§ The Elastic Continuum Theory of Electromagnetic Field & Strain Bubbles. ECT.pdf (122 K)
§ The Electron Structure & Coulomb Interaction. TESCI.pdf (69 K)
§ Nucleon Structure & Strong Interaction. NSSI.pdf (430 K)
§ The Hydrogen Orbitals & Photon wave packet. THOPP.pdf (107 K)
§ A Conceptual Error in Schrodinger’s wave equationFQM.pdf (58 K)
In all branches of applied sciences, we have made a tremendous progress. But in theoretical Physics, which had been once regarded as Mother of all sciences, the situation is quite grim. Throughout the 20th century, Physicists have occupied themselves with working out Quantum Mechanics and Relativity in all their implications. In the process Physics has absorbed mathematical ideas and notions of increasing sophistication and abstraction. However, there is a gradual shift in our focus from the physical reality to the abstract mathematical formulations that are supposed to describe physical reality. The community of Physicists in general, appear to have been steadily indoctrinated into believing that due to complexity of physical reality, we can not even demand deeper meaning, deeper understanding and mental visualization of the basic phenomena in quantum mechanical world. Modern Particle Physics is tending to be quite incomprehensible. The most recent speculation of the theoretical physicists is that elementary particles are not particles at all but vibrations of tiny loops of quantum mechanical strings, wriggling around in twenty-six dimensional space!! In this context the author has proposed a new fundamental theory in Physics, titled the Elastic Continuum Theory of Nature. It is a fresh attempt to explain the origin of Elementary Particles, Fields and their interactions in empty space.
In the 19th century Physics, the notion of an all pervading elastic medium called ether or aether was considered an undesirable necessity. Some self-contradicting properties had to be ascribed to this aether medium. It was supposed to be an extremely thin medium to enable resistance free motion of solid bodies through it. At the same time it was required to be a highly elastic solid to enable the transverse (light) wave propagation through it. This was essentially due to the fact that matter and aether medium were regarded as two separate, independent entities. Maxwell's development of the electromagnetic theory of light, rendered the aether superfluous as the electromagnetic field was also granted an independent status, capable of independent existence just as matter. In 1887 Michelson and Morley conducted their historic experiment which claimed to prove the non-existence of aether medium. The Special Theory of Relativity reconciled the results of MM experiment through special postulates. Therefore, in order to introduce even the revised concept of aether as an Elastic Continuum, we must re-examine the MM experiment in the light of our current knowledge of elementary particles.
§ Invalidation of Michelson - Morley Experiment
The original MM experiment was conducted in the backdrop of ‘aether current’, or ‘aether wind’ which was expected to influence the propagation of light, viewed as a continuous wave motion. For the critical re-examination of MM experiment, we may conduct the same old MM experiment in the backdrop of our familiar ‘Vacuum’ or ‘Empty Space’ to show ‘Invalidation of Michelson - Morley Experiment’. It is conclude that the MM experiment conducted in the thin ‘vacuum’ or isotropic ‘empty space’ also fails to show the predicted fringe shifts, just as the original MM experiment conducted in thin ‘aether’ had failed. However, in reality, the MM experiment had neither proved the non-existence of ‘aether’ nor that of ‘vacuum’ or ‘empty space’. The real culprit responsible for producing misleading results, inferences and proofs, were the set of explicit or implicit assumptions upon which the whole MM experiment was based, conducted and interpreted.
§ Aether and Vacuum
Now, there is a growing realization in the scientific circles that matter and electromagnetic field, both appear to be having a common origin in the 'vacuum'. Originally the concept of space had been introduced purely as a reference framework, as a reference coordinate space for representing the physical universe at any given instant of time. The space-time continuum on the other hand, was intended to provide an extended 4- D reference framework to represent the dynamic physical activity in the universe. But as shown in a separate article titled GTR is founded on a Conceptual Mistake additional notions of 'deformability' or 'Elasticity' have also been attributed to the empty space. When we view the empty space as an 'elastic space', as a supporter or 'holder' of 'vacuum energy'; or when we ascribe the physical 'dimensional' properties of permittivity and permeability to the empty space, we are extending the role of physical space much beyond the reference framework. In fact when we consider the additional notion of 'elastic space' or 'deformable space' (as implied by GR), we may still need a reference framework to keep a track of relative displacements of 'space points'.
