolemaic system. As per the ECT, our familiar ‘empty space’ or ‘vacuum’ with
the characteristic property of permittivity ε_{0} and permeability μ_{0 } behaves as a perfect isotropic elastic continuum with
elastic constant 1/ε_{0} and inertial constant
μ_{0} . For this ‘Elastic Continuum’ the equilibrium equations
of elasticity are found to be identical with the vector wave
equation of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory.
Particular solutions of these equilibrium equations as
functions of space-time coordinates, satisfying appropriate
boundary and stability conditions within a bounded region, are shown to
represent various ‘strain bubbles’ or elementary particles and the
electromagnetic fields. Through analysis of various strain bubbles, we
can study the structure of various elementary or composite particles and deduce
their mutual interactions.

The
main postulate of General Relativity implies that the gravitational field of a
gravitating body changes the metric [g_{ij}(x)] of Euclidean space to
the metric [g1_{ij}(x)] of Riemannian space in accordance with
Einstein’s Field Equations. With this
change in the metric of space, the separation distance ‘ds’ between any pair of
neighboring space points P_{1} and P_{2} will also change to
‘ds_{1}’ as given by following equations:

(ds)^{ 2}
= g_{ij} dx^{i} dx^{j} and
(ds_{1})^{ 2} = g1_{ij} dx^{i} dx^{j}

That means all space points within the
region of gravitational field will experience **relative displacements**
leading to the development of ‘**deformation**’ of space in that
region. Hence, in essence, the
fundamental postulate of GR implies the
deformation of space in the region of gravitational
field. This deformation of space is generally represented through
a mathematical notion of ‘space curvature’. The deformation of
space induced by a developing gravitational field, through the variation of its
metric tensor, is a reversible
phenomenon. When the gravitational
field is reduced back to the initial state, the associated strain or
deformation will also vanish. This
reversible characteristic of the induced strain field in response to the
external influence of gravitational field, actually implies **an elastic
response** of the space!! This
implied notion of elasticity property of space is further strengthened with the
associated notions of the ‘energy’ of gravitational field. Hence, we might view this revised notion of
space, which is defined to be a continuum of space points, as an Elastic Space.
This issue has been
discussed in detail in a revolutionary article titled **GTR is founded
on a Conceptual Mistake.**

Some of the issues related
to the proposed Elastic Continuum Theory are covered in the following important
articles. These issues have been thoroughly discussed in sci.physics News
Groups from time to time.

·
__Time
is a Relative Measure of Change__

· **What
Ails the Fundamental Research in Physics**

·
**Permittivity and Permeability Constants of
Vacuum**

·
**What If the Permittivity and Permeability of
Vacuum were Zero**

· **Physical
Theory and Mathematical Models**

**The Author** of the proposed Elastic Continuum Theory
is a Mechanical Engineer, an ex - Air
Force Officer and a Defense R & D Scientist.
He finds it most surprising to note that the mainstream Scientific
Community is somehow unable to appreciate such a revolutionary fundamental
theory and wonders if it has been proposed much ahead of its time!!

**Your
comments and suggestions are most welcome.**

__If you
find the proposed theory to be radical and innovative, kindly refer it to your
friends and other scientists.__

For further
interaction you may send an e-mail to the author at ** ****gssandhu_1943@yahoo.com**