A close scrutiny of fundamental notions behind the physical concepts of 'Aether' and 'Vacuum' will show that in fact they represent ONE and the SAME entity. Fundamental properties of this vacuum or empty space are given by
I. ε0, the Permittivity of free space.
II. μ0, the Permeability of free space.
III. c the velocity of propagation of EM waves in free space.
IV. Z0 the intrinsic impedance of vacuum or free space.
These four parameters are dimensional constants and hence represent fundamental properties of vacuum. This has been further elaborated in an important article on Permittivity and Permeability Constants of Vacuum. However, since these four parameters are inter-related, only two of these are independent. It is interesting to note, for example, that μ0 can be replaced with Z0/c and 1/ε0 can be replaced with c.Z0 in all relations involving μ0 or ε0.
Now we have two independent notions; one that of Vacuum or matter free space with dimensional properties of ε0 and μ0 and the second that of Aether with fundamental dimensional properties of elasticity and inertia to enable transverse wave propagation through it. In order to establish an identity between the Vacuum and the Aether, we need to postulate the equivalence of their fundamental properties. Thus we assume that the parameter 1/ε0 (or c.Z0) represents the elastic constant and μ0 (or Z0/c) represents the inertial constant of the Aether. Appropriate physical dimensions can be assigned to these parameters through dimensional analysis. The plausibility of this assumption is confirmed by the fact that square root of (elastic constant/inertial constant) represents the velocity of strain wave propagation and the square root of ((1/ε0)/μ0) also represents the velocity of transverse wave propagation. With this the identity between Aether and Vacuum is established. To make it more representative of Aether and Vacuum, we may assign a more appropriate name to this entity - The Elastic Continuum.
§ Detection of Aether or Vacuum or Elastic Continuum
Obviously, most readers will have one crucial question uppermost in their mind; that is, how exactly do we detect the presence of aether or vacuum or matter free space or the elastic continuum? The detection and measurement of any physical entity actually involves the detection and measurement of some of its characteristic attributes. Such characteristic attributes of the Ether or the Elastic Continuum are ε0, μ0, c and Z0, all of which have been measured quite precisely. However the overall physical existence of aether or the elastic continuum is embodied in the physical existence of a Preferred or Absolute or a Universal Reference Frame. With current technological advancements, Experimental Detection of such a Universal Reference Frame is now quite feasible.
§ Aether and the Independent Status of Matter and EM Field
For this Elastic Continuum the equilibrium equations of elasticity are identical with vector wave equation of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. Particular solutions of these equilibrium equations as functions of space-time coordinates, satisfying appropriate boundary and stability conditions within a bounded region, are shown to represent various strain wave fields and strain wave packets or strain bubbles. The electromagnetic field as well as all other forms of energy and matter can be shown to exist in the Elastic Continuum as strain wave fields or strain bubbles. The energy density associated with these stress/strain waves in any particular region of the continuum will be proportional to the square of the intensity of such waves. The matter particles essentially exist in this Elastic Continuum as packets of standing strain wave oscillations whose total strain energy remains conserved in the absence of any interaction with other strain waves or packets. Hence matter and EM field do not have any independent status separate from the elastic continuum.
The Elastic Continuum Theory or ECT in short, essentially deals with the study of formation, existence and mutual interactions of stress/strain wave packets in the Elastic Continuum, leading to their co-relation with the formation, existence and mutual interactions of elementary particles in the ‘Vacuum’ or the ‘Empty Space’.
· The Detailed Papers (Mathematical)
The proposed theory is presented through following five main research papers.
1. The Elastic Continuum Theory of Electromagnetic Field & Strain Bubbles. ect.pdf (122 K)
In this paper equilibrium equations of elasticity have been derived afresh for the continuum. These equations turn out to be identical to Maxwell's vector wave equation. Solutions of equilibrium equations, subject to boundary conditions, are shown to represent bounded regions of the continuum under strained state, which are termed 'strain bubbles'. Study of these strain bubbles yields the structure, properties and interactions of various elementary particles and fields. Maxwell's electromagnetic field in empty space is found to be just the dynamic stress- strain field in the elastic continuum.
2. The Electron Structure & Coulomb Interaction. tesci.pdf (69 K)
A new model for the electron structure and its electrostatic wave field, has been introduced in this paper. Obtained as a spherically symmetric solution of elastic equilibrium equations, the electron and positron type particles are found to consist of an oscillating strain wave core surrounded by radial strain wave field.
3. Nucleon Structure & Strong Interaction. nssi.pdf (430 K)
A new model for the nucleon structure has been introduced in this paper. Obtained as a cylindrically symmetric solution of elastic equilibrium equations, the nucleons are found to consist of an oscillating strain wave core. The strong interaction between two nucleons is computed through the axial as well as radial superposition of their cores.
4. A Fresh look at the fundamental concepts of Quantum Mechanics. fqm.pdf (58 K)
In this paper fundamental concepts of kinetic energy and potential energy have been reviewed in relation to the development of Schrodinger’s wave equation. Emphasizing distinction between the particle and the associated wave packet, an error in Schrodinger’s wave equation has been brought out, wherein the potential energy term V(r) has not been made dependent on particle coordinates.
5. The Hydrogen Orbitals & Photon wave packet. thopp.pdf (107 K)
A new model of photon wave packet has been proposed in this paper. In the process of computation of strain energy contained in the wave packet, the origin of Planck’s constant ‘h’ has also been brought out. A detailed model of Hydrogen Orbitals has also been developed for describing the instant-to-instant motion of the electron in elliptical orbits.
An over-view of the proposed Elastic Continuum Theory is given at Summary_ECT
The proposed Elastic Continuum Theory represents an entirely novel and drastically different point of view regarding the ultimate reality of Nature; regarding the most fundamental basis of physical reality. This novel point of view is drastically different from the currently accepted quantum mechanical viewpoint in somewhat similar way as the Copernican & Kepler models of the Solar system represented drastically different viewpoint from the then well accepted, highly complex and accurate Ptolemaic system. As per the ECT, our familiar ‘empty space’ or ‘vacuum’ with the characteristic property of permittivity ε0 and permeability μ0 behaves as a perfect isotropic elastic continuum with elastic constant 1/ε0 and inertial constant μ0 . For this ‘Elastic Continuum’ the equilibrium equations of elasticity are found to be identical with the vector wave equation of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. Particular solutions of these equilibrium equations as functions of space-time coordinates, satisfying appropriate boundary and stability conditions within a bounded region, are shown to represent various ‘strain bubbles’ or elementary particles and the electromagnetic fields. Through analysis of various strain bubbles, we can study the structure of various elementary or composite particles and deduce their mutual interactions.
The main postulate of General Relativity implies that the gravitational field of a gravitating body changes the metric [gij(x)] of Euclidean space to the metric [g1ij(x)] of Riemannian space in accordance with Einstein’s Field Equations. With this change in the metric of space, the separation distance ‘ds’ between any pair of neighboring space points P1 and P2 will also change to ‘ds1’ as given by following equations:
(ds) 2 = gij dxi dxj and (ds1) 2 = g1ij dxi dxj
That means all space points within the region of gravitational field will experience relative displacements leading to the development of ‘deformation’ of space in that region. Hence, in essence, the fundamental postulate of GR implies the deformation of space in the region of gravitational field. This deformation of space is generally represented through a mathematical notion of ‘space curvature’. The deformation of space induced by a developing gravitational field, through the variation of its metric tensor, is a reversible phenomenon. When the gravitational field is reduced back to the initial state, the associated strain or deformation will also vanish. This reversible characteristic of the induced strain field in response to the external influence of gravitational field, actually implies an elastic response of the space!! This implied notion of elasticity property of space is further strengthened with the associated notions of the ‘energy’ of gravitational field. Hence, we might view this revised notion of space, which is defined to be a continuum of space points, as an Elastic Space. This issue has been discussed in detail in a revolutionary article titled GTR is founded on a Conceptual Mistake.
Some of the issues related to the proposed Elastic Continuum Theory are covered in the following important articles. These issues have been thoroughly discussed in sci.physics News Groups from time to time.
The Author of the proposed Elastic Continuum Theory is a Mechanical Engineer, an ex - Air Force Officer and a Defense R & D Scientist. He finds it most surprising to note that the mainstream Scientific Community is somehow unable to appreciate such a revolutionary fundamental theory and wonders if it has been proposed much ahead of its time!!
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